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Farm to table glossary


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Farm to table glossary

  1. 1. Farm to Table Glossary A agribusiness (noun) - an industry engaged in the operations of a farm, the manufacture and distribution of farm equipment and supplies, and the processing, storage, and distribution of farm commodities agriculture (noun) - the science, art, or practice of cultivating the soil, producing crops, and raising livestock and, in varying degrees, the preparation and marketing of the resulting products alfalfa (noun) - a deep-rooted European leguminous plant (Medicago sativa) widely grown for hay and forage animal husbandry (noun) - a branch of agriculture concerned with the production and care of domestic animals B bacteria (n. pl.) - microorganisms that live in the soil and covert nutrients into forms usable by plants beef cattle (n. pl.) - cattle developed primarily for the efficient production of meat and marked by capacity for rapid growth, heavy well-fleshed body, and stocky build biodynamics(noun) the branch of biology emphasizing balancing the holistic development and interrelationship of soil, plants, and animals as a closed, self-nourishing system. Regarded by some proponents as the first modern ecological farming system, biodynamic farming includes organic agriculture's emphasis on manures and composts and exclusion of the use of artificial chemicals on soil and plants. Methods unique to the biodynamic approach include the use of fermented herbal and mineral preparations as compost additives and field sprays and the use of a sowing and planting calendar. blight (noun) - a disease or injury of plants resulting in withering, cessation of growth, and death of parts without rotting bovine (noun) - any of a subfamily (Bovinae) of bovids including oxen, bison, buffalo, and their close relatives breed (noun) - a group of animals or plants presumably related by descent from common ancestors and visibly similar in most character broiler (noun) - a bird fit for broiling; especially a young chicken of up to 2 1/2 pounds (1.14 kilograms) dressed weight buck (noun) - a male animal bull (noun) - a male bovine bushel (noun) - any of various units of measure for dry capacity C calf (noun) - the young of the domestic cow; also that of a closely related mammal (bison)
  2. 2. calve (verb) - to give birth to a calf; also to produce offspring casein (noun) – principal protein in milk, which coagulates with the addition of rennin and is the foundation for cheese cattle (n. pl.) - domesticated quadrupeds held as property or raised for use; specifically bovine animals on a farm or ranch cheese (noun) - a food consisting of the coagulated, compressed, and usually ripened curd of milk separated from the whey chicken (noun) - the common domestic fowl (Gallus gallus) especially when young clutch (noun) - a nest of eggs or a brood of chicks cold frame (noun) - a (usually) glass or plastic covered frame without artificial heat used to protect plants and seedlings outdoors combine (noun) - a harvesting machine that heads, threshes, and cleans grain while moving over a field commodity (noun) - an agricultural good companion planting - Companion planting is the gardening practice of planting one plant in proximity to another, due to the benefits it bestows on this "companion plant." Organic gardeners, for instance, often juxtapose plants because the one will have insect-repelling qualities that benefit the other, eliminating the need to use chemical pesticides. One plant can even serve as a "mulch" for another. The benefits are shared in companion planting, making for a symbiotic relationship. compost (noun) - a mixture that consists largely of decayed organic matter and used for fertilizing and conditioning land cow (noun) - the mature female of cattle (genus Bos) CSA (Community Supported Agriculture) - a community of individuals who pledge support to a farm operation so that the farmland becomes, either legally or spiritually, the community's farm, with the growers and consumers providing mutual support and sharing the risks and benefits of food production. cud (noun) - food brought up into the mouth by a ruminating animal from its first stomach to be chewed again cull (verb) - to select from a group cultivate (tr. verb) - to prepare and use for the raising of crops; also to loosen or break up the soil about (growing plants) curd (noun) - the thick casein-rich part of coagulated milk D dairy (noun) - a room, building, or establishment where milk is kept and butter or cheese is made
