Tausug culture parang_sabil


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Tausug culture parang_sabil

  1. 2. <ul><li>Characteristics of Philippine ethnoepic : </li></ul><ul><li>1. Narratives of sustained length </li></ul><ul><li>2. Based on oral tradition </li></ul><ul><li>3. Revolving around supernatural events or heroic deeds </li></ul><ul><li>4. Verse form </li></ul><ul><li>5. Sung or chanted </li></ul><ul><li>6. Certain seriousness of purpose </li></ul><ul><li>7. Embodies beliefs, customs, ideals of people </li></ul>
  2. 3. Characteristics of Philippine ethnoepic Proofs Narratives of sustained length 747 lines; 183 verses Based on oral tradition Sung over the radio Verse form 183 verses 1.) I’ve a story to tell you This happened in Spanish time, For every one to know Some Spanish soldiers design   Sung or chanted Sung more than an hour; Hadja Indah Annura of Jolo, Sulu
  3. 4. Characteristics of Philippine ethnoepic Proofs Certain seriousness of purpose PS act is a matter of life and death; they know they would die Embodies beliefs, customs, ideals of people Showcases Tausug beliefs on the concept of shame, honor, dignity, religion etc.
  4. 5. Characteristics of Philippine ethnoepic Proofs Revolving around supernatural events or heroic deeds 85- They hacked him on the shoulder They hack him as they prayed Then a little bit later, In two he was divided 109 - After the firing ended The soldiers met great casualty Thirty all were counted dead Hundreds against two oh what a pity   (108, 142, 144, 152)
  5. 6. <ul><li>Parang Sabil </li></ul>
  6. 17. <ul><li>&quot;Tausug&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Derived from the words </li></ul><ul><li> tau - &quot;man&quot; and </li></ul><ul><li>sug - &quot;current,&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>= “people of the current” </li></ul><ul><li>It refers to the majority Islamized group in the Sulu archipelago, their language, and culture. </li></ul>
  7. 29. <ul><li>The Tausug follows standard Islamic beliefs and practices. </li></ul><ul><li>Quran - considered by all Muslims as the words of Allah (God), revealed to the prophet Muhammad through archangel Gabriel, and as the source of all Islamic Law, principles and values. </li></ul>
  8. 30. Parang Sabil
  9. 31. <ul><li>The term Parang may have been derived from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parang which means to fight; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parang which means grass; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parang which is the name of a small town in Jolo, Sulu. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 32. Etymology of Parang Sabil <ul><li>The term derives from the Malay word </li></ul><ul><li>perang meaning &quot;war&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>sabil , from the Arabic &quot;fi sabil Allah” meaning &quot;in the path of God.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Parang Sabil – is a degenerated form of the Holy duty called Jihad, to defend Dar-al Islam (home of the Islam) against unbelievers, with promise of heavenly reward. </li></ul>
  11. 33. <ul><li>Those who die in the struggle are pronounced shahid (martyrs) </li></ul><ul><li>and automatically gain a place sulga (heaven). </li></ul>
  12. 34. <ul><li>Failing to understand this religious dimension, the Spaniards and the Americans have reduced the concept into a psychological disorder, have referred to the shahid as juramentados and amock, respectively. </li></ul>
  13. 35. <ul><li>http://www.zawaj.com/weddingways/tausag/tausag2.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://class.csueastbay.edu/anthropologymuseum/virtmus/Philippines/Peoples/Tausug.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jihad </li></ul>
  14. 36. <ul><li>In its pure form, the jihad consisted of bona-fide organized warfare against Christians. Juramentado was the degenerate form of jihad evolved by the Sulu Moros. </li></ul>
  15. 37. Processes
  16. 38. <ul><li>In the deep silence of early morning, fanatical youths gathered to hear the Imams, or priests, tell of the old days. </li></ul><ul><li>The stories flamed these ambitious recruits to martyrdom, and custom then necessitated a solemn conference with their parents. After a family council, which usually granted permission for the youth to run juramentado , the youths were banded together with the Sultan's permission to engage in a holy war. </li></ul>
  17. 39. <ul><li>The candidates were then turned over to the Imam for organization and instruction. Prayers were offered and each candidate placed his hand upon the Koran and repeated the following: &quot;Jumanji kami hatunan ing kami ini magsabil karna sing tuhan.&quot; (We covenant with God that we will wage this holy war, for it is of God.) </li></ul>
  18. 40. <ul><li>The body was then carefully washed, the teeth were cleaned and the nails cut and trimmed. The family of the candidate shaved his eyebrows so that they &quot;looked like a moon two days old.&quot; The hair was cut short. The waist was supported by a tight band for strengthening effect. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A man so bound could remain on his feet long after an ordinary man would succumb to wounds. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 41. <ul><li>The candidate was then clothed in a white robe called the jubba and was crowned with a white turban. To the waist was attached an anting - anting or a charm, to ward off the blows of the enemy. The genitals were bound tightly with cords. </li></ul>
  20. 42. <ul><li>After beautifying and polishing his weapons, the candidate was then ready to go forth to the holy war. In the Moro dialect, these men were known as mag-sabils , which means to endure the pangs of death. </li></ul><ul><li>The Moro who decided upon juramentado took the solemn oath (Napi), to prepare himself to pursue the Parang-sabil, or road to Paradise, with valor and devotion. The juramentado could not be called insane but was under the influence of a frenzied religious excitement. </li></ul>
  21. 43. What does the Arabic word jihad mean?
