Levine-Clark, Michael, “Diving into E-Book Usage: ALA Update

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Levine-Clark, Michael, “Diving into E-Book Usage: ALA Update,” Invited, ProQuest Day: Transforming Libraries, Transforming Research. Las Vegas, June 27, 2014.

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  • Ebrary titles viewed. X axis is percentage of titles used at least once. Y axis is average level of use of those titles.
  • Ebrary titles viewed. X axis is percentage of titles used at least once. Y axis is average level of use of those titles.
  • Ebrary titles viewed. X axis is percentage of titles used at least once. Y axis is average level of use of those titles.
  • Ebrary titles viewed. X axis is percentage of titles used at least once. Y axis is average level of use of those titles.
  • Ebrary titles viewed. X axis is percentage of titles used at least once. Y axis is average level of use of those titles.
  • Ebrary titles viewed. X axis is percentage of titles used at least once. Y axis is average level of use of those titles.
  • 5 subject areas always in the same quadrant
  • Levine-Clark, Michael, “Diving into E-Book Usage: ALA Update

    1. 1. Diving Into E-Book Usage: ALA Update Las Vegas June 27, 2014 Michael Levine-Clark Associate Dean for Scholarly Communication & Collections Services University of Denver
    2. 2. Previous Presentations • Different data set – All books available across a four-year period (ebrary) or three-year period (EBL) ending in 2013 – No information about time spent in book – No information about number/type of institutions with access to a particular title • Tested the methodology http://www.slideshare.net/MichaelLevineClark/ presentations
    3. 3. Data Overview All e-books from ebrary and EBL • Usage for 2013 • Worldwide • Three library types – Academic – Public – Special
    4. 4. Usage Definitions • Session – Any time that a user interacts with an e-book • Page View – A count of the number of pages examined • Download – A download of the entire book • Usage Time – Measured in seconds, the amount of time spent looking at the book
    5. 5. Some aspects of usage aren’t comparable • ebrary has far more libraries than EBL – Averages and totals only useful when comparing within one aggregator • There may be some platform differences that drive usage in different ways: – More downloads per session on EBL = fewer pages viewed – EBL has a landing page and ebrary doesn’t.
    6. 6. What can we learn by examining usage on such a large scale? • Are we collecting the right things? • Does quality matter? • Are there general patterns by subject? • Can we identify disciplinary preferences? • What are the best ways to measure use? • Can those patterns and preferences help shape our collections and guide our services?
    7. 7. The Complete Data Set 0 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 300,000 350,000 400,000 Academic Public Special 0 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 300,000 Academic Public Special
    8. 8. Academic Library eBooks • 280,008 titles – Available on average in 724 libraries • 278,428 titles with LCCN – Available on average in 727 libraries • 379,111 titles – Available on average in 72 libraries • 345,891 titles with LCCN – Available on average in 73 libraries
    9. 9. Number of Titles Available: ebrary 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 H P Q R B T D L J G K E N M S F Z U NOLCCN C V A
    10. 10. Number of Titles Available: EBL 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 80000 H Q P NOLCCN R T B D L K G J E S N M F U Z C V A
    11. 11. Academic Library eBook Usage 278,428 titles with LCCN On average in 2013, each title: – Was held by 726.6 libraries – Had 424.9 sessions – Had 6,623.1 page views – Had 14.7 downloads – Was viewed for 54,556.8 seconds (15.2 hours) 345,891 titles with LCCN On average in 2013, each title: – Was held by 73.3 libraries – Had 27.8 sessions – Had 571.7 page views – Had 3.5 downloads – Was viewed for 278.5 seconds (4.6 minutes) Averages are per title across all libraries.
    12. 12. Academic Library eBook Usage 278,428 titles with LCCN On average in 2013, at each library, each title: – Had 0.58 sessions – Had 9.12 page views – Had 0.02 downloads – Was viewed for 75.09 seconds 345,891 titles with LCCN On average in 2013, at each library, each title: – Had 0.38 sessions – Had 7.79 page views – Had 0.05 downloads – Was viewed for 3.80 seconds
    13. 13. Average Number of Libraries with Title Available by Discipline 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Arts & Humanities Social Sciences STEM ebrary 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Arts & Humanities Social Sciences STEM EBL
    14. 14. Title Availability: Ebrary 0.0 200.0 400.0 600.0 800.0 1000.0 1200.0 E F U D M Z V B C P H J N A Q K G S R T L Average number of academic libraries with title available
    15. 15. Title Availability: EBL 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 H L J G E M Q D Z T B N F C R K P A V S U Average number of academic libraries with title available
    16. 16. ARE THESE THE RIGHT BOOKS?
