Rethinking Library Acquisition: Demand-Driven Purchasing for Scholarly Books

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American Association of University Presses Annual Conference, Salt Lake City, June 18, 2010.

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Rethinking Library Acquisition: Demand-Driven Purchasing for Scholarly Books

  1. 1. Rethinking Library Acquisition: Demand-Driven Purchasing for Scholarly Books <br />Becky Clark, Johns Hopkins University Press<br />RBC@press.jhu.edu<br />Matt Nauman, YBP<br />mnauman@ybp.com<br />Michael Levine-Clark, University of Denver<br />michael.levine-clark@du.edu<br />Stephen Bosch, University of Arizona<br />boschs@u.library.arizona.edu<br />Kim Anderson, YBP<br />kanderson@ybp.com<br />
  2. 2. Why Demand-Driven Acquisition?<br />
  3. 3. University of Denver Data – All Books<br />2000-2009<br />252,718 titles (25,272 a year)<br />46.9% unused (118,387)<br />2000-2004<br />126,953 titles<br />39.6% unused (50,226)<br />FY 2010<br />Approx $1 million spent on monographs<br />
  4. 4. University of Denver Data – University Press Books*<br />2000-2009<br />40,058 titles (8,012 a year)<br />39.7% unused (15,883)<br />2000-2004<br />20,277 titles<br />31.0% unused (6,278)<br />*“University Press” in publisher field<br />
  5. 5. University of Denver Use Data (Titles Cataloged 2000-2004)<br /> All U.P.<br />4+ 23,854 (18.8%) 4,029 (19.9%)<br />3 10,461 (8.2%) 1,954 (9.6%)<br />2 16,257 (12.8%) 3,134 (15.5%)<br />1 26,155 (20.6%) 4,882 (24.1%)<br />0 50,266 (39.6%) 6,278 (31.0%)<br />
  6. 6. University of Denver Use Data (U.P. Titles Cataloged in 2000)<br /> Ever Used Used 2005 or Later<br />4+ 932 (22.1%) 882 (20.1%)<br />3 424 (10.0%) 349 (8.3%)<br />2 682 (16.1%) 439 (10.4%)<br />1 968 (22.9%) 475 (11.2%)<br />0 1,217 (28.8%) 2,078 (49.2%)<br />
  7. 7. The Universe of Titles<br />170,663 books published in the U.S. in 2008*<br />53,869 books treated on approval by Blackwell in FY 2008 (North America)<br />23,097 forms generated in FY 2008<br />4,687 titles ordered from forms<br />*Library and Book Trade Almanac 2009, p. 506 (preliminary data).<br />
  8. 8. Everything is Different<br />Users expect everything instantly<br />Born-digital books shouldn’t go out of print<br />We’re more accountable to our administrations<br />Budget<br />Shelf space<br />
  9. 9. Developing a Demand-Driven Purchase Model<br />Two basic reasons for changing models:<br />ROI – return on investment<br />In a digital world dominated by network level discovery and access - it is not about the local collection anymore, follow the users.<br />
  10. 10.
  11. 11. Developing a Demand-Driven Purchase Model<br />Circulation data by publisher is hard to gather since publisher is not a field in a MARC record that is “normalized” so many versions of a publisher could exist. <br />A rough working of our data shows that overall the average rate for circulating titles was about 55% for University Presses.<br />The larger University Presses do have higher rates of circulation than do the smaller presses.<br />
  12. 12. Developing a Demand-Driven Purchase Model<br />ROI – in since 2000:<br />Total # of books purchased 448,840<br />Total exp for books $ 24,531,340 <br />Total # 0 circ books 237,885<br />Total exp for 0 circ books $ 13,001,610<br />Shelving costs $ 2,440,582<br />Processing costs $ 3,394,622 <br />Total cost of 0 circ books $ 18,836,814 <br />
  13. 13. Rethinking Monographic Acquisition: Developing a Demand-Driven Purchase Model<br />Network level discovery and access:<br />This is where our users are going and we need to have business models that support that type of user experience - not building local collections.<br />Users must have the broadest possible access w/o dead ends – one way or another they need to be able to quickly obtain the discovered information.<br />
  14. 14. Is this what the digital natives will find useful as a library? OR<br />
  15. 15. Is this the future “collection”?<br />
  16. 16. How We’re Implementing Demand-Driven Acquisition<br />
  17. 17.
  18. 18. Developing a DDA Plan for DU<br />Jan 2009: Begin conversations with Blackwell<br />Spring 2009: Begin conversations with EBL<br />Summer/fall 2009: EBL/Blackwell platform development<br />Dec 2009: YBP/Blackwell announce merger<br />Jan 2010: Begin conversations with YBP<br />Spring 2010: Implement DDA with EBL<br />Spring 2010: Plan DDA with YBP<br />
  19. 19. The University of Denver Plan<br />Program will begin July 2010<br />Print and Electronic Books<br />YBP and EBL<br />Forms<br />No fiction, reprints, or textbooks<br />Discovery through the catalog<br />POD (eventually)<br />Automatic approval books will continue to come automatically (for now)<br />
  20. 20. The User Experience<br />Discovery (catalog)<br />Print and/or ebook(s)<br />Request (catalog)<br />Fast, seamless<br />Ordering<br />Baker & Taylor and Alternative Sources<br />Rush (in some cases)<br />Drop Ship (in some cases)<br />
  21. 21. Assessment<br />Feedback Form (p)<br />At Request<br />At Delivery<br />Slip “Ordering” (p)<br />Use Data (p and e)<br />
  22. 22. Developing the Demand Driven Acquisitions Program<br />
  23. 23. What Does Demand Driven Mean? Possible Workflows<br />YBP provides the title catalog records<br />Profiled each week from approval plan input<br />Weekly batch record load based on that title list<br />Library loads records into catalog<br />Full Record (OCLC Plus service from YBP)<br />Brief records<br />Load to OCLC WorldCat Local<br />
