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Levine-Clark, Michael, “Diving into eBook Usage: Assessing the Swell of Information,” ProQuest Tech Series. Philadelphia, January 24, 2014.

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Levine-Clark, Michael, “Diving into eBook Usage: Assessing the Swell of Information,” ProQuest Tech Series. Philadelphia, January 24, 2014.

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Levine-Clark, Michael, “Diving into eBook Usage: Assessing the Swell of Information,” ProQuest Tech Series. Philadelphia, January 24, 2014.

  1. 1. Diving Into E-Book Usage: Assessing the Swell of Information Philadelphia January 24, 2014 Michael Levine-Clark Associate Dean for Scholarly Communication and Collections Services University of Denver Libraries
  2. 2. What can we learn by examining usage of 750,000+ e-books? • • • • • Does quality matter? Are there general patterns by subject? Can we identify disciplinary preferences? What are the best ways to measure use? Can those patterns and preferences help shape our collections and guide our services?
  3. 3. The Data Set • 2010 – 435,417 titles – 5,295 libraries • 2011 – 537,743 titles – 5,899 libraries • 2012 – 667,427 titles – 6,474 libraries • 2013 (through Sept 4) – 776,060 titles – 7,118 libraries • 2011 – 225,448 titles – 291 libraries • 2012 – 320,796 titles – 411 libraries • 2013 (through Sept 9) – 378,530 titles – 587 libraries
  4. 4. Combined Data • 2010-Sept 2013 • 435,417 titles • 304,417 with an LC call number • 32,988 university press titles • 2011-Sept 2013 • 217,457 titles • 210,539 titles with an LC call number • 21,089 university press titles
  5. 5. Usage Definitions • Session – Any time that a user interacts with an e-book • View – A count of the number of pages examined • Print – ebrary: counts the act of printing, regardless of how many pages – EBL: counts each page printed, even if printed as a range
  6. 6. Usage Definitions • Copy – Any instance of copying a portion of text • Download – A download of the entire book
  7. 7. Some aspects of usage aren’t comparable • ebrary has far more libraries than EBL, and an extra year of data – Averages and totals only useful when comparing within one aggregator • Some usage not counted the same – Printing
  8. 8. AVERAGE AMOUNT OF USE Breadth vs Depth PERCENTAGE OF TITLES USED
  9. 9. DO HIGHER-QUALITY E-BOOKS GET USED MORE?
  10. 10. University Press Books • A proxy for quality • ebrary – 32,988 titles • EBL – 21,089 titles Do better books get used at a higher rate?
  11. 11. Overall Usage - Sessions • At least one session – 69.16% of titles – 91.72% of titles with an LC call number – 93.76% of university press titles • On average (across all libraries) – 147.43 sessions per title – 208.64 sessions per title with an LC call number – 339.01 sessions per title for university press titles • At least one session – 88.33% of titles – 89.00% of titles with an LC call number – 93.80% of university press titles • On average (across all libraries) – 69.39 sessions per title – 70.99 sessions per title with an LC call number – 76.74 sessions per title for university press titles
  12. 12. Overall Usage – Page Views • Viewed at least once – 69.15% of titles – 91.70% of titles with an LC call number – 93.74% of university press titles • On average (across all libraries) – 2,245.23 views per title – 3,174.31 views per title with an LC call number – 5,203.82 views per title for university press titles • Viewed at least once – 87.30% of titles – 88.01% of titles with an LC call number – 92.82% of university press titles • On average (across all libraries) – 1,310.39 views per title – 1,341.91 views per title with an LC call number – 1,499.78 views per title for university press titles
  13. 13. Overall Usage - Copies • At least one title with a section copied – 35.84% of titles – 49.82% of titles with an LC call number – 64.20% of university press titles • On average (across all libraries) – 27.56 copies per title – 39.21 copies per title with an LC call number – 63.95 copies per title for university press titles • At least one title with a section copied – 37.13% of titles – 37.92% of titles with an LC call number – 45.30% of university press titles • On average (across all libraries) – 92.00 copies per title – 94.46 copies per title with an LC call number – 116.05 copies per title for university press titles
