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Temperate deciduous forest PERIOD 4


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Temperate deciduous forest

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Temperate deciduous forest PERIOD 4

  1. 1. Temperate Deciduous Forest By: Sydney Howard & Molly Cros
  2. 2. Other Names 1. Temperate broad-leaf forests 2. Temperate broad-leaf mixed forests
  3. 3. Location ● Typically found in the Northern Hemisphere in the Eastern United States, Canada, Europe, China, and Japan. ● However, few smaller ones are found in the Southern Hemisphere in places such as Australia, Southern Asia, and South America. ● They are located in the mid-latitude areas meaning that they are found between the polar regions and the tropics. ● Examples: ○ The Great Smoky Mountains National Park (Tennessee, USA) ○ Northeast China Plain (China) ○ The European Temperate Deciduous Broadleaf Forest (Europe) ○ The Manchurian mixed forest (Asia)
  4. 4. Climate Climate: The forests are usually located in 25° and 50° latitude in both hemispheres. Has four distinct seasons; winter, spring, summer, and autumn. Soil: The deciduous trees shed their leaves in the autumn, as the leaves decay the nutrients are absorbed into the soil. The soil that is present in deciduous forests tend to have a variety of soils. Temperature: Since the forests are located all over the world the temperature varies in each region, but because the forests lose their leaves each fall the typical temperature of 50°F.
  5. 5. Climate Rainfall: Like with everything else the amount of rainfall will vary upon location, but it has been recorded that the average rainfall is between 30 and 60 inches a year.
  6. 6. Nutrient Flow Diagram
  7. 7. Characteristics: Animals Animals: This biome has a large diversity of life. The animals that live in temperate deciduous forests must be able to adapt to all the seasons. Some of the animals in this biome migrate or hibernate during the winter months. Ex: spiders, frogs, turtles, salamanders, birds; broad-winged hawk, cardinals, woodpeckers, mammals; white-tailed deer, raccoons, and opossums.
  8. 8. Characteristics: Plants Plants: Temperate deciduous forests have a large variety of plant species. There are three levels of plants. The first are; Lichen, Moss, Ferns, and wildflowers can be found along the forest floor. The second level is made up of shrubs. And the third level is composed of trees like; maple, oak, and birch.
  9. 9. Energy Flow
  10. 10. Productivity In deciduous forests productivity is high, containing dense forests along with deep canopies. Species Richness is also high since there are many different species per acre.
  11. 11. Photosynthesis In the fall and early winter when the days are shorter photosynthesis stops the chlorophyll breaks down, revealing other pigments. In the spring when the days become longer the leaves grow back due to photosynthesis.
  12. 12. Succession
  13. 13. Human Impact (MDC) MDC: U.S.A ● We have introduced invasive species to the forests. ○ The Hemlock wooly adelgid was accidentally introduced in the 1920s. The U.S. Forest Service estimates that they’re being killed at a rate of 8-15 square kilometers per year. ○ The emerald ash borer was brought in the 1990s and has killed tens of millions of ash trees. ● As we cut down forests for construction of properties, we leave small patches of the forest called forest fragmentation. ○ These small patches are too small to maintain species diversity making it difficult for species to remain healthy and resilient to disease ○ EPA estimates that more than 19% of all forests in the U.S. consist of smaller patches rather than a “core forest” where biodiversity occurs. ● Surprisingly, the reduction of hunting for large grazing animals, such as deer, has caused overgrazing leading to the destruction of these forests. ○ A study by The Nature Conservancy shows that almost 1/3rd of deciduous forests in New York state were being destroyed by overgrazing from large animals.
  14. 14. Human Impact (LDC) LDC: Haiti ● The country has the highest rates of deforestation of any country in the world. ○ Intensive logging began in the 1950s causing the 60% forest coverage in the country to drop down to less than 2%. ● Climate change is also negatively affecting agriculture and rural communities in Haiti, which worsens the effects of environmental resource loss and terrible farming practices.
  15. 15. How is it handled? U.S.A: In the U.S. deciduous forests are now recovering, for example in New England there is more forest present now than there was 100 years ago. From Minnesota and MIchigan eastward toward New England, the land is now being reclaimed. Haiti:: ● The country has realized how detrimental their decisions were. ○ President Michel Martelly has launched a program to double the forest coverage by 2016. ○ They aim to plant 50m trees a year to pioneer a reforestation campaign.