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Ciabatti Ph.D. final discussion

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Final presentation of the thesis work entitled Resource-Constrained Communication within Wireless Sensor Network: a new Cross Layer solution

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Ciabatti Ph.D. final discussion

  1. 1. /40Università degli Studi Di FirenzeDipartimento di Elettronica e TelecomunicazioniPh.D. Thesis on RF Microwave and Electromagnetism (XX)Supervisors:Prof. G. ManesDr. G. CollodiCoordinator:Prof. G. ManesCandidate:Michele CiabattiResource-Constrained Communication withinWireless Sensor Network:a new Cross Layer solution
  2. 2. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 20081. Problem Statement2. MAC protocolsOverview3. Proposed MAC layerSTARPerformance analysis4. Directive antennas integration5. Cross-Layer schemeDSTARPerformance evaluation6. Conclusions7. Future work8. Research involvements9. PublicationsOutline
  3. 3. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008WSN: monitoring networking infrastructure with distributed sensing andprocessing capabilityDefinitionlarge number of sensor nodes that are densely deployedsink unit (gateway), acting as a interface among heterogeneousnetworking infrastructuresTask MngIPvx802.11-162G/3GIIII IIIIIIGIGsensor-nodegateway1. Problem SatementWSN
  4. 4. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008WSN protocols features Tasks:• To realize a self-organizing network “infrastructure”• To fairly and efficiently share communication resources Requirements:• Unique destination (Sink)• High nodes density• Low nodes mobility• Limited resources (bandwidth, battery, processing and storage)• Data centric• Application oriented1. Problem Satement
  5. 5. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008WSN protocols features Tasks:• To realize a self-organizing network “infrastructure”• To fairly and efficiently share communication resources Requirements:• Unique destination (Sink)• High nodes density• Low nodes mobility• Limited resources (bandwidth, battery, processing and storage)• Data centric• Application orientedAd Hoc networks approaches are not merely applicable1. Problem Satement
  6. 6. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008System requirementsPower consumption issues to make the system able to run unattended; Optimal energy management; Network life-time to avoid the whole network to get partitioned; Capability of quickly set-up an end-to-end communication infrastructure; Support both to synchronous (source-initiated) and asynchronous (event-based) sensing; Quality of Service (QoS) provisioning;Optimization ensuring that the spent energy is directly related to the amount oftraffic. Trade off between: performance (latency, throughput, fairness); cost (energy efficiency, algorithmic complexity, signaling overhead).1. Problem Satement
  7. 7. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008OverviewMACSchedulebasedContentionbasedTDMA CDMAFDMA IEE802.11 DCF Low power list.PAMAS WISE MACS-MACT-MACDMAC2. MAC protocols
  8. 8. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008OverviewMACSchedulebasedContentionbasedTDMA CDMAFDMA IEE802.11 DCF Low power list.PAMAS WISE MACS-MACT-MACDMACResources reservationenergy conservinglower scalability2. MAC protocols
  9. 9. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008OverviewMACSchedulebasedContentionbasedTDMA CDMAFDMA IEE802.11 DCF Low power list.PAMAS WISE MACS-MACT-MACDMAC2. MAC protocols
  10. 10. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008OverviewMACSchedulebasedContentionbasedTDMA CDMAFDMA IEE802.11 DCF Low power list.PAMAS WISE MACS-MACT-MACDMACMACAWwidely appliedidle listening2. MAC protocols
  11. 11. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008OverviewMACSchedulebasedContentionbasedTDMA CDMAFDMA IEE802.11 DCF Low power list.PAMAS WISE MACS-MACT-MACDMAC2. MAC protocols
  12. 12. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008OverviewMACSchedulebasedContentionbasedTDMA CDMAFDMA IEE802.11 DCF Low power list.PAMAS WISE MACS-MACT-MACDMACSchedule offset (phase)adaptation s to trafficineffective broadcasting2. MAC protocols
  13. 13. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008OverviewMACSchedulebasedContentionbasedTDMA CDMAFDMA IEE802.11 DCF Low power list.PAMAS WISE MACS-MACT-MACDMACDuty cycleRTS/CTS handshakehigher collision probabilitySchedule offset (phase)adaptation s to trafficineffective broadcasting2. MAC protocols
