10,000 Libraries, 4 Years: A Large-
Scale Study of eBook Usage and
How You Can Use the Data to
Move Forward
NASIG Annual C...
10,000 Libraries, 4 Years: A Large-
Scale Study of eBook Usage and
How You Can Use the Data to
Move Forward
NASIG Annual C...
Previous Presentations
• Different data set
– All books available across a four-year period
(ebrary) or three-year period ...
Data Overview
All e-books from ebrary and EBL
• Usage for 2013
• Worldwide
• Three library types
– Academic
– Public
– Spe...
Important Caveat
• ebrary includes 2013 usage data for titles
available in 2013
• EBL includes 2013 usage data for all tit...
Usage Definitions
• Session
– Any time that a user interacts with an e-book
• Page View
– A count of the number of pages e...
Some aspects of usage aren’t comparable
• ebrary has far more libraries than EBL
– Averages and totals only useful when co...
What can we learn by examining usage
on such a large scale?
• Are we collecting the right things?
• Does quality matter?
•...
The Complete Data Set
400,000
410,000
420,000
430,000
440,000
450,000
460,000
Academic Public Special
0
50,000
100,000
150...
Academic Library eBooks
• 280,008 titles
– Available on average in 724
libraries
• 278,428 titles with LCCN
– Available on...
Academic Library eBook Usage
278,428 titles with LCCN
On average in 2013, each title:
– Was held by 726.6 libraries
– Had ...
Academic Library eBook Usage
278,428 titles with LCCN
On average in 2013, at each
library, each title:
– Had 0.58 sessions...
Average Number of Libraries with
Title Available by Discipline
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
Arts &
Humanities
Soc...
Title Availability: Ebrary
0.0
200.0
400.0
600.0
800.0
1000.0
1200.0
E F U D M Z V B C P H J N A Q K G S R T L
Average num...
Title Availability: EBL
0.0
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
70.0
80.0
L H J G N Z E M Q D T R K C B S F V U A P
Average numb...
ARE THESE THE RIGHT BOOKS?
Sessions Compared to Availability
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
ebrary
Availability
Sessions
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
7...
Sessions Compared to Availability: Ebrary
0.0
200.0
400.0
600.0
800.0
1000.0
1200.0
1400.0
1600.0
E F U D M Z V B C P H J ...
Sessions Compared to Availability: EBL
0.0
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
70.0
80.0
L H J G N Z E M Q D T R K C B S F V U A...
DO HIGHER-QUALITY E-BOOKS GET
USED MORE?
University Press Books
• A proxy for quality
• ebrary – 41,177 titles
• EBL – 39,021 titles
Do better books get used at a ...
University Press Title Availability by Discipline
19075
13260
7533
Arts & Humanities
Social Sciences
STEM
16065
11649
8183...
Overall Usage: titles with at least one session
97.3% 99.5%
0.0%
20.0%
40.0%
60.0%
80.0%
100.0%
120.0%
All Titles with
LCC...
Overall Usage:
average sessions per title per institution
0.584
0.615
0.000
0.100
0.200
0.300
0.400
0.500
0.600
0.700
All ...
Overall Usage: average page views per title
9.12
9.51
0.00
1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
All Titles w...
Overall Usage: titles viewed at least once
99.3% 99.3%
0.0%
20.0%
40.0%
60.0%
80.0%
100.0%
120.0%
All Titles with
LCCN
Uni...
Overall Usage: time per title (in seconds)
75.10
83.73
0.00
10.00
20.00
30.00
40.00
50.00
60.00
70.00
80.00
90.00
100.00
A...
University Press Summary
• Used at a higher rate across all categories.
• Does this mean that users are seeking out
qualit...
BROAD DISCIPLINARY DIFFERENCES
The Disciplines
Humanities
B (Philosophy, Religion)
excluding BF (Psychology)
C, D, E, F (History)
M (Music)
N (Fine Arts)...
Percentage of Titles Used
ebrary
Discipline % Titles with a
Session
% Titles Viewed % Titles
Downloaded
Humanities 96.62% ...
Percentage of Titles Used
EBL
Discipline % Titles with a
Session
% Titles Viewed % Titles
Downloaded
Humanities 62.76% 61....
Average Usage
ebrary
Discipline Sessions Page Views Full Downloads Time (Seconds)
Humanities 0.48 7.32 0.0156 63.41
Social...
Average Usage
EBL
Discipline Sessions Page Views Full Downloads Time (Seconds)
Humanities 0.29 5.90 0.0338 3.05
Social Sci...
Actions Per Session
ebrary
Discipline Views Per
Session
Downloads Per
Session
Time Per
Session
Humanities 15.12 0.032 130....