    17. 17. Sessions Compared to Availability 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 ebrary Availability Sessions 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 EBL Availability Sessions On this and the next two slides, sessions are multiplied to fit scale (ebrary X 1000, EBL X 100)
    18. 18. Sessions Compared to Availability: Ebrary 0.0 200.0 400.0 600.0 800.0 1000.0 1200.0 1400.0 1600.0 E F U D M Z V B C P H J N A Q K G S R T L Availability Sessions Sorted by average availability (number of libraries with access)
    19. 19. Sessions Compared to Availability: EBL 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 H L J G E M Q D Z T B N F C R K P A V S U Availability Sessions Sorted by average availability (number of libraries with access)
    20. 20. DO HIGHER-QUALITY E-BOOKS GET USED MORE?
    21. 21. University Press Books • A proxy for quality • ebrary – 41,177 titles • EBL – 34,525 titles Do better books get used at a higher rate?
    22. 22. University Press Title Availability by Discipline 19075 13260 7533 Arts & Humanities Social Sciences STEM 14233 10390 7325 Arts & Humanities Social Sciences STEM
    23. 23. Overall Usage: titles with at least one session 97.3% 99.5% 0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0% 100.0% 120.0% All Titles with LCCN University Press ebrary 73.5% 80.1% 0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0% 100.0% 120.0% All Titles with LCCN University Press Titles EBL
    24. 24. Overall Usage: average sessions per title per institution 0.584 0.615 0.000 0.100 0.200 0.300 0.400 0.500 0.600 0.700 All Titles with LCCN University Press Titles ebrary 0.379 0.357 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 All Titles with LCCN University Press Titles EBL
    25. 25. Overall Usage: average page views per title 9.12 9.51 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00 All Titles with LCCN University Press Titles ebrary 7.79 7.58 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 All Titles with LCCN University Press Titles EBL
    26. 26. Overall Usage: titles viewed at least once 99.3% 99.3% 0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0% 100.0% 120.0% All Titles with LCCN University Press Titles ebrary 72.3% 79.1% 0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0% 100.0% 120.0% All Titles with LCCN University Press Titles EBL
    27. 27. Overall Usage: time per title (in seconds) 75.10 83.73 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 70.00 80.00 90.00 100.00 All Titles with LCCN University Press Titles ebrary 3.80 3.87 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 4.50 5.00 All Titles with LCCN University Press Titles EBL
    28. 28. University Press Summary • Used at a higher rate across most categories. • Does this mean that users are seeking out quality books?
    29. 29. BROAD DISCIPLINARY DIFFERENCES
    30. 30. The Disciplines Humanities B (Philosophy, Religion) excluding BF (Psychology) C, D, E, F (History) M (Music) N (Fine Arts) P (Language & Literature) Social Sciences BF (Psychology) H (Social Sciences) J (Political Science) K (Law) L (Education) U, V (Military, Naval Sciences) STEM Q (Science) R (Medicine) S (Agriculture) T (Technology)
    31. 31. Percentage of Titles Used ebrary Discipline % Titles with a Session % Titles Viewed % Titles Downloaded Humanities 96.62% 96.35% 34.64% Social Sciences 98.61% 98.40% 32.06% STEM 96.38% 96.06% 30.45% Baseline (all titles with an LCCN) 97.27% 97.01% 32.24%
    32. 32. Percentage of Titles Used EBL Discipline % Titles with a Session % Titles Viewed % Titles Downloaded Humanities 70.78% 69.64% 38.94% Social Sciences 76.59% 75.71% 47.25% STEM 72.83% 71.31% 43.58% Baseline (all titles with an LCCN) 73.53% 72.34% 43.58%
    33. 33. Average Usage ebrary Discipline Sessions Page Views Full Downloads Time (Seconds) Humanities 0.48 7.32 0.0156 63.41 Social Sciences 0.68 10.45 0.0234 87.88 STEM 0.59 9.61 0.0225 72.99 Baseline (all titles with LCCN) 0.58 9.12 0.0203 75.09
    34. 34. Average Usage EBL Discipline Sessions Page Views Full Downloads Time (Seconds) Humanities 0.30 6.16 0.0351 3.17 Social Sciences 0.45 8.90 0.0561 4.40 STEM 0.36 7.69 0.4858 3.51 Baseline (all titles with LCCN) 0.38 7.79 0.4796 3.80
    35. 35. Actions Per Session ebrary Discipline Views Per Session Downloads Per Session Time Per Session Humanities 15.12 0.032 130.61 Social Sciences 15.42 0.035 129.42 STEM 16.40 0.384 124.06 Baseline (all titles with an LCCN) 15.59 0.035 128.05
    36. 36. Actions Per Session EBL Discipline Views Per Session Downloads Per Session Time Per Session Humanities 20.49 0.117 10.55 Social Sciences 19.97 0.126 9.86 STEM 21.59 0.136 9.86 Baseline (all titles with an LCCN) 20.59 0.127 10.03
    37. 37. Disciplinary Summary • Social sciences far outperform humanities and STEM in two categories – Percentage of books used – Average amount of use • STEM outperforms the others in actions per session • Readers in the humanities spend more time in the book per session