  14. 14. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008STAR MACSynchronous Transmission Asynchronous Reception1. Completely novel approach effectively joining:• WISE MAC (phase based transmission scheduling)• S-MAC (duty cycle)2. Efficient power management (stable low power state + duty cycle)Duty cycleSleep status (TS , csleep= 0.01 mA):• RF OFF• Node (Micro): power save modeMAC frame period (Tf = Tl + TS)3. Proposed MAC layer
  15. 15. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008STAR MACSynchronous Transmission Asynchronous ReceptionBackground:• WISE MAC: nodes maintain the schedule offsets of their neighbors• S-MAC: nodes regularly broadcast SYNC packets (duty cycle)Drawbacks (related to our application):• WISE MAC: offset information is transmitted within ACK messages, thenits update depends on traffic load• S-MAC: clustered nodes are strictly synchronized and must have thesame duty cycle and frame timeProposed approach:STAR protocol does not require strict node synchronization: each node can adjustits duty cycle and frame period independently.Nodes periodically send their offsets to neighbors through a MAC layer signaling.As a result, the network topology is flat.3. Proposed MAC layer
  16. 16. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 20081. Beacon broadcasting (starting from Gateway)2. Neighbors list assessment within at least 1 period (Tf)3. Duty cycle operation mode with semi duplex communications(independently each other)4. Node’s phase transmission (time to the next awakening)5. Weak and distributed synchronization scheme (rendez vous like)STAR MACSet-up Phase3. Proposed MAC layer
  17. 17. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008Weak nodes synchronization (2 way handshake)• Set up + recovery proceduresMAC PDU headerSTAR MACRegime Phase3. Proposed MAC layer
  18. 18. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008Weak nodes synchronization (2 way handshake)• Set up + recovery proceduresMAC PDU headerSTAR MACRegime Phase3. Proposed MAC layer
  19. 19. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008Weak nodes synchronization (2 way handshake)• Set up + recovery proceduresMAC PDU headerSTAR MACRegime Phase3. Proposed MAC layer
  20. 20. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008Weak nodes synchronization (2 way handshake)• Set up + recovery proceduresMAC PDU headerSTAR MACRegime Phase3. Proposed MAC layer
  21. 21. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008Weak nodes synchronization (2 way handshake)• Set up + recovery proceduresMAC PDU headerSTAR MACRegime Phase3. Proposed MAC layer
  22. 22. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008Weak nodes synchronization (2 way handshake)• Set up + recovery proceduresMAC PDU headerSTAR MACRegime Phase3. Proposed MAC layer
  23. 23. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008Weak nodes synchronization (2 way handshake)• Set up + recovery proceduresMAC PDU headerSTAR MACRegime Phase3. Proposed MAC layer
  24. 24. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008Weak nodes synchronization (2 way handshake)• Set up + recovery proceduresMAC PDU headerSTAR MACRegime Phase3. Proposed MAC layer
  25. 25. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008Weak nodes synchronization (2 way handshake)• Set up + recovery proceduresMAC PDU headerSTAR MACRegime Phase3. Proposed MAC layer
  26. 26. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008Period 1 Period KPeriod 2 …kTf kTf kTfTswitchtime• Orphanage management• Beacon broadcasting• Neighbors list assessment within K period (K Tf)• Own HELLO messages broadcasting in search of connectivityHELLO HELLO HELLOSTAR MACRecovery Phase3. Proposed MAC layer
  27. 27. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008Enhanced STAR (STAR+)Subset:set of neighbor nodes jointly awake for atime interval greater than the timenecessary for receiving a message (TRx)Only one synchronization message is multicasted to all the neighborsnodes belonging to a subsetLower number of synchronization messages (multicasting gain)3. Proposed MAC layer
  28. 28. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008Normalized Cost:Parameter ValueCost of receiving status(cRx)10 mACost of transmitting status(CTx)30 mAhCost of sleep status (csleep) 0.01 mAnumber of neighbor nodes(N)1-80Synchronization period (TF) 5-30 sSTARSTAR +ATSR (≈S-MAC)3. Proposed MAC layer
