In contrast to America, and in spite of the centralized organization, in Sweden teachers were included in the implementation of radio in education. They participated continually in surveys where they reported their own and the pupils' responses to programs. Active teachers were invited to annual conferences about the use of radio in classrooms. It was argued by teachers and by the organizers of school broadcasts that elementary schoolteachers were more competent than academics and experts in communicating with pupils and therefore were invited to produce programs. In America, the teachers cites a lack of connection between radio programming and education. Superintendents participated in surveys, not teachers. The technology was also expensive.
Beginning during World War One, experiments were undertaken in the United States and Great Britain to reproduce among other things, the sound of a Submarine (u-boat) for training purposes. The acoustical recordings of that time proved entirely unable to reproduce the sounds, and other methods were actively sought. Committee on Scientific Aids to Learning: Projects:
During the 1920s and 1930s, specifically in 1932, Three existing national professional organizations merged together consolidating leadership in this area and formed the Department of Visual Instruction or the ‘DVI’ which was part of the National Education Association. The NEA’s roots stretch back 1923 and is now called the AECT and is continuing to maintain a leadership role in the field of instructional design and technology. Also during this time text addressing the subject of instructional media were written and published, the most important being “Visualizing the Curriculum” by Hoban, Hoban, and Zissman (1937). This book addressed a hierarchy of audiovisual materials based on degrees of realism. This writing was key to the modern audiovisual movement though it was not again approached until 1946 when Edgar Dale published the ‘Cone of Experience’ which emphasized the ability of audiovisual curriculum to present materials in a concrete fashion. During the 1930s, much emphasis was put on the potential of radio as a means of instructional media or curriculum delivery yet did not take a foot hold in the delivery of instructional materials.
Committee on Scientific Aids to Learning: Projects: Sound Recording & Reproduction Experiment in Use of Phonograph Records as Aid to Learning in Rural Schools: New York State: 1943; 1940 Experimentation on Classroom Usefulness of &quot;Then Came War: 1939&quot; Series: 1940 Recording & Testing Programs for Classroom Use: Cleveland: 1941; 1940 Recording & Testing Programs for Classroom Use: Rochester NY: 1940 School Sound System: Specifications: 1940 Shakespeare Records: Test of Usefulness to Schools: Ginsberg W: 1940 State-wide Record Demonstration: Georgia: 1943; 1942; 1941; 1940
World War II recruitment film presents the exciting jobs a woman could expect when she joined SPARS, the Coast Guard womens corps. All of the jobs are those that were considered acceptable for women at the time, including cleaning, office work, nursing, and more. At one point, the narrator says, No, you wont become an admiral, but you could be the admirals secretary. This film claims that women could even work their way up to a job at the Coast Guard Headquarters. As a car pulls up to the office buildings of the headquarters, two men get out of the car and enter the building, but the woman who is supposedly working at the headquarters is only the driver of the car. There are few better examples of the strict notions of gender roles possessed by Americans in the 1940s than this film.
Training Women for War Production Narrated by none other than Eleanor Roosevelt, this film about the National Youth Administrations efforts to train women for home front jobs is an engaging snapshot of World War II home front activities. Young ladies are shown doing such male jobs as welding, electronics, sheet metal, and tool and dye work. Little did Mrs. Roosevelt know, this would not be a turning point in womens liberation, as these women were sent back home when the war was over. All the more interest due to the irony, Training Women for War Production is an enriching viewing experience for anyone interested in the evolution of gender roles in American history.
n 1898, Danish inventor Valdemar Poulsen created a telephone recorder that used the variable current produced by the telephone transmitter to create a matching pattern of local magnetization in a steel wire. Because wire recorders were compact, were reliable under all kinds of weather conditions, and could record for a long time on reusable wire, the military purchased them for use in World War II. After the war, Webster continued to produce them for the consumer market until 1956, when tape machines supplanted wire recorders.
Walt Disney made many training films during WW2 including recognition films. This photo, from a wartime Life magazine, shows Walt Disney examining a SBD model that was used for plane identification. A Navy flight training film is diagrammed on the wall.
t the start of World War II, the United States Army acquired a defunct motion picture studio at 35th Avenue and 35th Street in Astoria, Long Island City, Queens, New York, taking over in February 1942. The studio became the Signal Corps Photographic Center, later Army Pictorial Center, home to filmmakers and still photographers who covered the war and who produced countless training films.
On the 5th May, 1952, the BBC broadcasts experimental schools programmes, the first such experiment in the world. Programmes lasting 20 to 30 mins were broadcast mid-afternoon on weekdays for four weeks to six local schools in north London, using televisions lent free of charge by manufacturers. Transmission details were rather peculiar - the vision signal was transmitted from Alexandra Palace on a special wavelength whilst the sound was sent to the selected schools via a land line. There was much debate over the value of these broadcasts; many teachers were against them, claiming that television would not provide anything more than was already possible using film strips, micro-slides and moving film, where the teacher had direct control over them. This point received some support when the first science broadcast covered an experiment that, it was pointed out, could just as easilly have been given in an average school using readily available apparatus. I assume the tests wern't deemed a success since regular schools broadcasts would not commence for another five years in 1957.