Actions Per Session
EBL
Discipline Views Per
Session
Downloads Per
Session
Time Per
Session
Humanities 20.53 0.118 10.62
S...
Disciplinary Summary
• Social sciences far outperform humanities and
STEM in two categories
– Percentage of books used
– A...
MEASURING PREDICTED USE
Performance Relative to Predicted Use
0.00%
5.00%
10.00%
15.00%
20.00%
25.00%
H B J R D L K M E G Q N C A S V Z U F T P
% ...
Performance Relative to Predicted Use
0.00%
5.00%
10.00%
15.00%
20.00%
25.00%
30.00%
H R L N D M E A B G C Z V J U F S K P...
Performance Relative to Predicted Use
0.00%
5.00%
10.00%
15.00%
20.00%
25.00%
H L T J R N E M S D V A C G Z U B F K Q P
% ...
Performance Relative to Predicted Use
0.00%
5.00%
10.00%
15.00%
20.00%
25.00%
30.00%
H L R G J N A C V Z M U S E F K D B T...
INTENSIVE / EXTENSIVE USE
Breadth vs Depth
PERCENTAGE OF TITLES USED
AVERAGEAMOUNTOFUSE
ebrary Sessions – Avg and %
Broad (high %) and
Deep (more usage of
each title)
Narrow (low %) and
Shallow (low usage of
ea...
EBL Sessions – Avg and %
Narrow (low %) but
Deep (more usage of
each title)
Broad (high %) and
Deep (more usage of
each ti...
ebrary Page Views – Avg and %
Narrow (low %) but
Deep (more usage of
each title)
Broad (high %) and
Deep (more usage of
ea...
EBL Page Views – Avg and %
Narrow (low %) but
Deep (more usage of
each title)
Broad (high %) and
Deep (more usage of
each ...
ebrary Downloaded – Avg and %
Narrow (low %) but
Deep (more usage of
each title)
Broad (high %) and
Deep (more usage of
ea...
EBL Downloaded – Avg and %
Narrow (low %) but
Deep (more usage of
each title)
Broad (high %) and
Deep (more usage of
each ...
CAN WE DETERMINE LEVEL OF
IMMERSION IN A BOOK?
Page Views Per Session
0.00
2.00
4.00
6.00
8.00
10.00
12.00
14.00
16.00
18.00
20.00
T Q F N R D H G C E M L Z P J B S K U ...
Seconds Per Session (Time in the Book)
0.00
20.00
40.00
60.00
80.00
100.00
120.00
140.00
160.00
E D F U H J M R G P K L C ...
Page Views Per Session
0.00
5.00
10.00
15.00
20.00
25.00
30.00
F N T M V E Q R K G D A C H P S J B Z U L
20.74
Seconds Per Session (Time in the Book)
0.00
2.00
4.00
6.00
8.00
10.00
12.00
14.00
16.00
F E D K J M C G V A U Q H R P T B ...
Summary: Level of Immersion
• Users spend the most time (in seconds) in
history books (D, E, F)
• Users examine a lot of p...
CONCLUSIONS
There are many ways to measure use
• Difference from predicted use
• Depth vs breadth
– Books used a lot vs a lot of books...
Quality Matters
• University press books used at a higher rate by
all measures
• Users appear to be making some judgment
a...
There are clear (but nuanced) differences
by subject
• Two examples
– F (History, Americas)
• Low usage as % of available ...
How do we use these observations
to build better collections and
better serve our users?
White Paper…
…coming soon
• Merged data (EBL and ebrary)
• EBL – titles available in 2013
• Analysis by library type
• Wil...
Thank You
Michael Levine-Clark
Associate Dean for Scholarly Communication and
Collections Services
University of Denver Li...
Levine-Clark, Michael, and Kari Paulson, “10,000 Libraries, 4 Years: A Large-Scale Study of EBook Usage and How You Can Us...
Levine-Clark, Michael, and Kari Paulson, “10,000 Libraries, 4 Years: A Large-Scale Study of EBook Usage and How You Can Us...
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Levine-Clark, Michael, and Kari Paulson, “10,000 Libraries, 4 Years: A Large-Scale Study of EBook Usage and How You Can Use the Data to Move Forward,” NASIG 29th Annual Conference, Fort Worth, May 3, 2014.Ebook presentatoin nasig 2014 revised

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Levine-Clark, Michael, and Kari Paulson, “10,000 Libraries, 4 Years: A Large-Scale Study of EBook Usage and How You Can Use the Data to Move Forward,” NASIG 29th Annual Conference, Fort Worth, May 3, 2014.