  29. 29. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008Normalized Cost vs NNormalized Cost vs Tf3. Proposed MAC layer
  30. 30. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008Normalized Cost vs NNormalized Cost vs TfCut-off time for TF (floor effect)3. Proposed MAC layer
  31. 31. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008Normalized Cost vs NNormalized Cost vs TfCut-off time for TF (floor effect)3. Proposed MAC layer
  32. 32. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008Normalized Cost vs Duty-Cycle%3. Proposed MAC layer
  33. 33. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008Performance of STAR and STAR+ protocols is better than ATSRNormalized Cost vs Duty-Cycle%Duty-cycle dimensioning according to scenario and topology3. Proposed MAC layer
  34. 34. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008Directive AntennasExpected benefits Antenna gain maximization towards desired directions,concentrating energy in smaller area:Transmitted power decreasingPower consumption reductionNetwork life time increasingReceived power increasingReceiver sensitivity increasingCoverage range increasingError probability reduction4. Directive antennas integration
  35. 35. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008Directive AntennasExpected benefits Radiation towards undesired directions minimizationInterference caused by other transmissions reductionCo-channel interference mitigationmultiple-access problems mitigationCollision probability reduction Adaptability to time varying communication conditions:Node’s failureChannel errorsCongestion4. Directive antennas integration
  36. 36. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008Directive AntennasCriticalities Cost and size On board integration Beam switching management:Set-up phase signaling overheadLatency for end-to-end communications setting-upAlgorithm complexitySwitching agility Support both to synchronous (source-initiated) andasynchronous (event-based) sensing4. Directive antennas integration
  37. 37. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008Node 2Node 4Node 1Node 3D-STARDirective STAR5. Cross-Layer scheme
  38. 38. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008Features:Cross-layer protocol design (MAC+PHY)Space-time synchronizationSuitable for flat topologyScalableD-STAR5. Cross-Layer scheme
  39. 39. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008Hypothesis Beam width = θ [rad] N possible angular sectors:N = 2π/θ Quasi ideal switchingTswitch << TpktEs: θ = π/2 [rad] N = 4 Tswitch ≈ µs << Tpkt ≈ msD-STAR: ideal pattern antennas5. Cross-Layer schemeyII sector I sectorIII sector IV sectorxRθ
  40. 40. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008D-STAR: State Diagram5. Cross-Layer scheme
  41. 41. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008D-STAR: State DiagramINIT5. Cross-Layer scheme
  42. 42. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008D-STAR: State DiagramDISCOVERYSwitch onINIT5. Cross-Layer scheme
  43. 43. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008D-STAR: State DiagramDISCOVERYSwitch onnf < NfdINIT5. Cross-Layer scheme
  44. 44. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008D-STAR: State DiagramDISCOVERYSwitch onnf < NfdREGIMEnf=NfdINIT5. Cross-Layer scheme
  45. 45. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008D-STAR: State DiagramDISCOVERY1 < EmptySectors < NsSwitch onnf < NfdREGIMEnf=NfdINIT5. Cross-Layer scheme
  46. 46. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008D-STAR: State DiagramDISCOVERY1 < EmptySectors < NsEmptysectors = NsSwitch onnf < NfdREGIMEnf=NfdINIT5. Cross-Layer scheme
  47. 47. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008D-STAR: State DiagramDISCOVERY1 < EmptySectors < NsEmptysectors = NsSwitch onnf < NfdBattery < Battery_lowREGIMEBattery < Battery_lownf=NfdINITOFF5. Cross-Layer scheme
  48. 48. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008D-STAR: Discovery phase1. Duty cycle δ = 100%Listening mode for a time interval Tset-upBeacon (HELLO) broadcasting: 1 beacon ∀ angular sector Node ID and Phase (φ) transmission (time to the next awakening) Waiting for a fixed time duration τs in search of REPLY messages Switching to the following angular sectorExit condition: (Tset-up is expired, i.e., Nfd frame periods)5. Cross-Layer scheme
  49. 49. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008D-STAR: Discovery phaseδ = 100%Tset-uptimeHELLO HELLO HELLO HELLOHELLO…HELLOyxTbroadNs=45. Cross-Layer scheme