  3. 3. doe (noun) - the adult female of various mammals (as a deer, rabbit, or kangaroo) E ecology (noun) - a branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their environment ecosystem (noun) - a community of organisms and non-living things and their environment that function as an ecological unit environment (noun) - the complex of physical, chemical, and biotic factors (such as climate, soil, and living things) that act upon an organism or an ecological community and ultimately determine its form and survival erosion (noun) - to wear away topsoil by water or wind. Can also be caused by intensive farming and overgrazing; the action or process of eroding estrus (noun) - a regularly recurrent state during which the female of most mammals will accept the male and is capable of conceiving ewe (noun) - the female of the sheep especially when mature F fertile (adjective) - capable of sustaining abundant plant growth fertilizer (noun) - a substance (as manure or a chemical mixture) used to make soil more fertile filly (noun) - a young female horse usually less than four years old flock (noun) - a group of birds or mammals assembled or herded together foal (noun) - a young animal of the horse family; especially one under one year old food chain (noun) - an arrangement of the organisms of an ecological community according to the order of predation in which each uses the next, usually lower, member as a food source G gelding (noun) - a castrated animal; specifically a castrated male horse goat (noun) - any of various hollow-horned ruminant mammals (especially of the genus Capra) related to the sheep but of lighter build and with backwardly arching horns, a short tail, and usually straight hair grass fed - generally means beef from cattle that have eaten only grass or forage throughout their lives, however some producers do call their beef grass fed but then actually finish the animals on grain for the last 90 to 160 days before slaughter. Currently the United States Department of Agriculture has not adopted an official definition of Grass fed beef graze (verb) - to crop and eat in the field H habitat (noun) - the place or environment where a plant or animal naturally or normally lives and grows harvest (verb) - to gather in (a crop)
  4. 4. hay (noun) - herbage and (especially) grass mowed and cured for fodder heifer (noun) - a young cow; especially one that has not had a calf heirloom vegetables - a cultivar that was commonly grown during earlier periods in human history; non-hybrid native plant resulting from open pollination (without human intervention). Heirlooms are not used in modern large-scale agriculture. Approximately twenty-five years ago people started saving seeds from the remaining native varieties. hen (noun) - a female chicken especially over a year old; broadly a female bird herd (noun) - (1) a number of animals of one kind kept together under human control (2) a congregation of gregarious wild animals hoop house - structure used as a greenhouse or a season extender and is characterized by a half- round "hoop" shape. Hoop houses are typically constructed of lengths of PVC pipe, which is both flexible and sturdy. humane (adj.) - marked by compassion, sympathy, or consideration for the treatment of animals hybrid (noun) - an offspring of two animals or plants that are of different breeds, varieities or species hydroponic (adj.) - grown in water without the use of soil I integrated pest management (IPM) - the management of pest problems that involves use of the full spectrum of control measures in a coordinated, integrated and foresighted manner. A cornerstone of IPM is the idea that taking preventive steps to preclude a pest problem is preferable to waiting for pests to arrive and then having to eradicate them. irrigation (noun) - to supply (as land) with water by artificial means K kelp (noun) - (1) any of various large brown seaweeds (order Laminariales); a mass of large seaweeds kid (noun) - a young goat L lactate (verb) - to secrete milk lamb (noun) - a young sheep; especially one that is less than one year old or without permanent teeth legume (noun) – any of thousands of plant species that have seed pods that split along both sides when ripe. Some of the more common legumes used for human consumption are beans, lentils, peanuts, peas, and soybeans livestock (noun) - animals kept or raised for commodities or pleasure; especially farm animals kept for use and profit