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Levine-Clark, Michael, and Kari Paulson, “10,000 Libraries, 4 Years: A Large-Scale Study of EBook Usage and How You Can Use the Data to Move Forward,” NASIG 29th Annual Conference, Fort Worth, May 3, 2014.Ebook presentatoin nasig 2014 revised

  1. 1. 10,000 Libraries, 4 Years: A Large- Scale Study of eBook Usage and How You Can Use the Data to Move Forward NASIG Annual Conference Fort Worth May 3, 2014 Michael Levine-Clark University of Denver
  2. 2. 10,000 Libraries, 4 Years: A Large- Scale Study of eBook Usage and How You Can Use the Data to Move Forward NASIG Annual Conference Fort Worth May 3, 2014 Michael Levine-Clark University of Denver
  3. 3. Previous Presentations • Different data set – All books available across a four-year period (ebrary) or three-year period (EBL) ending in 2013 – No information about time spent in book – No information about number/type of institutions with access to a particular title • Tested the methodology http://www.slideshare.net/MichaelLevineClark/ presentations
  4. 4. Data Overview All e-books from ebrary and EBL • Usage for 2013 • Worldwide • Three library types – Academic – Public – Special
  5. 5. Important Caveat • ebrary includes 2013 usage data for titles available in 2013 • EBL includes 2013 usage data for all titles whether or not available in 2013 – Titles no longer available – Titles made available in early 2014 – Will be updated before the white paper
  6. 6. Usage Definitions • Session – Any time that a user interacts with an e-book • Page View – A count of the number of pages examined • Download – A download of the entire book • Usage Time – Measured in seconds, the amount of time spent looking at the book
  7. 7. Some aspects of usage aren’t comparable • ebrary has far more libraries than EBL – Averages and totals only useful when comparing within one aggregator • EBL includes titles not available during the usage period • There may be some platform differences that drive usage in different ways: – More downloads per session on EBL = fewer pages viewed – EBL has a landing page and ebrary doesn’t.
  8. 8. What can we learn by examining usage on such a large scale? • Are we collecting the right things? • Does quality matter? • Are there general patterns by subject? • Can we identify disciplinary preferences? • What are the best ways to measure use? • Can those patterns and preferences help shape our collections and guide our services?
  9. 9. The Complete Data Set 400,000 410,000 420,000 430,000 440,000 450,000 460,000 Academic Public Special 0 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 300,000 Academic Public Special
  10. 10. Academic Library eBooks • 280,008 titles – Available on average in 724 libraries • 278,428 titles with LCCN – Available on average in 727 libraries • 456,298 titles – Available on average in 50 libraries • 406,311 titles with LCCN – Available on average in 60 libraries
  11. 11. Academic Library eBook Usage 278,428 titles with LCCN On average in 2013, each title: – Was held by 726.6 libraries – Had 424.9 sessions – Had 6,623.1 page views – Had 14.7 downloads – Was viewed for 54,556.8 seconds (15.2 hours) 406,311 titles with LCCN On average in 2013, each title: – Was held by 60.3 libraries – Had 22.5 sessions – Had 466.6 page views – Had 2.9 downloads – Was viewed for 229.1 seconds (3.8 minutes) Averages are per title across all libraries.
  12. 12. Academic Library eBook Usage 278,428 titles with LCCN On average in 2013, at each library, each title: – Had 0.58 sessions – Had 9.12 page views – Had 0.02 downloads – Was viewed for 75.09 seconds 406,311 titles with LCCN On average in 2013, at each library, each title: – Had 0.37 sessions – Had 7.74 page views – Had 0.05 downloads – Was viewed for 3.80 seconds
  13. 13. Average Number of Libraries with Title Available by Discipline 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Arts & Humanities Social Sciences STEM ebrary 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Arts & Humanities Social Sciences STEM EBL
  14. 14. Title Availability: Ebrary 0.0 200.0 400.0 600.0 800.0 1000.0 1200.0 E F U D M Z V B C P H J N A Q K G S R T L Average number of academic libraries with title available
  15. 15. Title Availability: EBL 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 L H J G N Z E M Q D T R K C B S F V U A P Average number of academic libraries with title available
  16. 16. ARE THESE THE RIGHT BOOKS?