Instructional television was the focus of attention during the 1950s and the 1960s. This attention was stimulated by two factors. First, the 1952 decision by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to set aside 242 television channels for educational purposes led to a rapid development of educational (now called public) television stations. A portion of their mission was to provide instructional programs to school systems in their viewing area. The second factor was the substantial investment by the Ford Foundation. It has been estimated that during the 1950s and the 1960s the Ford Foundation and its related agencies invested more than $170 million in educational television. One of the most innovative efforts at this time was the Midwest Program on Airborne Television Instruction (MPATI) which employed airplanes to transmit televised lessons over a six-state area.Read more: Technology in Education - School - Students, Schools, Instructional, Educational, Computer, and Media http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:k3TEQteyVIwJ:education.stateuniversity.com/pages/2495/Technology-in-Education-SCHOOL.html+Haaren+High+School+in+New+York+City+broadcasts+lessons+to+accounting+classes&cd=3&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us&client=safari#ixzz11JeVlxbf
This show first aired on March 3, 1951 - Live! - on the NBC network from Chicago. Don Herbert conceived, produced and starred in this nationally televised show which ran 15 years covering some 400 topics from Archaeology to Zoology. The show was truly a first in TV Broadcasting. It was an inquiry-based, hands-on format which children, parents and teachers tuned in to every Saturday morning to see what challenge Mr.Wizard dreamed up for his young guest. &quot;When people meet me in person, they usually recall their favorite show from Watch Mr. Wizard.&quot;Don Herbert
A Skinner Teaching Machine from the 1950's, which he was fond of saying was just as good as a private tutor. Behaviorists like Skinner devised teaching machines that leveraged the principles of operant conditioning. The emphasis was on logical presentation of content, and a strict system of rewards and punishment as a learner progressed through their lessons like so many laboratory rodents. http://www.solidstateux.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/skinner_teaching_machine-300x284.png
A pioneer of the contemporary educational television standard, combining both education and entertainment.
Robert Keeton was also an early advocate of computer aided legal instruction. In 1972, he collaborated with Russell Burris at the University of Minnesota to develop a computerized exercise for his insurance law course via telephone hookups from Harvard Law School to the Minnesota computer. These exercises served as an early model for the formation of the Center on Computer-Assisted Legal Instruction, founded in 1982 by Harvard Law School and University of Minnesota.
In web-enhanced instruction, online quizzes and exercises are more instructive and discussion board tends to be more constructive. Depending on the learning tasks, combination of instructive and constructive instruction would be most beneficial.
Using cable television in the classroom as an integral part of instruction makes it possible to include the latest news and current events in a classroom discussion of world happenings.
Has taken leadership role in incorporating first Apple computers, i-Macs, i-pods and i-phones into Stockton classes throughout the 1980s and 2000s.
The first web server, used by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990
Self-paced learning, distance learning, and live classrooms become more accessible to learners of all income brackets.
Technology permeates every aspect of our lives.
It used to takes rooms of big servers to store information that can now fit on a drive the size of a pinky nail.
The Lobster Multimedia Device. Podcasts, digital storytelling, blogging, social media all in one expandable device. There are many that have all these features in a larger device.
Students and teachers use technology tools (e.g., multimedia authoring, presentation, Web tools, digital cameras, scanners) for individual and collaborative writing, communication, and publishing activities to create knowledge products for audiences inside and outside the classroom.
The rate at which Instructional technology has changed has been exponential in the past two decades.
Blooms Taxonomy will not go out of style, it simply adjust to the new learning methodologies.
Kids today have no understanding of the difference between their childhood and ours. Instantaneous messages reach us instead of snail mail. A news story can hit the airwaves in the morning and be old news, discussed by millions, blogged, texted, tweeted and listserved by scholars by early afternoon.
History of Instructional Technology Exhibit
History of Instructional Technology <ul><li>Brian, Michelle and Roma </li></ul>
What is it? <ul><li>The physical means, other than teacher, textbook, and chalkboard, in which instruction is presented to learners </li></ul>? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Stereographs <ul><li>Stereographs served as an important method of entertainment, education, and virtual travel— </li></ul><ul><li>predecessors to contemporary forms of media such as </li></ul><ul><li>television and movies. </li></ul>
Films <ul><li>In 1895, film was invented by Edison. Immediately, film was widely used in many different fields, such as science, literature and foreign teaching. </li></ul>
Slides <ul><li>Lantern slides had the greatest impact on educational lectures, …They played a vital role in the development of disciplines such as art and architectural history, making possible the detailed study of objects and sites from around the world. (4. Leighton, p.107-119) </li></ul>
Radio Broadcasting <ul><li>Was predicted to revolutionize education but had little actual impact </li></ul>
Sound Recordings <ul><li>Called the Magnetophon, it was made for the German army by AEG Telefunken. The production cycle ran from 1928-1945. </li></ul>The recorder pictured here is among the world's first.