    38. 38. MEASURING PREDICTED USE
    39. 39. Performance Relative to Predicted Use 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% H B J R D L K M E G Q N C A S V Z U F T P % of available % of titles with a session
    40. 40. Performance Relative to Predicted Use 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% 30.00% H R L N D M E A B G C Z V J U F S K P T Q % of Titles Available % of Sessions
    41. 41. Performance Relative to Predicted Use 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% H L T J R N D M E Z A V S C G B U F K P Q % of Titles Available % of Titles with a Session
    42. 42. Performance Relative to Predicted Use 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% 30.00% H L R G N J A C Z V M U S F E D K B T P Q % of Titles Available % of Sessions
    43. 43. INTENSIVE / EXTENSIVE USE
    44. 44. Breadth vs Depth PERCENTAGE OF TITLES USED AVERAGEAMOUNTOFUSE
    45. 45. ebrary Sessions – Avg and % Broad (high %) and Deep (more usage of each title) Narrow (low %) and Shallow (low usage of each title) Broad (high % and Shallow (low usage of each title) Narrow (low %) but Deep (more usage of each title)
    46. 46. EBL Sessions – Avg and % Narrow (low %) but Deep (more usage of each title) Broad (high %) and Deep (more usage of each title) Narrow (low %) and Shallow (low usage of each title) Broad (high % and Shallow (low usage of each title)
    47. 47. ebrary Page Views – Avg and % Narrow (low %) but Deep (more usage of each title) Broad (high %) and Deep (more usage of each title) Narrow (low %) and Shallow (low usage of each title) Broad (high % and Shallow (low usage of each title)
    48. 48. EBL Page Views – Avg and % Narrow (low %) but Deep (more usage of each title) Broad (high %) and Deep (more usage of each title) Narrow (low %) and Shallow (low usage of each title) Broad (high % and Shallow (low usage of each title)
    49. 49. ebrary Downloaded – Avg and % Narrow (low %) but Deep (more usage of each title) Broad (high %) and Deep (more usage of each title) Narrow (low %) and Shallow (low usage of each title) Broad (high % and Shallow (low usage of each title)
    50. 50. EBL Downloaded – Avg and % Narrow (low %) but Deep (more usage of each title) Broad (high %) and Deep (more usage of each title) Narrow (low %) and Shallow (low usage of each title) Broad (high % and Shallow (low usage of each title)
    51. 51. CAN WE DETERMINE LEVEL OF IMMERSION IN A BOOK?
    52. 52. Page Views Per Session 0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 14.00 16.00 18.00 20.00 T Q F N R D H G C E M L Z P J B S K U A V 15.86
    53. 53. Seconds Per Session (Time in the Book) 0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00 120.00 140.00 160.00 E D F U H J M R G P K L C Q T N B S Z V A 128.05
    54. 54. Page Views Per Session 0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 30.00 F N V M T E R Q G A D C H S P J K B Z U L 20.59
    55. 55. Seconds Per Session (Time in the Book) 0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 14.00 16.00 F E D J M C V G A K U R H P Q B T N S L Z 10.03
    56. 56. Summary: Level of Immersion • Users spend the most time (in seconds) in history books (D, E, F) • Users examine a lot of pages in technology books (T) but spend a relatively small amount of time
    57. 57. CONCLUSIONS
    58. 58. There are many ways to measure use • Difference from predicted use • Depth vs breadth – Books used a lot vs a lot of books used • Type of use (session, view, download) • Amount of use per session
    59. 59. Quality Matters • University press books used at a higher rate by most measures • Users appear to be making some judgment about quality
    60. 60. There are clear (but nuanced) differences by subject • Two examples – F (History, Americas) • Low usage as % of available F titles • Low average usage rate • Very poor performance relative to availability of F titles • High # of page views by session • Lots of time in the book – L (Education) • High usage as % of available L titles • High average usage rate • Very strong performance relative to availability of L titles • Relatively low # of page views by session/time in book
    61. 61. How do we use these observations to build better collections and better serve our users?
    62. 62. White Paper… …coming soon • Merged data (EBL and ebrary) • Longer time range • Analysis by library type • Analysis by region • Will be on the EBL and ebrary web sites Plus future publications and presentations
    63. 63. Thank You Michael Levine-Clark Associate Dean for Scholarly Communication and Collections Services University of Denver Libraries michael.levine-clark@du.edu http://www.slideshare.net/MichaelLevineClark

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