  17. 17. Sessions Compared to Availability 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 ebrary Availability Sessions 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 EBL Availability Sessions On this and the next two slides, sessions are multiplied to fit scale (ebrary X 1000, EBL X 100)
  18. 18. Sessions Compared to Availability: Ebrary 0.0 200.0 400.0 600.0 800.0 1000.0 1200.0 1400.0 1600.0 E F U D M Z V B C P H J N A Q K G S R T L Availability Sessions Sorted by average availability (number of libraries with access)
  19. 19. Sessions Compared to Availability: EBL 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 L H J G N Z E M Q D T R K C B S F V U A P Availability Sessions Sorted by average availability (number of libraries with access)
  20. 20. DO HIGHER-QUALITY E-BOOKS GET USED MORE?
  21. 21. University Press Books • A proxy for quality • ebrary – 41,177 titles • EBL – 39,021 titles Do better books get used at a higher rate?
  22. 22. University Press Title Availability by Discipline 19075 13260 7533 Arts & Humanities Social Sciences STEM 16065 11649 8183 Arts & Humanities Social Sciences STEM
  23. 23. Overall Usage: titles with at least one session 97.3% 99.5% 0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0% 100.0% 120.0% All Titles with LCCN University Press ebrary 66.8% 74.8% 0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0% 100.0% 120.0% All Titles with LCCN University Press Titles EBL
  24. 24. Overall Usage: average sessions per title per institution 0.584 0.615 0.000 0.100 0.200 0.300 0.400 0.500 0.600 0.700 All Titles with LCCN University Press Titles ebrary 0.373 0.387 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 All Titles with LCCN University Press Titles EBL
  25. 25. Overall Usage: average page views per title 9.12 9.51 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00 All Titles with LCCN University Press Titles ebrary 7.74 8.33 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 All Titles with LCCN University Press Titles EBL
  26. 26. Overall Usage: titles viewed at least once 99.3% 99.3% 0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0% 100.0% 120.0% All Titles with LCCN University Press Titles ebrary 65.6% 73.7% 0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0% 100.0% 120.0% All Titles with LCCN University Press Titles EBL
  27. 27. Overall Usage: time per title (in seconds) 75.10 83.73 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 70.00 80.00 90.00 100.00 All Titles with LCCN University Press Titles ebrary 3.80 4.35 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 4.50 5.00 All Titles with LCCN University Press Titles EBL
  28. 28. University Press Summary • Used at a higher rate across all categories. • Does this mean that users are seeking out quality books?
  29. 29. BROAD DISCIPLINARY DIFFERENCES
  30. 30. The Disciplines Humanities B (Philosophy, Religion) excluding BF (Psychology) C, D, E, F (History) M (Music) N (Fine Arts) P (Language & Literature) Social Sciences BF (Psychology) H (Social Sciences) J (Political Science) K (Law) L (Education) U, V (Military, Naval Sciences) STEM Q (Science) R (Medicine) S (Agriculture) T (Technology)
  31. 31. Percentage of Titles Used ebrary Discipline % Titles with a Session % Titles Viewed % Titles Downloaded Humanities 96.62% 96.35% 34.64% Social Sciences 98.61% 98.40% 32.06% STEM 96.38% 96.06% 30.45% Baseline (all titles with an LCCN) 97.27% 97.01% 32.24%
  32. 32. Percentage of Titles Used EBL Discipline % Titles with a Session % Titles Viewed % Titles Downloaded Humanities 62.76% 61.63% 34.61% Social Sciences 69.97% 69.09% 43.22% STEM 67.27% 65.79% 40.19% Baseline (all titles with an LCCN) 66.76% 65.59% 39.58%
  33. 33. Average Usage ebrary Discipline Sessions Page Views Full Downloads Time (Seconds) Humanities 0.48 7.32 0.0156 63.41 Social Sciences 0.68 10.45 0.0234 87.88 STEM 0.59 9.61 0.0225 72.99 Baseline (all titles with LCCN) 0.58 9.12 0.0203 75.09
  34. 34. Average Usage EBL Discipline Sessions Page Views Full Downloads Time (Seconds) Humanities 0.29 5.90 0.0338 3.05 Social Sciences 0.44 8.95 0.0561 4.46 STEM 0.36 7.77 0.4858 3.58 Baseline (all titles with LCCN) 0.37 7.74 0.4746 3.80
  35. 35. Actions Per Session ebrary Discipline Views Per Session Downloads Per Session Time Per Session Humanities 15.12 0.032 130.61 Social Sciences 15.42 0.035 129.42 STEM 16.40 0.384 124.06 Baseline (all titles with an LCCN) 15.59 0.035 128.05
  36. 36. Actions Per Session EBL Discipline Views Per Session Downloads Per Session Time Per Session Humanities 20.53 0.118 10.62 Social Sciences 20.15 0.126 10.05 STEM 21.81 0.136 10.06 Baseline (all titles with an LCCN) 20.74 0.127 10.18