Sound Motion Pictures <ul><li>Audiovisual Instruction Movement was born </li></ul>DVI formed
<ul><li>WWII German Chief of Staff-"We had </li></ul><ul><li>everything calculated perfectly except the speed with which America was able to train its people. </li></ul><ul><li>Our major miscalculation was in underestimating their quick and </li></ul><ul><li>complete mastery of film education" </li></ul>
Sound recorders <ul><li>Wire recorders were compact, were reliable under all kinds of weather conditions, and could record for a long time on reusable wire; the military purchased them for use in World War II. </li></ul>
Walt Disney goes to war? <ul><li>Need for efficient, standardized training </li></ul>
Signal Corps Photographic Center <ul><li>Over 400 training films and 600 filmstrips created </li></ul>
Computer aided instruction <ul><li>In 1972 Robert E. Keeton collaborated with Russell Burris at the University of Minnesota to develop a computerized exercise for his insurance law course via telephone hookups from Harvard Law School to the Minnesota computer. </li></ul>
World Wide Web <ul><li>Easy access to information previously difficult/impossible to obtain </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual communication tools developed </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Internet language (HTML) allows cross platform communication </li></ul>
Java & Flash <ul><li>Applets such as Java and Flash gave interactivity </li></ul>
Microcomputers become powerful and affordable Schools place emphasis on technology in budget/curriculum
<ul><li>Computers become commonplace in most homes as the technology becomes more affordable </li></ul>
Storage devices become more powerful and compact <ul><li>Large amounts of information able to be stored and transported easily </li></ul>
End user can create/edit/store audio and video media <ul><li>Digital cameras </li></ul><ul><li>Mp3 players </li></ul><ul><li>Video cameras </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia editing software </li></ul>
Final thoughts… Instructional revolution has been predicted since the 1900s, but very little momentum had been achieved until the past few decades.
Two reasons <ul><li>Accessibility to media and technology information in home </li></ul>Interactivity of technology providing a new level of communication
Source Links <ul><li>Spiro, L. (2006, October 30). A Brief History of Stereographs and Stereoscopes. Retrieved from the Connexions Web site: http://cnx.org/content/m13784/1.5 </li></ul><ul><li>http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:vSnQ9X_ClLsJ:cnx.org/content/m13784/latest/+stereographs+in+education&cd=6&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us&client=safari </li></ul><ul><li>Miller, Mary and Teresa Cruce. A 20th Century Timeline: Classroom Use of Instructional Film, Radio, and Television. // http://www.arches.uga.edu/~mlmiller/timeline/1920s.html [date viewed] </li></ul><ul><li>http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:tlY4BRI72mIJ:mlmiller.myweb.uga.edu/timeline/1920s.html+1920+educational+films&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us&client=safari </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/elt/article/viewFile/358/325 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W6Ck-d9eJe0 </li></ul><ul><li>http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:RgBDsF_0h7YJ:memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/landscape/lanternhistory.html+1920's+educational+slides&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us&client=safari </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.lanternslides.co.uk/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.stevenjohnson.com/cardboard/index.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://books.google.com/books?id=1hJGgSoy2GkC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=fals Visual education through stereographs and lantern slides: school work visualized and vitalized e </li></ul>
<ul><li>http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:dgpuhTYZFuMJ:www.faqs.org/childhood/Pa-Re/Radio.html+1930s+radio+education&cd=3&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us&client=safari </li></ul><ul><li>http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_N_-W1PmSNqg/SxFWGsqGWqI/AAAAAAAAMHk/l8bOrWB9CBc/s1600/1925+WOOD+SCHOOL+RADIO+CLUB.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>History of Audio Recording | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/facts_4865978_history-audio-recording.html#ixzz11JAvPYWkhttp://www.bentoncountymuseum.org/exhibitions/sound/recording.cfm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.stancilcorp.com/history.html </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory and Visual EducationArthur C. Stenius Review of Educational Research Vol. 15, No. 3, General Aspects of Instruction: Learning, Teaching, and the Curriculum (Jun., 1945), pp. 243-255 (article consists of 13 pages)Published by: American Educational Research AssociationStable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1168215 </li></ul><ul><li>http://blog.modernmechanix.com/2007/01/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.cmcarlson.com/Capella/ed7503/Timeline/Instructional%20Design%20Timeline%201900%20to%202008.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.collectair. http://www.springerlink.com/content/r37uh4r8062474v2/ </li></ul><ul><li>com/Museum.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.qualityinformationpublishers.com/womenofwwiigenderrolesfilmsdvd1940s.aspx </li></ul><ul><li>http://news.gaurc.us/?p=1712 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.thevalvepage.com/tvyears/1952/tvy1952text.htmhttp://www.mrwizardstudios.com/tvshos/watchmrwizard/watchmrwizardmainpage_version2/images/Watch-Mister-Wizard-Main-10.jpg </li></ul>