  22. 44. <ul><li>Jihad did have two variant meanings through the centuries, one more radical, one less so. </li></ul><ul><li>The first holds that Muslims who interpret their faith differently are infidels and therefore legitimate targets of jihad. (This is why Algerians, Egyptians and Afghans have found themselves, like Americans and Israelis, so often the victims of jihadist aggression.) </li></ul>
  23. 45. <ul><li>The second meaning, associated with mystics, rejects the definition of jihad as armed conflict and tells Muslims to withdraw from the worldly concerns to achieve spiritual depth. </li></ul>
  24. 46. <ul><li>Jihad in the sense of territorial expansion has always been a central aspect of Muslim life. That's how Muslims came to rule much of the Arabian Peninsula by the time of the Prophet Muhammad's death in 632. </li></ul>
  25. 47. <ul><li>Today, jihad is the world's foremost source of terrorism, inspiring a worldwide campaign of violence by self-proclaimed jihadist groups: </li></ul><ul><li>The International Islamic Front for the Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders: Osama bin Laden's organization; </li></ul><ul><li>Laskar Jihad: responsible for the murder of more than 10,000 Christians in Indonesia; </li></ul>
  26. 48. <ul><li>Harakat ul-Jihad-i-Islami: a leading cause of violence in Kashmir; </li></ul><ul><li>Palestinian Islamic Jihad: the most vicious anti-Israel terrorist group of them all; </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptian Islamic Jihad: killed Anwar El-Sadat in 1981, many others since, and </li></ul>
  27. 49. <ul><li>Jihadists then enslaved tens of thousands of females and children, forced them to convert to Islam, sent them on forced marches, beat them and set them to hard labor. The women and older girls also suffered ritual gang-rape, genital mutilation and a life of sexual servitude. </li></ul>
  28. 50. Philippine Muslim (Tausug) Marriages on Jolo Island
  29. 51. <ul><li>In Tausug society there is no regularly approved means by which a man can court a prospective bride; no sanctioned sequence of courtship events leading to marriage which can be freely initiated by the couple themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>A young man cannot - and in practice does not - publicly confront an unmarried girl. His knowledge of her must be indirect, based upon reputation, parental background, and external appearance and demeanor. </li></ul>
  30. 52. <ul><li>Touching an unmarried woman (kublit-kublit) is a finable offence at law, varying - in the typical game-like spirit in which Tausug approach these matters - with the time of the day (the fine is higher at night) and the part of the body touched </li></ul><ul><li>Mere touching the opposite sex is regarded as a prelude to sexual relations and is said to be extremely erotic. </li></ul>
  31. 53. <ul><li>The separation of the sexes, especially the unmarried, is quite marked in Tausug society, although the status of women is very high and there is no seclusion of women. </li></ul><ul><li>The key concept in social relations between men and women is shame ( sipug ), </li></ul>
  32. 54. Tausug recognize three distinct transactions leading to a legally binding marriage: <ul><li>arranged marriage by negotiation ( pagpangasawa ) </li></ul><ul><li>marriage by abduction ( pagsaggau ), </li></ul><ul><li>and elopement ( pagdakup ) </li></ul>
  33. 55. Bride wealth
  34. 56. <ul><li>Adjibun made the following demands as the bride wealth of his daughter: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>400 pesos to purchase gifts for the couple; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 cows, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 sacks of rice, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25 cartons of cigarettes, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 boxes of matches, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and the services of 4 professional xylophone players and singers, to be used at the feast; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a water buffalo as payment for the rights in the children; </li></ul></ul>
  35. 57. <ul><ul><li>a gold ring for the girl's mother; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50 rounds of carbine ammunition for Adjibun; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 pesos for the guru who taught the girl to read the Qur'an; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>large frying pans for the girl's maternal aunt; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a tray of food with a 5 peso flag attached for the girl's maternal grandmother; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a kris (sword) for Adjibun </li></ul></ul>
  36. 58. <ul><li>a kris for the girl's uncle; </li></ul>
  37. 59. Man with kalis (kris). While guns have replaced swords as practical weapons, bladed weapons still have importance as symbols of masculinity and bravery.
  38. 60. <ul><li>and a flashlight for a friend of the father. </li></ul><ul><li>The making of sacred promises to God in this situations of stress is very common; if the situation turns out satisfactorily, the promise must be kept. </li></ul>
  39. 61. <ul><li>Although this amount was too high, Abdul had intimated to the headman that if refused he might very well abduct the girl anyway. The headman then prevailed upon Adjubun to lower his demands. </li></ul>
  40. 62. Bringing the bride wealth to the bride's house.
  41. 63. Tausug groom in traditional dress.
  42. 64. More &quot;modern&quot; dress for groom, showing Middle Eastern influence.
  43. 65. Bride and groom after the ceremony. Whatever their private feelings, they are expected to look glum.
  44. 66. <ul><li>http://www.zawaj.com/weddingways/tausag/tausag4.html </li></ul>