  24. 24. What Does Demand Driven Mean? Possible Workflows<br />Button for users to request the book<br />Options available to user (format, rush, normal, notify, don’t notify?)<br />Acquisitions retrieves requests daily and places orders<br />
  25. 25. University of Kansas DDA Workflow<br />
  26. 26. KU Uses a Special Location <br />for Patron Choice Titles<br />
  27. 27. Full record in KU OPAC<br />Identifier in catalog<br />record so Patron <br />Choice records can<br />easily be removed<br />after 6 months<br />
  28. 28. Considerations for DDA<br />Format?<br /><ul><li>Print books, eBooks, or both?</li></ul>Mediated or non-mediated?<br />Mediated: patron requests go to acquisitions staff, who make final decision on whether title gets ordered, fund availability, format in which title is ordered<br />Non-mediated: patron request is ordered immediately<br />
  29. 29. Considerations for DDA<br />Allow duplication between e and print formats?<br />Mirror existing approval plan profile, or set up a separate profile?<br />Budget control – monitoring so funds are available for duration of program or fiscal year <br />Must patrons authenticate to request a title?<br />
  30. 30. Considerations for DDA<br />How long will MARC records stay in OPAC? <br /><ul><li>How do we remove them?
  31. 31. Will selectors review before removal to order any that users didn’t want?</li></ul>How will the ‘request screen’ look in the ILS?<br />Reports<br /><ul><li>Which users requested what (how much, and in what subject areas)?</li></li></ul><li>What Universe of Titles Shall We Expose to Patrons?<br />Demand Driven Profile Components<br />Subject areas<br />Publishers<br />Non-Subject Parameters<br />How far back shall we go?<br />
  32. 32. Metrics<br />What type of material was requested?<br />By subject<br />By publisher<br />By Format<br />What was the ratio of records to requests?<br />By Subject<br />For Print<br />For Digital<br />
  33. 33. Metrics<br />What were the fulfillment times?<br />To the library<br />To the Patron<br />What was the Patron Type?<br />Faculty<br />Graduate Students<br />Undergraduate Students<br />
  34. 34. Metrics<br />What was the distribution of requests across subjects? <br />How did DDA requests compare to Librarian selections?<br />What savings did the institution experience?<br />Materials costs<br />Staff costs<br />
  35. 35. Was the Patron Satisfied?<br />
  36. 36. Implications<br />
  37. 37. Developing a Demand-Driven Purchase Model<br />What about?<br />Collections of record<br />Current structures and processes in collection management and acquisitions<br />Traditional user expectations<br />
  38. 38. Impact on Scholars<br />Will they be able to<br />browse the collection?<br />get books as needed?<br />get older books?<br />
  39. 39. Impact on Libraries<br />What about Interlibrary Loan?<br />Blur between ILL/Acquisitions<br />eBook Rental Replaces ILL?<br />Are we still building collections, or are we just buying books?<br />
  40. 40. PDA will force changes in the way content moves from publishers to academic libraries<br />There will be implications throughout the supply chain<br />Four reasons PDA may be the way of the future:<br />Current model breaking down<br />Better technology exists for library decisions<br />Changing mission of academic libraries<br />Economic conditions<br />
  41. 41. How we got here and where we might be going<br />Collections have been built by Approval Plans<br />“Just in Case” Collections<br />Problems include budgets, space & usage statistics<br />Better technology makes new models possible<br />One model for getting started<br />Core, must have titles<br />PDA based on subject & publisher profiles<br />Includes print and ebooks<br />Integration with aggregator partners<br />“Just in Time” Ordering<br />
  42. 42. Impact on Academic Publishing<br />Print Books<br />“Fewer books, fewer copies, higher prices”<br />Frontlist sales will be reduced<br />Possible reduction in total copies sold<br />Both can lead to higher prices<br />Maybe some titles won’t be published, or<br />Published in another format<br />
  43. 43. Impact on Academic Publishing<br />Ebooks<br />Pilot libraries want E-Preferred PDA<br />Libraries and vendors working on electronic collection development services<br />Increased pressure for simultaneous P and E<br />Increased pressure on vendor for discovery and delivery systems<br />Potential for Ebooks first backed by POD<br />Usage-based pricing<br />
  44. 44. Impact on Book Vendors<br />New value and service proposition<br />Must provide an infrastructure for PDA<br />MARC records prior to purchase<br />Rush order and delivery for print<br />Improved discoverability & delivery<br />Print on Demand options<br />Direct to Consumer options<br />New processing options for print books<br />
  45. 45. Impact on Book Vendors<br />Vendors also forced to replace lost revenue<br />Potential for a new business model<br />Based on charging for services<br />Decrease library’s cost-per-use<br />Vendors and publishers will cooperate to make sure titles are discovered<br />PDA has to be built while maintaining traditional services<br />

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