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Levine-Clark, Michael, “Humanities E-Book Usage on a Global Scale,” Charleston Conference, Charleston, S.C. November 7, 2014

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Levine-Clark, Michael, “Humanities E-Book Usage on a Global Scale,” Charleston Conference, Charleston, S.C. November 7, 2014

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Levine-Clark, Michael, “Humanities E-Book Usage on a Global Scale,” Charleston Conference, Charleston, S.C. November 7, 2014

  1. 1. Humanities eBook Usage on a Global Scale Charleston Conference November 7, 2014 Michael Levine-Clark Associate Dean for Scholarly Communication & Collections Services University of Denver
  2. 2. How do students and scholars in the arts and humanities use ebooks? https://www.flickr.com/photos/aigle_dore/ 6365101775. "Books," Moyan Brenn
  3. 3. How are arts and humanities ebooks used? https://www.flickr.com/photos/aigle_dore/ 6365101775. "Books," Moyan Brenn
  4. 4. Ithaka S+R US Faculty Survey 2012, April 8, 2013, p. 34.
  5. 5. 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Arts/Humanities Social Sciences Science Do not want to use ebooks, but sometimes there is no other choice. I use ebooks but I prefer print Ebooks are acceptable I prefer ebooks Deborah Lenares, "Ebooks: Their Use and Acceptance by Undergraduates and Faculty," ER&L 2013. http://proposalspace.com/publishdocs/220/download.
  6. 6. 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Business Student Preference/Acceptance by Discipline Students were asked: You are in the library doing research for a paper. You find a book of interest and want to read at least a chapter. Eng Computing Math Humanities Life Sciences Physical Sciences preferred acceptable not acceptable Social Sciences Studio & Perform arts Total Business Eng Computing Math Humanities Life Sciences Physical Sciences Social Sciences Studio & Perform arts Total Library print book Library's ebook Chart by Deborah Lenares Debbi Dinkins, Anne Cerstvik Nolan, Kathleen Sacco, and Robert Walsh, “Why the Resistance? Trends and Results from a Collaborative Survey on E-Book Usage Across Eight Academic Institutions,” Charleston Conference, November 6, 2014. ccby Deborah Lenares 2014
  7. 7. Previous Presentations • Two different data sets – Four years worth of usage – 2013 usage • ebrary 2013 – didn’t include all of the unused books • Testing the methodology http://www.slideshare.net/MichaelLevineClark/pre sentations
  8. 8. Data Overview All ebooks from EBL • Usage for 2013 • Worldwide • Three library types – Academic – Public – Special • A focus on arts & humanities
  9. 9. Usage Definitions • Session – Any time that a user interacts with an e-book • Page View – A count of the number of pages examined • Download – A download of the entire book • Usage Time – Minutes spent looking at the book
  10. 10. What can we learn by examining usage on such a large scale? • Are we collecting the right things? • Are there general patterns by subject? • Can we identify disciplinary preferences? • What are the best ways to measure use? • Can those patterns and preferences help shape our collections and guide our services?
  11. 11. Academic Library eBooks • 379,111 titles – Available on average in 72 libraries • 345,891 titles with LCCN – Available on average in 73 libraries 300,000 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 0 Academic Public Special
  12. 12. Number of Titles Available, by LC Class 80000 70000 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 H Q P NO LCCN R T B D L K G J E S N M F U Z C V A STEM Arts & Humanities Social Sciences Other
  13. 13. Title Availability: Arts & Humanities 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 Art (N) History (C, D, E, F) Languages (P-PM) Literature (PN-PZ) Music (M) Philosophy (B-BJ) Religion (BL-BX)
  14. 14. Academic Library eBook Usage – 345,891 titles with LCCN On average in 2013, at each library, each title: – Was held by 73.3 libraries – Had 0.38 sessions – Had 10.77 page views – Had 0.11 downloads – Was viewed for 5.6 minutes
  15. 15. Academic Library eBook Usage – 108,082 Arts & Humanities Titles On average in 2013, at each library, each title: – Was held by 68.0 libraries (vs 73.3 for all) – Had 0.30 sessions (0.38) – Had 8.85 page views (10.77) – Had 0.09 downloads (0.11) – Was viewed for 4.87 minutes (5.57)
  16. 16. Average Number of Libraries with Title Available by Discipline 68 81 69 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Arts & Humanities Social Sciences STEM