  14. 14. Overall Usage - Printing • At least one title with pages printed – 34.41% of titles – 47.33% of titles with an LC call number – 64.95% of university press titles • On average (across all libraries) – 171.35 prints per title – 244.32 prints per title with an LC call number – 461.27 prints per title for university press titles • At least one title with pages printed – 36.46% of titles – 37.17% of titles with an LC call number – 42.25% of university press titles • On average (across all libraries) – 5.29 prints per title – 5.43 prints per title with an LC call number – 5.57 prints per title for university press titles
  15. 15. Overall Usage – Full Downloads • At least one title downloaded – 24.35% of titles – 34.42% of titles with an LC call number – 40.12% of university press titles • On average (across all libraries) – 2.77 downloads per title – 3.95 downloads per title with an LC call number – 5.64 downloads per title for university press titles • At least one title downloaded – 59.12% of titles – 59.83% of titles with an LC call number – 67.77% of university press titles • On average (across all libraries) – 9.34 downloads per title – 9.54 downloads per title with an LC call number – 10.41 downloads per title for university press titles
  16. 16. University Press Summary • Used at a higher rate across all categories BUT • University press books may be available in more libraries
  17. 17. BROAD DISCIPLINARY DIFFERENCES
  18. 18. The Disciplines Humanities B (Philosophy, Religion) excluding BF (Psychology) C, D, E, F (History) M (Music) N (Fine Arts) P (Language & Literature) Social Sciences BF (Psychology) H (Social Sciences) J (Political Science) K (Law) L (Education) U, V (Military, Naval Sciences) STM Q (Science) R (Medicine) S (Agriculture) T (Technology)
  19. 19. Percentage of Titles Used ebrary Discipline % Titles with a Session % Titles Viewed % Titles Copied % Titles Printed % Titles Downloaded Humanities 92.05% 92.04% 52.50% 49.44% 40.87% Social Sciences 92.70% 92.69% 55.44% 50.89% 36.40% STM 90.19% 90.17% 42.90% 41.95% 27.53% Baseline (all titles with an LCCN) 91.72% 91.70% 49.82% 47.33% 34.42%
  20. 20. Percentage of Titles Used EBL Discipline % Titles with a Session % Titles Viewed % Titles Copied % Titles Printed % Titles Downloaded Humanities 88.44% 87.19% 36.28% 33.24% 58.62% Social Sciences 89.95% 89.12% 42.77% 42.69% 62.40% STM 88.30% 87.35% 33.65% 33.91% 57.68% Baseline (all titles with an LCCN) 89.00% 88.01% 37.92% 37.17% 59.83%
  21. 21. Average Usage ebrary Discipline Sessions Page Views Copies Prints Full Downloads Humanities 207.79 3122.16 36.86 235.16 3.95 Social Sciences 251.21 3766.11 54.65 283.03 4.74 STM 162.57 2570.70 24.33 211.63 3.16 Baseline (all titles with LCCN) 208.64 3174.31 39.21 244.32 3.95
  22. 22. Average Usage EBL Discipline Sessions Page Views Copies Prints Full Downloads Humanities 54.18 999.12 69.48 3.85 6.76 Social Sciences 91.96 1694.91 124.34 7.63 12.54 STM 59.90 1192.46 81.51 4.20 8.32 Baseline (all titles with LCCN) 70.99 1341.91 94.46 5.43 9.54
  23. 23. Actions Per Session ebrary Discipline Views Per Session Copies Per Session Prints Per Session Downloads Per Session Humanities 15.03 0.177 1.132 0.019 Social Sciences 14.99 0.218 1.127 0.019 STM 15.81 0.150 1.302 0.019 Baseline (all titles with an LCCN) 15.21 0.188 0.171 0.019
  24. 24. Actions Per Session EBL Discipline Views Per Session Copies Per Session Prints Per Session Downloads Per Session Humanities 18.44 1.282 0.071 0.125 Social Sciences 18.43 1.352 0.083 0.136 STM 19.91 1.361 0.070 0.139 Baseline (all titles with an LCCN) 18.90 1.331 0.076 0.134
  25. 25. Disciplinary Summary • Social sciences far outperform humanities and STM in two categories – Percentage of books used – Average amount of use • Humanities stronger than STM on ebrary • STM stronger than humanities on EBL • STM outperforms the others in actions per session
  26. 26. MEASURING PREDICTED USE
