The Science of Wingfield Pines
A Duquesne University Study
To serve as the lead land
trust conserving and
stewarding lands that
support the scenic,
recreational and
environmental we...
BIODIVERSITY
WATER
MANAGEMENT
LANDSCAPE
CHARACTER
Prioritize protection
of lands that meet
these three criteria
Education
Flood Control
Open Space
Recreation
Benefits of Wingfield Pines
thing more rewarding
than living in a
beautiful
setting…Protecting it!
ALT’s Wingfield Pines Conservation Area,
Upper St. ...
Wingfield Pines
 Former strip and deep mine site
 Former golf and swim club
 80 acres USC & S. Fayette
 Borders Charti...
Three fish ponds @ Wingfield
Pines
AMD from Wingfield into Chartiers
Creek
 1500 – 2000 gallons per minute
flowing for decades
 43 tons of iron oxide depos...
Design Criteria
 Creative and educational
 Visually interesting – “no
right angles”
 Minimize footprint with
compact de...
Hedin Environmental
 President: Dr. Robert S. Hedin
 Finalized site plans, formulate and submit a permit
package, perfor...
Wingfield Pines
 AMD treatment system designed on the idea that form
follows function.
 Landscape architect and artists ...
Wingfield’s Uniqueness
 Ponds linked together in a
unique way.
 No 90 degree angles, soft
lines are emphasized.
 Treatm...
Wingfield’s Uniqueness
 Wingfield Pines has
Educational value
 Circular ponds with a
central area and a walk
way through...
Installation of Water Fountain
and Distribution Structure
Note the change in color as the
A.M.D. moves through system
2007 2009
Discharge Gut
2007 2009
Discharge into Chartiers Creek
Doing science teaches science!
Since 2007, Duquesne University students have been collecting scientific data at
Wingfield ...
It is important to grasp the concept that the Wingfield Pines
System is not a self-contained entity, it is a piece of a
pu...
There are no straight lines:
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Source Pond 1 Pond 2 Pond 3 Pond 4 Pond 5 Wetland
Stagnant
Stagnant
Pond 1
D.O. 6 mg/L
Pond 3
D.O. 8 mg/L
Pond 2
D.O. 7 mg/L
Pond 4
D.O. 9 mg/L
Pond 5
D.O. 10 mg/L
Pond 6
D.O. 11 mg/L
In the...
or or or
•Allegheny Land Trust (ALT) and Duquesne University have enjoyed a successful
partnership since 2007 around the Wingfield ...
Chemical Testing
What science does Duquesne measure as water flows through the Wingfield
ecosystem;
 Dissolved Oxygen
 C...
Plankton was collected in March 2010 from the Wingfield A. M. D.
ponds using a zooplankton net. 15ml samples were taken ba...
HYDROSPERE
A Water System which Illustrates Succession in Action
At Wingfield Pines we have the opportunity to observe and...
Month  Month
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
DegreesinFahrenheit
Air and Water Temperature Over Time
Air
Wetland Water
Year  Year
Pond  Wetlands  Chartiers Creek
2013
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
mg/L
Temperature(F)
Water Temperature vs. Dissolved Oxygen Over Time
Wa...
Certain species of macroinvertebrates have differing levels of
tolerance to pollution. Concurrent with the changes in flow...
Aquatic macroinvertebrates found within Wingfield
Fish Migration within Wingfield Pines
20062013
Creek Chub Green Sunfish
White Sucker
Common Carp
Mosquitofish
Sampling Fish at Wingfield Pines (2012)
Wingfield Dedication
 Programs that encourage and facilitate outreach into nonscientific communities need to
become a sta...
Chara spp., called Muskgrass
Description
• Chara look like rooted, aquatic plants, but are actually a form of algae.
• Mus...
Muskgrass
 Muskgrass now completely
covers most of Ponds 4 and 5
and a large portion of the
wetland
 The muskgrass is a ...
Muskrat and Beaver
 Muskrats and beaver have
created significant
problems since Wingfield’s
introduction
 Muskrats are t...
Muskrat Borrow
Muskrat Lodge
Beaver Dam
Beaver Baffles
Current Impact of Muskrats
• Herbivory of wetland
vegetation creates less
filtration of Fe particles
• Lodge formation cre...
Effluent Iron (Total)
2009 2013
Effluent Turbidity
2010 2013
Thank You
WingField Pines
Edward F. Schroth
schrothe@verizon.net
Adjunct Faculty
Duquesne University
Bayer School of Natur...
The Science of Wingfield Pines
The Science of Wingfield Pines
The Science of Wingfield Pines
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The Science of Wingfield Pines

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Ed Schroth, Duquesne University Bayer School of Natural and Environmental Sciences, “The Science of Wingfield Pines”

The ecological and cultural transformation of Wingfield Pines Conservation Area (WPCA) is a watershed achievement in land and AMD water reclamation efforts in the Greater Pittsburgh Area. “The Science of Wingfield Pines” is a story of the science research conducted, data collected and analyzed. The graphs and conclusions are good science which illustrate the many synergistic concepts discussed in our aquatic textbooks.

