Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Lukus Monette, OSMRE, "Little Conemaugh Watershed Modeling Project"

806 views

Published on

GIS modeling in the Little Conemaugh River watershed work towards treating multiple mine-pool discharges for acid mine drainage.

Published in: Environment, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

Lukus Monette, OSMRE, "Little Conemaugh Watershed Modeling Project"

  1. 1. Little Conemaugh Watershed Modeling PA AMR- State College PA, Lukus Monette
  2. 2. Background • OSMRE (ARO) at request of PADEP has been assisting the with the development of a Geographic Information Science (GIS) for the Little Conemaugh River watershed. • The geographic region covers approximately 125 miles of southwestern Pennsylvania. • Contains 4 coal bed seams (B,C,D,E seams) that have been mined extensively. • The underground coal mining techniques in the local area include: room & pillar, longwall (later), remining (retreat) & strip (surface) which can cause discharges of AMD. • Mining began as early as 1870 in most of the watershed coal mine have long been close or abandoned. • The coal seams in the watershed appear to be connected vertically & horizontally allowing some flow of the water to travel between them
  3. 3. Objectives Treating multiple mine pool discharges for acid mine drainage (AMD) with-in the watershed. • Determine treatment options such as: • Mixing of the mine pools underground? • Treating them individually? • Moving the water into lower mine workings? • An all in one treatment solution placed further downstream? By treating the discharges, both PADEP and OSM hope to see improvement in the watershed ecology to a level that could maintain aquatic life and allow recreational use.
  4. 4. Objectives What questions could a complete and complex GIS model assist in calculating or displaying? • Constructing an overall water budget for the mine- pool complex including discharge rates and estimated ground water storage. • Estimate ground water flow between individual mines in the complex. • Evaluation of water quality to estimate overall treatment needs and techniques. • Model and evaluate black coal fines discharge from Sonman Mine.
  5. 5. Little Conemaugh Watershed Mining in four coal seams of the Allegheny Group: Upper Freeport or “ E ” Seam Lower Freeport or “ D ” Seam Upper Kittanning or “ C’ ” Seam Lower Kittanning or “ B “ Seam All 4 Seams mined concurrently starting in the late 1800’s. Upper
  6. 6. DataData Source Data Type Data Name Data Usage Notes ESRI Service Topo Base mapping Georeferencing & Display ESRI Service Imagery Base mapping Georeferencing & Display ESRI Service Street Map Base mapping Georeferencing & Display PASDA Raster LiDAR Base mapping Surface Analysis DCNR/USGS Raster Geologic Map Base mapping Geologic Analysis NMMR Raster Mine Maps Base mapping Data extraction NMMR Raster Drill Logs Base mapping Data extraction PADEP Raster Drill Logs Base mapping Data extraction PADEP Raster Mine Maps Base mapping Data extraction NOAA Spreadsheet Rain Data Base mapping Analysis with Mine Pool data, Ebensburg Station BAMR Spreadsheet Mine Pool Monitoring Base mapping Analysis with Rain data, Sonman GPS PADEP Injection Well Locations Point Base mapping Survey Grade GPS OSMRE Discharge Locations Point Base mapping WAAS enabled, 10ft+- accuracy Data Product Derived from Data Type Use Notes Mine Workings Mine Map Polygon Acrerage ArcMAP/ArcScene, EarthVIsion Barriers Mine Map Polygon Mine connectivity ArcMAP/ArcScene, EarthVIsion Faults Mine Map Polygon Permiabilty ArcMAP/ArcScene, EarthVIsion Coal Spots Mine Map & Drill Logs Point Coal Seam Elevation Minimum Tension Surface Bottom of Seam Coal Contours Mine Map Line Coal Seam Elevation Minimum Tension Surface Bottom of Seam Slopes Mine Map Polygon/Point Mine Entry/Conectivity Tubes Coal Bed Thickness Mine Map & Drill Logs Point Volumes Minimum Tension Surface Top of Seam Outcrops Mine Map Line Seep potential Display Boreholes Mine Map & Drill Logs Point Mine Conectivity/Elevations Tubes, interpulate data gaps Shafts Mine Map Point Mine Conectivity/Elevations Tubes, interpulate data gaps Surface Coal Elevation Grid/Raster Analyis Cullmination of elevation extract per seam Pool Surface Well Data Grid/Raster Analyis Constant Mystery Discharge Injecction Well Point Location for Analysis Buffer 4400ft
  7. 7. Data Quality • Limited by the source. • Older mine maps can vary in accuracy as well as newer workings that based their source off older data sources.