  17. 17. Title Availability: By LC Class 90.0 80.0 70.0 60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 0.0 H L J G E M Q D Z T B N F C R K P A V S U 73.3 68.0 Average availability across all subjects Average availability across A&H Average number of academic libraries with title available
  18. 18. Title Availability: Arts & Humanities 78.00 76.00 74.00 72.00 70.00 68.00 66.00 64.00 62.00 60.00 58.00 56.00
  19. 19. ARE THESE THE RIGHT BOOKS?
  20. 20. Sessions Compared to Availability 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Social Sciences STEM Arts & Humanities Availability Sessions Sessions are multiplied X100 to fit scale.
  21. 21. Sessions Compared to Availability: Arts & Humanities 80.00 70.00 60.00 50.00 40.00 30.00 20.00 10.00 0.00 Availability Sessions (x100) Sessions are multiplied X100 to fit scale.
  22. 22. BROAD DISCIPLINARY DIFFERENCES
  23. 23. The Disciplines Humanities B (Philosophy, Religion) excluding BF (Psychology) C, D, E, F (History) M (Music) N (Fine Arts) P (Language & Literature) Social Sciences BF (Psychology) H (Social Sciences) J (Political Science) K (Law) L (Education) U, V (Military, Naval Sciences) STEM Q (Science) R (Medicine) S (Agriculture) T (Technology)
  24. 24. Percentage of Titles Used 90.00% 80.00% 70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% % of Titles with a Session % of Titles with a View % of Titles Downloaded
  25. 25. Average Usage: Sessions 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0
  26. 26. Average Usage: Page Views 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2
  27. 27. Average Usage: Downloads 0.16 0.14 0.12 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0
  28. 28. Average Usage: Time 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
  29. 29. Views Per Session 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17
  30. 30. Downloads Per Session 0.14 0.13 0.12 0.11 0.1 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.06
  31. 31. Time Per Session 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6
  32. 32. Disciplinary Summary • Social sciences outperform humanities and STEM in two categories – Percentage of books used – Average amount of use • STEM outperforms the others in actions per session • Readers in the humanities spend more time in the book per session . . . but within the humanities . . .
  33. 33. Arts & Humanities Summary • Art (N), Languages (P-PM), and Philosophy (B-BJ) are used at a higher percentage and average rate than other A&H subjects, and generally than Social Sciences. • On a percentage basis, History (C-F) and Music(M) are used at about the same rate as books overall, but the average usage is much lower. • Religion (BL-BX) and Literature (PN-PZ) show poor use by all measures
  34. 34. Arts & Humanities Actions Per Session • Views per session Art, History, Music Languages, Literature, Philosophy, Religion • Downloads per session Art, Languages, (Religion) History, Literature, Music, (Philosophy) • Time per session History, Languages, Music, (Religion) Art, Philosophy, (Literature)
  35. 35. MEASURING PREDICTED USE
  36. 36. Performance Relative to Predicted Use 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 H: 20.60% of titles available, 21.46% of titles with a session L N J T H M R D E Z B G S V A C Q P K U F % of Titles Available % of Titles with a Session percentage difference
  37. 37. Performance Relative to Predicted Use 9.00% 8.00% 7.00% 6.00% 5.00% 4.00% 3.00% 2.00% 1.00% 0.00% % of Titles Available % of Titles with a Session
  38. 38. Performance Relative to Predicted Use 30.00% 25.00% 20.00% 15.00% 10.00% 5.00% 0.00% L A R H G N J C Z M B D P T K S Q E F U V % of Titles Available % of Sessions H: 20.60% of titles available 26.49% of sessions
  39. 39. Performance Relative to Predicted Use 9.00% 8.00% 7.00% 6.00% 5.00% 4.00% 3.00% 2.00% 1.00% 0.00% % of Titles Available % of Sessions
  40. 40. CAN WE LEARN ANYTHING BY LOOKING AT THE MOST HIGHLY USED TITLES?
  41. 41. Availability Overall Compared to Presence in Top 10,000 50.00% 45.00% 40.00% 35.00% 30.00% 25.00% 20.00% 15.00% 10.00% 5.00% 0.00% Social Sciences STEM Arts & Humanities Percentage of Titles Available % of Titles with a Session in Top 10,000
  42. 42. Availability Overall Compared to Presence in Top 100,000 50.00% 45.00% 40.00% 35.00% 30.00% 25.00% 20.00% 15.00% 10.00% 5.00% 0.00% Social Sciences STEM Arts & Humanities Percentage of Titles Available % of Titles with a Session in Top 100,000