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The Science of Wingfield Pines

  1. 1. The Science of Wingfield Pines A Duquesne University Study
  2. 2. To serve as the lead land trust conserving and stewarding lands that support the scenic, recreational and environmental well-being of communities in Allegheny County and its environs. Mission of Allegheny Land Trust
  3. 3. BIODIVERSITY WATER MANAGEMENT LANDSCAPE CHARACTER Prioritize protection of lands that meet these three criteria
  4. 4. Education Flood Control Open Space Recreation Benefits of Wingfield Pines
  5. 5. thing more rewarding than living in a beautiful setting…Protecting it! ALT’s Wingfield Pines Conservation Area, Upper St. Clair
  6. 6. Wingfield Pines  Former strip and deep mine site  Former golf and swim club  80 acres USC & S. Fayette  Borders Chartiers Creek  3 existing ponds  First source of abandon mine drainage in the Chartiers Watershed  Acquired by ALT in 2001
  7. 7. Three fish ponds @ Wingfield Pines
  8. 8. AMD from Wingfield into Chartiers Creek  1500 – 2000 gallons per minute flowing for decades  43 tons of iron oxide deposited into Chartiers Creek every year  Chemistry enables passive treatment technology – no chemicals or pumps needed  Iron oxide sediment can be recovered and used for pigment
  9. 9. Design Criteria  Creative and educational  Visually interesting – “no right angles”  Minimize footprint with compact design  High performance  Passive system – no chemicals or pumps  Engaging  1 year + to design
  10. 10. Hedin Environmental  President: Dr. Robert S. Hedin  Finalized site plans, formulate and submit a permit package, perform construction oversight, monitors the system after completion  Design treatment systems that our cost efficient, effective and unique http://www.hedinenv.com/
  11. 11. Wingfield Pines  AMD treatment system designed on the idea that form follows function.  Landscape architect and artists proposed a design that made the treatment system cost efficient, effective and educational.  Mixing organic pieces with industrial elements.
  12. 12. Wingfield’s Uniqueness  Ponds linked together in a unique way.  No 90 degree angles, soft lines are emphasized.  Treatment system is designed where one can walk through the site and see the ecological changes throughout the AMD system.
  13. 13. Wingfield’s Uniqueness  Wingfield Pines has Educational value  Circular ponds with a central area and a walk way through the wetlands makes group instruction easy  Acts as an open laboratory to various levels and fields of academia
  14. 14. Installation of Water Fountain and Distribution Structure
  15. 15. Note the change in color as the A.M.D. moves through system
  16. 16. 2007 2009 Discharge Gut
  17. 17. 2007 2009 Discharge into Chartiers Creek
  18. 18. Doing science teaches science! Since 2007, Duquesne University students have been collecting scientific data at Wingfield Pines in collaboration with the Allegheny Land Trust. The on going process has provided base line data on the AMD before, during construction and since its completion in the Summer of 2009. Changes are not random – Discover Patterns
  19. 19. It is important to grasp the concept that the Wingfield Pines System is not a self-contained entity, it is a piece of a puzzle incorporated into larger surrounding watersheds that represent only a small portion of the greater hydrologic cycle: “You can never step into the same river; for new waters are always flowing on to you.” ~Heraclitus of Ephesus
  20. 20. There are no straight lines: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Source Pond 1 Pond 2 Pond 3 Pond 4 Pond 5 Wetland Stagnant Stagnant
  21. 21. Pond 1 D.O. 6 mg/L Pond 3 D.O. 8 mg/L Pond 2 D.O. 7 mg/L Pond 4 D.O. 9 mg/L Pond 5 D.O. 10 mg/L Pond 6 D.O. 11 mg/L In the lab, one could…
  22. 22. or or or
  23. 23. •Allegheny Land Trust (ALT) and Duquesne University have enjoyed a successful partnership since 2007 around the Wingfield Pines Conservation Area. Duquesne students, under the leadership and mentoring of Adjunct Professor Ed Schroth, provided much needed water quality and biotic assessments of Chartiers Creek, existing ponds and of the abandon mine drainage treatment system that ALT constructed in 2009. The invaluable data collected by the students is included in the reports that ALT provides to the PA Department of Environmental Protection and Army Corps of Engineers. Students benefit by receiving real-life experience and ALT benefits by this volunteer work that ALT would otherwise have to pay for. Duquesne University Monitoring Ecological Organisms
