Information packaging


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Information packaging

  1. 1. Information PackagingCitations, Parts of Citation & Citation Formats
  2. 2. Citation• Citation is one of the major requirements of all of the research papers written and all of the intellectual work, no matter whatever the field you are in.• In this way if your reader wants to get the further information on the related topic or the findings of the other author, he can easily get the information on that.
  3. 3. • In most of the cases the reference of the material include the title of the source, author name, name of publishers, the date of publishing, and also the link of the website where the material was published.
  4. 4. APA FormatAmerican Psychological Association
  5. 5. • The American Psychological Association (APA) style is widely accepted in the social sciences and other fields, such as definition, business and nursing.• Citations in the text provide brief information, usually the name of the author and date of publication, to lead the reader to the source of information in the reference list at the end of paper.
  6. 6. MLA Format Modern Language Association
  7. 7. • Modern Language Association (MLA) in-text citations are made with a combination of signal phrases and parenthetical references. A signal phrase introduces information taken from a source (a quotation, summary, paraphrase, or fact); usually the signal phrase includes the author’s name.
  9. 9. Note: All citations must be in the Hanging indent Format with the first line flash to the left margin and all other lines indented.
  10. 10. Books with Single AuthorAuthor, A.A. (Year). Title of work. Publication: Publisher.Limbo, K. J. (1997). Social Learning Theory. Englewoods Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  11. 11. Books with Anonymous AuthorA student guide to APA format. (1997). USA: Student Press.The business of fancy dancing: Stories and poems. (2006). Washington: Guilford Press.
  12. 12. Three to Seven AuthorsCea, R., Rivera, R., Labitigan, M., and La’O, R. (1995). Inclusion: Are we abandoning or helping students? Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
  13. 13. More than Seven AuthorsVillorente, M.M., Porto, M.M., Peñaojas, M.J., Paral, A.M., Lachica, J.C., Garay, J.,…Verastigue, A.A. (2001). APA format for psychology students. New York: Prentice-Hall.
  14. 14. Chapter in a BookBooth-LaForce, C., & Kerns, K. A. (2009). Child-parent attachment relationships, and peer-group functioning. In K.H. Rubin, W. M. Bukowski, & B. Laursen (Eds.), Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups (pp.490-507). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  15. 15. ERIC DocumentShyyan, V., Thurlow, M., & Liu, K. (2005). Student perceptions of instructional strategies: Voices of English language learners with disabilities. Minneapolis, MN: National Center on Educational Outcomes, University of Minnesota. Retrieved from the ERIC database. (ED495903)
  16. 16. Journals, magazines,newspapers in print format
  17. 17. Single AuthorAuthor, I.N. (Year). Title of the article. Title of the Journal or Periodical, volume number, page numbers.Catalla, J.A. (2000). Referencing articles in APA format. APA Format Weekly, 34, 4-10.
  18. 18. Anonymous AuthorA student guide to APA format. (1997). Psychology Weekly, 8, 12-27.
  19. 19. Two to Seven Authors [List all authors]Keller, T. E., Cusick, G. R., & Courtney, M. E. (2007). Approaching the transition to adulthood: Distinctive profiles of adolescents aging out of the child welfare system. Social Sciences Review, 81, 453-484.
  20. 20. Eight or More Authors [List the first sixauthors, … and the last authorTipura, J., Wolchik, S.A., West, S.G., Sandler, I., Tein, J., Coatsworth, D.,…Griffin, W.A. (2000). An experimental evaluation theory- based mother and mother-child programs for children of divorce. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 843-856.
  21. 21. Magazine ArticleMatthews, J., Berret, D., & Brillman, D. (2005, May 16). Other winning equations. Newsweek, 145(20), 58-59.
  22. 22. Online journals, magazines, newspapers
  23. 23. Article Retrieved from an Online DatabaseAuthor, A.A. (Year). Title of article. Name of Journal, xx, xxx- xxx. doi: xxxxxxxxxxSenior, B., & Swailes, S. (2011). Inside management teams: Developing a teamwork survey instrument. British Journal of Management, 18, 138-153. doi: 10.1111/ j. 1467-8551.2006.00507.x
  24. 24. Kenney, G.M. (2008). Violent victimization and the routine activities. Journal of Drug Issues, 38, 1105-1137. Retrieved November 16, 2006 from http://www2.
  25. 25. Article from an Online MagazineLudwig, H. F. (2001, May 23). Individual-group continuity in cooperation and competition under varying communication conditions. Current Issues in Social Psychology, 6(12), 166-182. Retrieved from
  26. 26. Online Report from asNongovernmental OrganizationKenney, G. & Pelletier, J. (2009). Prospects for reducing uninsured rates among children: How much can premium assistance programs help? Retrieved from Urban Institute website: http:// cfm?ID=411823
  27. 27. Online Report with no Authoridentified and No DateGVU’s 10th WWW user survey. (n. d.). Retrieved from 10/
  28. 28. Importance of Citation
  29. 29. • Citation is very important for the readers who have the keen interest in getting more and more information about the related topics• Citation also show the efforts you made in the research and it also exhibit the originality of your research without any plagiarism.
  30. 30. • Citation gives an external support to your ideas and also increases your arguments strength.