  50. 50. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008D-STAR: Regime phaseEach node sends: HELLO messages to known neighbors belonging to different angular sectorsaccording to the phase transmitted in previous HELLO messages; several HELLO messages in background with the proper period to unknownneighbors in the empty angular sector empty angular sector.Upon the replying of a node, a logical channel is established: The channel access is managed by means of a CSMA/CA (Carrier SenseMultiple Access with Collision Avoidance) approach.If the number of empty angular sector is equal to Ns each node re-enters thediscovery phase in search of connectivity.5. Cross-Layer scheme
  51. 51. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008D-STAR: Regime phaseTftimelistening sleepδ TfHELLO…HELLOHELLO…HELLOHELLOHypothesis ideal phase; ideal duty-cycle; ideal antenna switching.no deafness problem5. Cross-Layer scheme
  52. 52. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008Regime phaseOrphanage managementOwn HELLO messages broadcasting in search of connectivityBeam 1 Beam NBeam 2 …KTf KTf KTfTswitchtimeHELLO HELLOHELLO1 HELLObroadcasting perempty sector5. Cross-Layer scheme
  53. 53. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008Operative hypothesisFP6-IST-1-508744-IP ‘‘GoodFood’’ reference scenario Monitored area = 25 · 25 [m2] Number of WSN nodes: [10…50] N = 1, 2 ,4, 6, 8 angular sectorsIEEE 802.15.4 compliance Bit rate = 250 kbps HELLO pkt length = 8 bytes Number of channel sensing for CSMAC/CA algorithm = 6 Frame period: 10,25,50,75,93 s Duty-cycle: [1…5]% Packet Error Rate = 5%5. Cross-Layer scheme
  54. 54. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008Network lifetime gain vs nodes (Tf=93 s; d = 3%)5. Cross-Layer scheme416
  55. 55. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008Network lifetime vs duty-cycle (Tf = 93 s; 50 nodes)5. Cross-Layer scheme
  56. 56. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008Network lifetime vs frame period (d=3 %; 50 nodes)5. Cross-Layer scheme
  57. 57. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008Hidden node analysis5. Cross-Layer scheme
  58. 58. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008Hidden node analysis5. Cross-Layer scheme
  59. 59. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008SSRHidden node analysis5. Cross-Layer scheme
  60. 60. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008SSRHidden node analysis5. Cross-Layer scheme
  61. 61. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008SSRHidden node analysis5. Cross-Layer scheme
  62. 62. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008SSRHidden node analysis5. Cross-Layer scheme
  63. 63. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008SSRHidden node analysis5. Cross-Layer scheme
  64. 64. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008SSRS SRRHidden node analysis5. Cross-Layer scheme
  65. 65. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008SSRS SRRHidden node analysis5. Cross-Layer scheme
  66. 66. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008SSRS SRRHidden node analysis5. Cross-Layer scheme
  67. 67. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008Hidden node analysis5. Cross-Layer scheme
  68. 68. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008Hidden node analysis5. Cross-Layer scheme
  69. 69. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008Signaling OverheadResource UtilizationEfficiency and complexity5. Cross-Layer scheme
  70. 70. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008Four-Beam Directional Antenna (FBDA)Antenna features: Four coaxially fed planar patch antennas; The patches operate in linear polarization (2.4 GHz ISM); Each face is realized on a two-layer RF4 substrate 56x56x2.4 [mm].Two views of the antenna5. Cross-Layer scheme
  71. 71. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008 The patches gain are comprised between 8.3dBi and 7.5dBi; Loss are 1.5 dB (switch, distribution network and mismatches); Combined patterns ensure a uniform coverage of the 360 degree horizonRadiation patterns of the FBDA5. Cross-Layer scheme
  72. 72. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008Network lifetime vs nodes5. Cross-Layer scheme
  73. 73. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008Hidden node analysisPCmax=2%overhearing effect5. Cross-Layer scheme
  74. 74. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008Packet delivery latency vs nodes5. Cross-Layer scheme
