• Straight dough method: all ingredients are combined
• Sponge method: liquid, yeast and ½ the flour are
mixed to form a wet batter (sponge) and allowed to
rise (proof). Remaining ingredients are added and the
dough is kneaded
• Rolled in dough (laminated dough)
• Puff pastry
• Biscuit method (broken dough): light, flaky and
tender, fat is left in larger pieces and dispersed
throughout the dough or batter.
• Muffin method: tender even shaped product, mix dry
ingredients in one container, mix wet ingredients in
another container then combine.
• Creaming method: tender cakelike product, cream
sugar and butter, add eggs, one at a time, add flour
and other ingredients.
• Breads and Dough
• Blind baking: placing a liner on the raw dough and weighting it
down while baking to prevent too much rise.
• Docking: poking holes in raw dough to prevent too much rise
• Steaming: adding water or steam during baking to promote a
hard crusty outside.
• Scoring: cutting the dough in order to allow for controlled
• Active dry
• Cake or fresh
• Wild yeast
• Baking Soda
• Baking Powder (baking soda + cream of Tartar)
Types of Wheat Flour
Gluten; proteins that provide elasticity and strength
Gliadin – strength
Glutenin – Elasticity
Cake flour – 6%-8% protein
Pastry flour – 7%-9%
All purpose flour – 10%-14%
Bread flour – 11%-16%
Hard winter wheat produces more proteins soft spring and
summer wheat produce less protein