  27. 27. Difference from Predicted Use LC Class % of eBooks available % of titles with a session Difference A – General Works 0.19% 0.19% 0.00% B – Philos, Psych, Religion 7.03% 6.88% -0.16% C – Aux Sciences of History 0.40% 0.41% +0.01% D – World History, etc. 3.70% 3.73% +0.03% E – History of the Americas 1.65% 1.71% +0.06% F – History of the Americas 1.96% 1.85% -0.11% G – Geog, Anthro, Rec 2.94% 3.01% +0.07% H – Social Sciences 21.98% 22.27% +0.29% J – Political Science 3.40% 3.50% +0.10% K – Law 3.33% 3.29% -0.04%
  28. 28. Difference from Predicted Use LC Class % of eBooks available % of titles with a session Difference L - Education 4.61% 4.80% +0.19% M - Music 0.81% 0.85% +0.04% N – Fine Arts 1.06% 1.10% +0.04% P – Language & Literature 10.87% 11.00% +0.13% Q - Science 13.09% 12.51% -0.58% R - Medicine 10.83% 10.73% -0.10% S - Agriculture 2.01% 2.08% +0.07% T - Technology 8.65% 8.69% +0.04% U – Military Science 0.69% 0.58% -0.11% V – Naval Science 0.12% 0.12% 0.00% Z – Bibliography and LIS 0.67% 0.69% -0.02%
  29. 29. % of titles used (breadth)
  30. 30. % of titles used (breadth)
  31. 31. % of overall usage (depth)
  32. 32. % of overall usage (depth)
  33. 33. Performance Compared to Expected Use Better than expected (top five) Worse than expected (bottom five) • • • • • • • • • • H (Social Sciences) L (Education) E (History of the Americas) D (World History) G (Geography, Anthropology, Recreation) Q (Science) P (Language & Literature) F (History of the Americas) T (Technology) U (Military Science)
  34. 34. INTENSIVE / EXTENSIVE USE
  35. 35. ebrary Sessions – Avg and % Narrow (low %) but Deep (more usage of each title) Narrow (low %) and Shallow (low usage of each title) Broad (high %) and Deep (more usage of each title) Broad (high % and Shallow (low usage of each title)
  36. 36. EBL Sessions – Avg and % Narrow (low %) but Deep (more usage of each title) Narrow (low %) and Shallow (low usage of each title) Broad (high %) and Deep (more usage of each title) Broad (high % and Shallow (low usage of each title)
  37. 37. ebrary Page Views – Avg and % Narrow (low %) but Deep (more usage of each title) Narrow (low %) and Shallow (low usage of each title) Broad (high %) and Deep (more usage of each title) Broad (high % and Shallow (low usage of each title)
  38. 38. EBL Page Views – Avg and % Narrow (low %) but Deep (more usage of each title) Narrow (low %) and Shallow (low usage of each title) Broad (high %) and Deep (more usage of each title) Broad (high % and Shallow (low usage of each title)
  39. 39. ebrary Copied – Avg and % Narrow (low %) but Deep (more usage of each title) Narrow (low %) and Shallow (low usage of each title) Broad (high %) and Deep (more usage of each title) Broad (high % and Shallow (low usage of each title)
  40. 40. EBL Copied – Avg and % Narrow (low %) but Deep (more usage of each title) Narrow (low %) and Shallow (low usage of each title) Broad (high %) and Deep (more usage of each title) Broad (high % and Shallow (low usage of each title)
  41. 41. ebrary Printed– Avg and % Narrow (low %) but Deep (more usage of each title) Narrow (low %) and Shallow (low usage of each title) Broad (high %) and Deep (more usage of each title) Broad (high % and Shallow (low usage of each title)
  42. 42. EBL Printed– Avg and % Narrow (low %) but Deep (more usage of each title) Narrow (low %) and Shallow (low usage of each title) Broad (high %) and Deep (more usage of each title) Broad (high % and Shallow (low usage of each title)
  43. 43. ebrary Downloaded – Avg and % Narrow (low %) but Deep (more usage of each title) Narrow (low %) and Shallow (low usage of each title) Broad (high %) and Deep (more usage of each title) Broad (high % and Shallow (low usage of each title)
  44. 44. EBL Downloaded – Avg and % Narrow (low %) but Deep (more usage of each title) Narrow (low %) and Shallow (low usage of each title) Broad (high %) and Deep (more usage of each title) Broad (high % and Shallow (low usage of each title)
  45. 45. Summary of Performance Trends • Broad and Deep – G (Geog and Anthro), H (Social Sciences), L (Education), N (Fine Arts) • Broad – D (World History), J (Political Science), M (Music) • Narrow – R (Medicine) • Shallow – P (Lang & Lit), S (Agriculture), T (Technology), Z (Bibliography & LIS) • Narrow and Shallow – F (History of the Americas), Q (Science), U (Military), V (Naval)