  8. 8. Methods Phase I. Compile all known mine maps & georeference each. • Most data will need to be collected from scanned historical mine maps. • Currently 90% of all the historic maps needed are georeferenced. • Georeferencing historical coal maps is more art than science. • Georeferencing these maps can be difficult since in most cases there are limited ground references are on the map or existing reference is gone or unreliable. • The draftsman could have placed his efforts in the accuracy of the mines scale and direction versus area and shape. In total there was over 50 maps georeferenced and placed on the server organized by seam.
  9. 9. Phase I - Mine Map Analysis Mine name/owner were found on sheet 5. information regarding the general location, (near Wilmore, Summerhill Twp, Cambria County) The Abandoned Date of 12/12/1961 is also noted on the map. Id which seam a map or group of map sheets belong to.
  10. 10. Phase I - Mine Map Analysis • Examination of each sheet revealed few distinguishable surface features for use in georeferencing. • This bumps the level of difficulty in referencing • this mine up a bit. There are, however, references • to neighboring mines.
  11. 11. Phase I - Mine Map Analysis In this instance a regional B seam map depicting the topologic relationship of a number of mines in the area does exist (unusual and not at all the “norm”). Referring to the regional map, the Sonman Shaft mine is located near Wilmore as well. Another mine is visible on the regional map in the vicinity.
  12. 12. Phase I - Mine Map Analysis Zooming in on that mine reveals some faint writing; zoom in a bit closer and eureka! The Maryland No. 2 Shaft footprint is found
  13. 13. Phase I - Mine Map Analysis The next step is to pin it to the Earth. Analysis of the map reveals the barrier configuration between the Sonman Shaft and the MD no. 2 Shaft. This will serve as a starting point for georeferencing the sheet
  14. 14. Phase I - Mine Map Analysis Visual interpretation reveals another location on the sheet with a unique haulage way configuration that is also vaguely identifiable on the regional footprint map.
  15. 15. Phase I - Mine Map Analysis • Several more control points will need to be added and then edited. • Each control point is evaluated as to whether or not they improve or degrade the overall “fit” of the map sheet with the referenced base. • Nine more map sheets needed to be referenced to complete the Maryland No. 2 Shaft mine. • Survey points of the drill holes where available for numerous sheets and used to improve results.
  16. 16. Phase II. Data Attribution: Once georeferencing is completed, the coal map had all the pertinent information extracted or digitized. • To facilitate data extraction, a geodatabase was created to hold the needed data for each seam. This included a Raster Catalog of all georeferenced maps per seam and feature classes for all geometry collected. information extracted or digitized.
  17. 17. Phase II. Data Attribution: There is a lot of information on the maps, and this information can easily be confused. One example: Distinguishing elevation points from other numeric annotation, such as survey station numbers.
  18. 18. Phase II. Data Attribution: Each map must be diligently examined for other pertinent information such as Dams
  19. 19. Phase II. Data Attribution: Each map must be diligently examined for other pertinent information such as Barrier Pillars
  20. 20. Phase II. Data Attribution: Each map must be diligently examined for other pertinent information such as hydrologic conduits
  21. 21. Phase III. Compile all known drill hole logs: Some of the mine maps have detailed elevations of the mined coal bed seam associated with them and were collected in Phase II. • Drill hole logs were compiled and will be used to develop stratagraphic mapping for missing locations • Over 500 point locations • Points were placed in database containing; X,Y,Z,Z1,Z2,Z3,Z4, ect… as well as thicknesses. • Used to refine map referencing. • Used to supplement and refine known data extracted in Phase II.
  22. 22. Phase III. Compile all known drill hole logs:
  23. 23. Phase IV. Compile all Mine Pool data Some of the mine pools in this area are monitored. • These measurements from two different seams can tell in some cases if the pools are interconnected. 1570 1580 1590 1600 1610 1620 1630 1640 1650 Sonman Mine-pool "B" and "E" Seam Head Measured Near Portage PA B Seam Head E Seam Head