  75. 75. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008Conclusions• Energy efficient MAC protocols proposal STAR (duty cycle); STAR + (multicasting); Analytical modeling & rationales; Performance of STAR and STAR+ protocols is better than S-MAC.6. Conclusions Energy consumption; Latency; Easy to implement.• Cross-layer approach (MAC+PHY) D-STAR C++ simulations; Performance of D-STAR protocols is better than STARalso in mobile node scenario;
  76. 76. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008Future workDSTAR implementation on practical test cases: FP6-IST-4-027738-NoE “CRUISE” FP6-2006-045299-STREP “DustBot”UWB PHY layer integration with STAR MAC protocol7. Future Work
  77. 77. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008Research involvementsFP6-IST-1-507325-NoE NEWCOM“Network of Excellence in Wireless COMmunications”Project A is addressed to “Ad Hoc and Sensor networks” with regards to: Cross-layer design of sensor networks; Simulation models and architectures for cross-layered sensor networks.FP6-IST-4-027738-NoE CRUISE“CReating Ubiquitous Intelligent Sensing Environment”• WP 122 leader “Platforms, test beds measurements”• Task 220.1.4 leader “Cross Layer Optimization”8. Research involvements
  78. 78. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008Research involvementsFP6-IST-1-508744-IP GoodFood• Work Package 7 leader: integrated solutions according to the AmI concepts,allowing full interconnection and communication of multi-sensing systems alongthe wine chain.8. Research involvements
  79. 79. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008IST call 6 - FP6-2005-IST-6 DustBot• Work Package 6: Robot-remote station communication subsystems; communicationprotocols design and development.Research involvements8. Research involvements
  80. 80. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 20081. F. Chiti, M. Ciabatti, G. Collodi, D. Di Palma, R. Fantacci, A. Manes, “Design and Application ofEnhanced Communication Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks operating inEnvironmental Monitoring”, International Journal of Sensor Networks Special Issue onWireless Ad Hoc Networks and Sensor Networks, to be published.2. F. Chiti, M. Ciabatti, G. Collodi, D. Di Palma, R. Fantacci, G. Manes, A. Manes, I. Nelli,“DSTAR MAC Protocol: a Cross Layer Solution for Wireless Sensor Networks Endowedwith Directive Antennas”, COST289 Special Issue for Springer Journal of WirelessPersonal Communications, to be published.3. G. Manes, R. Fantacci, F. Chiti, M. Ciabatti, G. Collodi, D. Di Palma, A. Manes, I. Nelli, “EfficientPublicationsJournalPapers1. F. Chiti, M. Ciabatti, G. Collodi, D. Di Palma, A. Manes, "An Embedded GPRS Gateway forEnvironmental Monitoring Wireless Sensor Networks“ in Proc. of EWSN’06, Zurich,Switzerland, Feb. 2006.2. G. Manes, F. Chiti, M. Ciabatti, G. Collodi, D. Di Palma, A. Manes, "Enhanced DesignSolutions for Wireless Sensor Networks applied to Distributed EnvironmentalMonitoring" in Proc. of GE’06, Ischia, Italy, June 2006.3. F. Chiti, M. Ciabatti, G. Collodi, D. Di Palma, R. Fantacci, A. Manes, "Design andApplication of Enhanced Communication Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networksoperating in Environmental Monitoring" in Proc. of IEEE ICC’06, Istanbul, Turkey, June2006, vol. 8, pag. 3390-3395.4. F. Chiti, M. Ciabatti, G. Collodi, D. Di Palma, R. Fantacci, A. Manes, “Enhanced SystemDesign Solutions for Wireless Sensor Networks applied to Distributed EnvironmentalMonitoring”, Proceedings of The Second IEEE International Workshop on PracticalIssues In Building Sensor Network Applications (SenseApp 2007), Dublin, Ireland,October 2007.5. G. Manes, R. Fantacci, F. Chiti, M. Ciabatti, G. Collodi, D. Di Palma, A. Manes, “EnergyEfficient MAC Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks Endowed with DirectiveAntennas: a Cross-Layer Solution" in Proc. of RWS’08, Orlando, Florida, January 2008.ConferencePapers9. Pubblications
  81. 81. Ph.D. thesis, Firenze June 6th 2008Thank you for your attention !!!
  82. 82. 1Università degli Studi Di FirenzeDipartimento di Elettronica e TelecomunicazioniPh.D. Thesis on RF Microwave and Electromagnetism (XX)Supervisors:Prof. G. ManesDr. G. CollodiCoordinator:Prof. G. ManesCandidate:Michele CiabattiResource-Constrained Communication withinWireless Sensor Network:a new Cross Layer solution

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