  46. 46. TYPES OF USE PER SESSION
  47. 47. Page Views Per Session - ebrary 18.00 17.00 16.00 15.21 15.00 14.00 13.00 12.00 11.00 10.00 T F E Q R C G H D N J M P B K L U A S V Z
  48. 48. Page Views Per Session - EBL 24.00 22.00 20.00 18.90 18.00 16.00 14.00 12.00 10.00 F N T R M A E Q G C H D S B K P V J L Z U
  49. 49. Copies per Session - ebrary 0.350 0.300 0.250 0.200 0.188 0.150 0.100 0.050 0.000 K J H C G L E F B D R P U S M T N Z V A Q
  50. 50. Copies Per Session - EBL 2.500 2.000 1.500 1.331 1.000 0.500 0.000 A K U C J B Q T V L R P N H S Z D F E G M
  51. 51. Prints Per Session - ebrary 1.800 1.600 1.400 1.200 0.171 1.000 0.800 0.600 Q K J C T B Z U D P R F H L S E A V M G N
  52. 52. Prints Per Session - EBL 0.100 0.090 0.080 0.076 0.070 0.060 0.050 0.040 0.030 L K A V R H B J U G Z P C N S D F E T M Q
  53. 53. Downloads Per Session - ebrary 0.030 0.028 0.026 0.024 0.022 0.020 0.019 0.018 0.016 0.014 0.012 0.010 V U T B Q C S L Z D H P M K N E J R F G A
  54. 54. Downloads Per Session - EBL 0.200 0.180 0.160 0.140 0.134 0.120 0.100 0.080 0.060 0.040 V Z U S T Q L N K H J C G B D P R A M F E
  55. 55. Use Per Session Summary • Very slight differences in some categories • Some subjects do have greater activity during each session than others • Some big fluctuations – Some subjects may not have enough titles to measure copies, prints, downloads meaningfully. • Five best subjects across all four categories of usage: – B (Philos, Psych, Rel), C (Aux Sciences of History), K (Law), T (Technology), U (Military Science) • Five worst subjects: – G (Geog, Anthro, Rec), M (Music), P (Lang & Lit), S (Agriculture), Z (Bibliography)
  56. 56. CAN WE DETERMINE LEVEL OF IMMERSION IN A BOOK?
  57. 57. If more pages are viewed per session in a subject area, does that mean that users spend more time in those books?
  58. 58. Page Views Per Session - ebrary 18.00 17.00 16.00 15.21 15.00 14.00 13.00 12.00 11.00 10.00 T F E Q R C G H D N J M P B K L U A S V Z
  59. 59. Page Views Per Session - EBL 24.00 22.00 20.00 18.90 18.00 16.00 14.00 12.00 10.00 F N T R M A E Q G C H D S B K P V J L Z U
  60. 60. Average Rank Across Both Aggregators: Page Views Per Session 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. F – History, Americas T – Technology R – Medicine E – History, Americas N – Fine Arts Q – Science C – Aux Sciences of History G– Geography, Anthropology, Re creation 9. M – Music 10. H – Social Sciences 11. D – History, World, etc. 12. A – General Works 13. B – Philos, Psych, Religion 14. J – Political Science 15. P – Language & Literature 16. K – Law 17. S – Agriculture 18. L – Education 19. V – Naval Science 20. U – Military Science 21. Z – Bibliography and LIS
  61. 61. CONCLUSIONS
  62. 62. There are many ways to measure use • Difference from predicted use • Depth vs breadth – Books used a lot vs a lot of books used • Type of use (view, print, copy, download) • Amount of use per session – Does this measure amount of time spent?
  63. 63. Quality matters • University press books used at a higher rate by all measures • Users appear to be making some judgment about quality
  64. 64. There are clear (but nuanced) differences by subject • Two examples – F (History, Americas) • • • • Low usage as % of available F titles Low average usage rate Very poor performance relative to availability of F titles Highest # of page views by session – L (Education) • • • • High usage as % of available L titles High average usage rate Very strong performance relative to availability of L titles Very low # of page views by session
  65. 65. How do we use these observations to build better collections and better serve our users?
  66. 66. For More Information… • A white paper will be available on the ebrary and EBL websites in March • This presentation is available on SlideShare: http://www.slideshare.net/MichaelLevineClark
  67. 67. Thank You Michael Levine-Clark Associate Dean for Scholarly Communication and Collections Services University of Denver Libraries michael.levine-clark@du.edu

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