  24. 24. Phase IV. Compile all Mine Pool data 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Head Difference B-E MInes Head Difference B- E MInes 0.926332
  25. 25. Phase IV. Compile all Mine Pool data 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 1570.00 1580.00 1590.00 1600.00 1610.00 1620.00 1630.00 1640.00 1650.00 06/30/08 08/31/08 10/31/08 12/31/08 02/28/09 04/30/09 06/30/09 08/31/09 10/31/09 12/31/09 02/28/10 04/30/10 06/30/10 08/31/10 10/31/10 12/31/10 02/28/11 04/30/11 06/30/11 08/31/11 10/31/11 12/31/11 02/29/12 04/30/12 Rainfall(in) Feet Mine Pool Elevation/Rain Event Comparison B Seam Head E Seam Head Rain Further analysis on the climate data shows how much influence rain and snow melt events have on elevation changes in the two seams. This was done by plotting the rain over seam head; it shows a tread that the mine pools are could be closely linked vertically.
  26. 26. Operations in the B Seam
  27. 27. Upper Little Conemaugh Watershed “B” Seam Mining
  28. 28. Upper Little Conemaugh Watershed “B” Seam Mining
  29. 29. Upper Little Conemaugh Watershed “B” Seam Mining 10 mines of interest, 8 mines referenced – 2 remain, 3 mines attributed – 7 remain (not all will be needed.
  30. 30. Upper Little Conemaugh Watershed “B” Seam Mining
  31. 31. Operations in the C’ Seam
  32. 32. Upper Little Conemaugh Watershed “ C’ “Seam Mining
  33. 33. Upper Little Conemaugh Watershed “ C’ “Seam Mining 6 mines of interest, 6 mines referenced, 6 mines attributed
  34. 34. Operations in the D Seam 5 mines of interest, 5 mines referenced, 3 mines attributed
  35. 35. Operations in the E Seam 9 mines of interest, 9 mines referenced, 9 mines attributed
  36. 36. Phase V. Modeling and Analysis • The Sonman mine complex was abandoned in 1949 • Mining in the C and D seams was limited many years earlier. • The E and B seams were where the focus on the mining was since the coal bed was thicker and more profitable. • The Sonman mine discharge is one of the main contributors to the overall poor water quality in the watershed. • Currently there is only 2 known instances of the black coal fines discharging. • First known coal fine discharge was in 2008 from a previously unknown /unsealed borehole 4400ft from the injection well (that was sealed shortly after). • It discharged 7000 feet west of a processing facility, into the Little Conemaugh River.
  37. 37. Phase V. Modeling and Analysis
  38. 38. Phase V. Modeling and Analysis
  39. 39. Phase V. Modeling and Analysis
  40. 40. Phase V. Modeling and Analysis
  41. 41. Phase V. Modeling and Analysis
  42. 42. Phase V. Modeling and Analysis
  43. 43. Phase V. Modeling and Analysis • Modeling shows that the Sonman mine is connected vertically from the E to the B seams. • Boreholes and unmapped workings on the C and D seams provide little restriction in flow between the E and B workings. • Additionally, the injection site floor is upslope from the drainage holes on both seams. • Both injection sites run along a main with an approximate slope of three degrees from east to west. • Perpendicular to the Main, the company mined slightly upwards to allow water to drain away from workers. This gives the coal fines an easy and direct transport route or a channel. • Pressure events (storm event, rain, snow melt, injection, or unplanned subsidence) could increase the hydrostatic pressure and eventually cause the mine water to pick-up and transport the coal fines.
  44. 44. Questions?
  45. 45. Acknowledgments • Tom Mastrorocco • PADEP/BAMR • NMMR Staff • TSD Hydrologists Eric Perry & Jay Hawkins • Mike Dunn • Anyone else I forgot!
  46. 46. WORKSCITED AMFIRE Mining Co. (August 13 2008). Plan for Refuse Slurry Injection into the Sonman E Seam Mine. Portage. Appalachian Regional Office. (2013). NORTH BRANCH POTOMAC RIVER MINE POOL ASSESSMENT STUDY. Pittsburgh. DCNR, P. (2014). PAGEODE. Retrieved from Pennsylvania GEOlogic Data Exploration: http://www.gis.dcnr.state.pa.us/geology/index.html Gary E. Stinchcomba, R. M. (October 2013). Using event stratigraphy to map the Anthropocene – An example from the historic coal mining region in eastern Pennsylvania, USA. Anthropocene, 42- 50. Jay W. Hawkins2, E. F. (2005). Hydrologic Characterization of a Large Underground Mine Pool in Central PA. Julian, R. J. (2014, Spring). GIS and Genealogy. ArcUser, pp. 58-63. Mastrorocco, T. (2013). Georeferencing Report. Pittsburgh. USGS. (1980). Mineral Resources On-Line Spatial Data. Retrieved from USGS.gov: http://mrdata.usgs.gov/geology/state/sgmc-unit.php?unit=PAPAa%3B6

×