  24. 24. Chemical Testing What science does Duquesne measure as water flows through the Wingfield ecosystem;  Dissolved Oxygen  Conductivity  Temperature  pH  Alkalinity  Turbitiy  Biological Diversity  www.alleghenylandtrust.org/properties/wingfield/science/index.html
  25. 25. Plankton was collected in March 2010 from the Wingfield A. M. D. ponds using a zooplankton net. 15ml samples were taken back to the laboratories at Duquesne University for identification @ 100X and 400X microscopes. Data was analyzed to determine the ratio values for species richness. Using Plankton to Illustrate Succession MARCH 2010
  26. 26. HYDROSPERE A Water System which Illustrates Succession in Action At Wingfield Pines we have the opportunity to observe and measure aquatic succession which starts with Abandoned Mine Drainage which then runs through a series of ponds and wetlands. Each transitional step of Biological succession is then visual and can be documented. Pond  Pond 5.5 6 6.5 7 7.5 8 Source Pond 1 Pond 2 Pond 3 Pond 4 Pond 5 Wetland pH Average pH Average pH
  27. 27. Month  Month 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 DegreesinFahrenheit Air and Water Temperature Over Time Air Wetland Water
  28. 28. Year  Year Pond  Wetlands  Chartiers Creek 2013
  29. 29. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 mg/L Temperature(F) Water Temperature vs. Dissolved Oxygen Over Time Water Temp.
  30. 30. Certain species of macroinvertebrates have differing levels of tolerance to pollution. Concurrent with the changes in flowing watershed system, Benthic macroinvertebrates are used as indicators of changes associated with a gradient threshold.
  31. 31. Aquatic macroinvertebrates found within Wingfield
  32. 32. Fish Migration within Wingfield Pines 20062013 Creek Chub Green Sunfish White Sucker Common Carp Mosquitofish
  33. 33. Sampling Fish at Wingfield Pines (2012)
  34. 34. Wingfield Dedication  Programs that encourage and facilitate outreach into nonscientific communities need to become a standard part of every university and science-based industrial establishment. Environmental decisions that are made in a democracy will always be highly politicized, but it is crucial that citizens have the opportunity to learn what science knows and how that knowledge has been gained.  Now in the 21st Century scientists must vigorously reach out to their communities, informing them not only about their new discoveries, but also about the path they took to get there.
  35. 35. Chara spp., called Muskgrass Description • Chara look like rooted, aquatic plants, but are actually a form of algae. • Muskgrass is native to Pennsylvania but is invasive and a common nuisance problem in alkaline ponds. • Chara prefers alkaline, hard water ponds. • The ridged branches of Chara are encrusted with calcium carbonate, giving it a gritty feeling. • Chara also has a musty odor when crushed, giving it the common name of “muskgrass.”
  36. 36. Muskgrass  Muskgrass now completely covers most of Ponds 4 and 5 and a large portion of the wetland  The muskgrass is a very good filter and it’s effective at the removal of Fe solids  However, the muskgrass contributes to preferential flow patterns and likely contributes to poorer treatment in winter months  www.pubs.cas.psu.edu/freep ubs/pdfs/xh0034.pdf
  37. 37. Muskrat and Beaver  Muskrats and beaver have created significant problems since Wingfield’s introduction  Muskrats are the current issue facing Wingfield Pines  Burrowing, damming, and feeding activities have impacted vegetation growth, channel flow, and berm stability Muskrat burrows can cause erosion of banks and berms around the ponds and wetland areas
  38. 38. Muskrat Borrow Muskrat Lodge Beaver Dam Beaver Baffles
  39. 39. Current Impact of Muskrats • Herbivory of wetland vegetation creates less filtration of Fe particles • Lodge formation creates channelization of water flow • Burrows create tripping hazards throughout park and impact berm stability Areas in red are damages caused by muskrat activity
  40. 40. Effluent Iron (Total) 2009 2013
  41. 41. Effluent Turbidity 2010 2013
  42. 42. Thank You WingField Pines Edward F. Schroth schrothe@verizon.net Adjunct Faculty Duquesne University Bayer School of Natural Sciences

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