  43. 43. Availability Overall Compared to Presence in Top 10,000 (A&H) 9.00% 8.00% 7.00% 6.00% 5.00% 4.00% 3.00% 2.00% 1.00% 0.00% Percentage of Titles Available % of Titles with a Session in the top 10,000
  44. 44. Availability Overall Compared to Presence in Top 100,000 (A&H) 9.00% 8.00% 7.00% 6.00% 5.00% 4.00% 3.00% 2.00% 1.00% 0.00% Percentage of Titles Available % of Titles with a Session in the top 100,000
  45. 45. INTENSIVE / EXTENSIVE USE
  46. 46. Breadth vs Depth PERCENTAGE OF TITLES USED AVERAGE AMOUNT OF USE
  47. 47. EBL Sessions – Avg and % Narrow (low %) but Deep (more usage of each title) Broad (high %) and Deep (more usage of each title) Narrow (low %) and Shallow (low usage of each title) Broad (high % and Shallow (low usage of each title)
  48. 48. EBL Sessions – Avg and % (A&H) Narrow (low %) but Deep (more usage of each title) Broad (high %) and Deep (more usage of each title) Narrow (low %) and Shallow (low usage of each title) Broad (high % and Shallow (low usage of each title)
  49. 49. EBL Page Views – Avg and % Narrow (low %) but Deep (more usage of each title) Broad (high %) and Deep (more usage of each title) Narrow (low %) and Shallow (low usage of each title) Broad (high % and Shallow (low usage of each title)
  50. 50. EBL Page Views – Avg and % (A&H) Narrow (low %) but Deep (more usage of each title) Broad (high %) and Deep (more usage of each title) Narrow (low %) and Shallow (low usage of each title) Broad (high % and Shallow (low usage of each title)
  51. 51. EBL Downloaded – Avg and % Narrow (low %) but Deep (more usage of each title) Broad (high %) and Deep (more usage of each title) Narrow (low %) and Shallow (low usage of each title) Broad (high % and Shallow (low usage of each title)
  52. 52. EBL Downloaded – Avg and % Narrow (low %) but Deep (more usage of each title) Broad (high %) and Deep (more usage of each title) Narrow (low %) and Shallow (low usage of each title) Broad (high % and Shallow (low usage of each title)
  53. 53. CAN WE DETERMINE LEVEL OF IMMERSION IN A BOOK?
  54. 54. Page Views Per Session 30.00 25.00 20.00 15.00 10.00 5.00 0.00 20.59 F N V M T E R Q G A D C H S P J K B Z U L
  55. 55. Page Views Per Session: A&H 24.00 23.00 22.00 21.00 20.00 19.00 18.00 17.00 20.59 Art Music History Literature Languages Philosophy Religion
  56. 56. Minutes Per Session (Time in the Book) 16.00 14.00 12.00 10.00 8.00 6.00 4.00 2.00 0.00 10.03 F E D J M C V G A K U R H P Q B T N S L Z
  57. 57. Minutes Per Session: A&H 14.00 12.00 10.00 8.00 6.00 4.00 2.00 0.00 10.03 History Music Languages Religion Literature Philosophy Art
  58. 58. Summary: Level of Immersion • Users spend the most time in music (M) and history books (C, D, E, F) • Users examine a lot of pages in art books (N) but spend a relatively small amount of time (a lot like technology (T))
  59. 59. CONCLUSIONS
  60. 60. There are many ways to measure use • Difference from predicted use • Depth vs breadth – Books used a lot vs a lot of books used • Type of use (session, view, download) • Amount of use per session
  61. 61. Page Views Per Session: A&H 24.00 23.00 22.00 21.00 20.00 19.00 18.00 17.00 20.59 Art Music History Literature Languages Philosophy Religion
  62. 62. Minutes Per Session: A&H 14.00 12.00 10.00 8.00 6.00 4.00 2.00 0.00 10.03 History Music Languages Religion Literature Philosophy Art
  63. 63. How do we use these observations to build better collections and better serve our users?
  64. 64. Thank You Michael Levine-Clark Associate Dean for Scholarly Communication and Collections Services University of Denver Libraries michael.levine-clark@du.edu http://www.slideshare.net/MichaelLevineClark

Editor's Notes

  • Ebrary titles viewed. X axis is percentage of titles used at least once. Y axis is average level of use of those titles.
  • Ebrary titles viewed. X axis is percentage of titles used at least once. Y axis is average level of use of those titles.
  • Ebrary titles viewed. X axis is percentage of titles used at least once. Y axis is average level of use of those titles.
  • Ebrary titles viewed. X axis is percentage of titles used at least once. Y axis is average level of use of those titles.
  • Ebrary titles viewed. X axis is percentage of titles used at least once. Y axis is average level of use of those titles.
  • Ebrary titles viewed. X axis is percentage of titles used at least once. Y axis is average level of use of those titles.
  • 5 subject areas always in the same quadrant
  • 5 subject areas always in the same quadrant

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