  37. 37. Disciplinary Summary • Social sciences far outperform humanities and STEM in two categories – Percentage of books used – Average amount of use • STEM outperforms the others in actions per session • Readers in the humanities spend more time in the book per session
  38. 38. MEASURING PREDICTED USE
  39. 39. Performance Relative to Predicted Use 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% H B J R D L K M E G Q N C A S V Z U F T P % of available % of titles with a session
  40. 40. Performance Relative to Predicted Use 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% 30.00% H R L N D M E A B G C Z V J U F S K P T Q % of Titles Available % of Sessions
  41. 41. Performance Relative to Predicted Use 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% H L T J R N E M S D V A C G Z U B F K Q P % of Titles Available % of Titles with a Session
  42. 42. Performance Relative to Predicted Use 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% 30.00% H L R G J N A C V Z M U S E F K D B T P Q % of Titles Available % of Sessions
  43. 43. INTENSIVE / EXTENSIVE USE
  44. 44. Breadth vs Depth PERCENTAGE OF TITLES USED AVERAGEAMOUNTOFUSE
  45. 45. ebrary Sessions – Avg and % Broad (high %) and Deep (more usage of each title) Narrow (low %) and Shallow (low usage of each title) Broad (high % and Shallow (low usage of each title) Narrow (low %) but Deep (more usage of each title)
  46. 46. EBL Sessions – Avg and % Narrow (low %) but Deep (more usage of each title) Broad (high %) and Deep (more usage of each title) Narrow (low %) and Shallow (low usage of each title) Broad (high % and Shallow (low usage of each title)
  47. 47. ebrary Page Views – Avg and % Narrow (low %) but Deep (more usage of each title) Broad (high %) and Deep (more usage of each title) Narrow (low %) and Shallow (low usage of each title) Broad (high % and Shallow (low usage of each title)
  48. 48. EBL Page Views – Avg and % Narrow (low %) but Deep (more usage of each title) Broad (high %) and Deep (more usage of each title) Narrow (low %) and Shallow (low usage of each title) Broad (high % and Shallow (low usage of each title)
  49. 49. ebrary Downloaded – Avg and % Narrow (low %) but Deep (more usage of each title) Broad (high %) and Deep (more usage of each title) Narrow (low %) and Shallow (low usage of each title) Broad (high % and Shallow (low usage of each title)
  50. 50. EBL Downloaded – Avg and % Narrow (low %) but Deep (more usage of each title) Broad (high %) and Deep (more usage of each title) Narrow (low %) and Shallow (low usage of each title) Broad (high % and Shallow (low usage of each title)
  51. 51. CAN WE DETERMINE LEVEL OF IMMERSION IN A BOOK?
  52. 52. Page Views Per Session 0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 14.00 16.00 18.00 20.00 T Q F N R D H G C E M L Z P J B S K U A V 15.86
  53. 53. Seconds Per Session (Time in the Book) 0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00 120.00 140.00 160.00 E D F U H J M R G P K L C Q T N B S Z V A 128.05
  54. 54. Page Views Per Session 0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 30.00 F N T M V E Q R K G D A C H P S J B Z U L 20.74
  55. 55. Seconds Per Session (Time in the Book) 0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 14.00 16.00 F E D K J M C G V A U Q H R P T B N L S Z 10.18
  56. 56. Summary: Level of Immersion • Users spend the most time (in seconds) in history books (D, E, F) • Users examine a lot of pages in technology books (T) but spend a relatively small amount of time
  57. 57. CONCLUSIONS
  58. 58. There are many ways to measure use • Difference from predicted use • Depth vs breadth – Books used a lot vs a lot of books used • Type of use (session, view, download) • Amount of use per session
  59. 59. Quality Matters • University press books used at a higher rate by all measures • Users appear to be making some judgment about quality
  60. 60. There are clear (but nuanced) differences by subject • Two examples – F (History, Americas) • Low usage as % of available F titles • Low average usage rate • Very poor performance relative to availability of F titles • High # of page views by session • Lots of time in the book – L (Education) • High usage as % of available L titles • High average usage rate • Very strong performance relative to availability of L titles • Relatively low # of page views by session/time in book
  61. 61. How do we use these observations to build better collections and better serve our users?
  62. 62. White Paper… …coming soon • Merged data (EBL and ebrary) • EBL – titles available in 2013 • Analysis by library type • Will be on the EBL and ebrary web sites Plus future publications and presentations
  63. 63. Thank You Michael Levine-Clark Associate Dean for Scholarly Communication and Collections Services University of Denver Libraries michael.levine-clark@du.edu http://www.slideshare.net/MichaelLevineClark

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