  5. 5. M manure (noun) - material that fertilizes land; especially refuse of stables and barnyards consisting of livestock excreta mare (noun) - a female horse or other equine animal microorganisms (noun) - an organism of microscopic or ultramicroscopic size MIG (Management Intensive Grazing) - the practice of rotating livestock between pastures to reduce overgrazing monoculture – planting the same crop in a field year after year with no crop rotation N no-till farming - a method of growing grain when the farmer does not plow the field before planting nutrients - nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, and minerals that plants need to grow nutrition (noun) - The sum of the processes by which an animal or plant takes in and utilizes food substances O organic (adv.) - of, relating to, yielding, or involving the use of food produced with the use of feed or fertilizer of plant or animal origin without employment of chemically formulated fertilizers, growth stimulants, antibiotics, or pesticides organic farming -producing foods without the use of laboratory made fertilizers, growth substances, or pesticides organic matter - the dead plants, animals, and manure converted by earthworms and bacteria into hummus oxen (noun, pl.) - a domestic bovine mammal (Bostaurus) P paddock (noun) - usually enclosed area used especially for pasturing or exercising animals; especially an enclosure where race horses are saddled and paraded before a race pasture (noun) – (1) plants (grass) grown for the feeding especially of grazing animals; (2) land or a plot of land used for grazing; (3) the feeding of livestock pesticide - a substance that kills any pest, including insects, fungi, and weeds photosynthesis (noun) - synthesis of chemical compounds with the aid of radiant energy and especially light; especially formation of carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and a source of hydrogen (as water) in the chlorophyll-containing tissues of plants exposed to light pollinate-to fertilize by transferring pollen from the anther to the stigma of a flower R ram (noun) - a male sheep
  6. 6. recycle (v.) - (1) to pass again through a series of changes or treatments; process (as liquid body waste, glass, or cans) in order to regain material for human use; recover; (2) to adapt to a new use; alter; (3) to bring back rooster (noun) - an adult male of various birds other than the domestic fowl rotation - the changing of the specific fields/crops year to year rotational grazing - periodically moving livestock to fresh paddocks, to allow pastures to regrow rumen (noun) - the large first compartment of the stomach of a ruminant in which cellulose is broken down by the action of symbiotic microorganisms ruminant (adj.) - characterized by chewing again what has been swallowed; of or relating to a suborder (Ruminantia) of even-toed hoofed mammals (as sheep, giraffes, deer, and camels) that chew the cud and have a complex, usually 4-chambered stomach ruminant (noun) - ruminant mammal S sheep (noun) - any of various ruminant mammals (genus Ovis) related to the goats but stockier and lacking a beard in the male; specifically one (O. aries) long domesticated especially for its flesh and wool silage (noun) - fodder converted into succulent feed for livestock through processes of anaerobic acid fermentation (as in a silo) silo (noun) - (1) a trench, pit, or especially a tall cylinder (as of wood or concrete) usually sealed to exclude air and used for making and storing silage (2) a deep bin for storing material stewardship-an individual's responsibility to exercise care over possessions entrusted to him or her sustainability (noun) - (a) of, relating to, or being a method of harvesting or using a resource so that the resource is not depleted or permanently damaged (b) of or relating to a lifestyle involving the use of sustainable methods sustainable agriculture - an integrated system of plant and animal production practices having a site-specific application that will over the long-term: Satisfy human food and fiber needs; Enhance environmental quality and the natural resource base upon which the agriculture economy depends; Make the most efficient use of nonrenewable resources and on-farm resources and integrate, where appropriate, natural biological cycles and controls; Sustain the economic viability of farm operations; and Enhance the quality of life for farmers and society as a whole. See U.S. Code Title 7, Section 3103. U USDA - United States Department of Agriculture, a Federal agency involved in all phases of agriculture
  7. 7. udder (noun) - a large pendulous organ consisting of two or more mammary glands enclosed in a common envelope and each provided with a single nipple W wean (verb) - to accustom a young animal) to food other than its mother's milk; cause to lose the need to suckle or turn to the mother for food. weed (noun) - a plant that is not valued where it is growing and is usually of vigorous growth; especially one that tends to overgrow or choke out more desirable plants... whey (noun) - the watery part of milk that is separated from the coagulable part or curd especially in the process of making cheese wool (noun) - the soft wavy or curly undercoat of various hairy mammals and especially the sheep Y yearling (noun) - an animal one year old or in the second year of its age yield - the amount of a crop produced in a given time or from a given place