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Preparing the enterprise for 508 refresh, ibm csun2017

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Presentation by Michael Gower, IBM, at CSUN accessibility conference, March 1, 2:20pm. San Diego

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Preparing the enterprise for 508 refresh, ibm csun2017

  1. 1. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 IBM Accessibility Research Preparing the Enterprise for Section 508 Refresh Wednesday March 1, 2:20pm Michael Gower, IBM, gowerm@ca.ibm.com
  2. 2. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 IBM Accessibility Research Show of hands • 2011 ANRM • 2015 NPRM • Web/Software • Hardware/FCC • Access Board members 2
  3. 3. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 IBM Accessibility Research Other 508 Refresh Sessions at CSUN • The New Section 508 Standards and the Section 255 Guidelines; Bruce Bailey, Timothy Creagan • State & Local Government • Roadmap for Section 508 ICT Accessibility Success, Katie Haritos-Shea • Implementing WCAG 2 in Section 508 • Bruce, Katie, 1:20 Thursday • Section 508 Refresh Update • Jonathan Avila, 1:20 Thursday • Technology Accessibility Playbook: Building Effective Section 508 Programs, Robert Baker, Craig Luigart, 3:20 Friday
  4. 4. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 IBM Accessibility Research Review Refresh • Preamble • Impact analysis • Relevancy Compare to existing • Mapping • Gap analysis • Impact analysis Produce new guidance • Checklist • Training • Timing • Reporting High level process 4
  5. 5. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 IBM Accessibility Research Reviewing the Final Rule https://www.access-board.gov/guidelines-and-standards/communications- and-it/about-the-ict-refresh/final-rule 5
  6. 6. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 IBM Accessibility Research “Overview of the Rule” • Goals of the Refresh • How the Final Rule was Developed • Major Changes • Incorporation of the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines • Harmonization with European Commission ICT Standards • Structure of the Rule… • “Safe Harbor” for Legacy ICT • Effective Date and Next Steps 6
  7. 7. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 IBM Accessibility Research Refresh- What’s in the box? • I. Executive Summary • harmonization with international standards, safe harbor, interoperability • II. Rulemaking History • Comparison table to European EN 301 549 V1.1.2 standard • III. Major Issues • WCAG to non-web ICT, PDF-UA1, Real-time Text, FPC • IV. Summary of Comments and Responses • V. Regulatory Process….ZZzzzz • Text of the Standards and Guidelines appendices • Impact Analysis, Federal register with anchors
  8. 8. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 IBM Accessibility Research 1194 ICT Refresh- What’s in the box? • Appendix A Section 508-covered ICT • Chapter 1 Application and Administration (definitions) • Chapter 2 Scoping (E205.4 Accessibility Standard. Electronic content shall conform to Level A and Level AA Success Criteria and Conformance Requirements in WCAG 2.0 ) • Appendix B 255-covered ICT • Appendix C Technical Specifications • Chapter 3: Functional Performance Criteria • Chapter 4: Hardware • Chapter 5: Software (authoring tools) • Chapter 6: Documentation • Chapter 7 Reference Standards
  9. 9. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 IBM Accessibility Research Comparing Refresh to existing guidance Scope, Mapping, Gap Analysis, Impact Analysis 9
  10. 10. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 IBM Accessibility Research What is your web and software a11y based on? • Existing (legacy) 508 • Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0 • Blend of 508 and WCAG • 508 Refresh 2015 draft • Europe? China? Other?
  11. 11. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 IBM Accessibility Research 508 Legacy straight to Refresh Success Criterion Heading Level Corresponding 508 Reference Description 1.1.1 Non-Text Content A 1194.22(a) All images, form image buttons, and image map hot spots have appropriate, equivalent alternative text. Embedded multimedia is identified via accessible text. 1.2.1 Prerecorded Audio- Only and Video- Only A 1194.22(a) A descriptive text transcript is provided for non-live, Web-based audio. A text or audio description is provided for non-live, Web-based video-only. 1.2.2 Captions (Prerecorded) A 1194.22(b) and .24(c) Synchronized captions are provided for non-live, Web- based video (YouTube videos, etc.). 1.2.3 Audio Description or Media Alternative (Prerecorded) A 1194.22(b) and .24(d) A descriptive text transcript OR audio description audio track is provided for non-live, Web-based video. Table A-1. WCAG 2.0 Level A and Level AA Success Criteria 11
  12. 12. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 IBM Accessibility Research IBM’s current interim guidance • Web and Web-based Documentation checklist 6.1 • “Stable” 508 Refresh NRPM (2015) • WCAG and Documentation (602.2) but not Authoring Tools • Legacy 508, only 1194.21 (web) • Software checklist 6.1 • “Stable” 508 Refresh NRPM (2015) • WCAG, Interoperability (502), Application User Preferences (503) • Legacy 508 • 1194.22 (software), 1194.24 (multimedia),1194.31 (FPC) 12
  13. 13. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 IBM Accessibility Research Web mapping and analysis evolution • IBM Web 5.2 versus 508 (old) versus WCAG 2.0 • IBM Web 6.1 versus 5.2 comparison and impact • Accessibility Supported Technologies only 13
  14. 14. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 IBM Accessibility Research Imperfect pairings from Legacy; how to report? • 1194.22 (g) Row and column headers • 1194.22 (h) Markup for data tables • 1194.22 (i) Title frames • 1194.22 (l) Identify information provided by scripts 1194.22 (m) Provide a link to a compliant applet • 1194.22 (n) Accessible forms • 1.3.1, 2.1.1, 2.1.2, 3.3.2, 3.3.3, 4.1.1, 4.1.2 • IBM comments and guidance 14
  15. 15. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 IBM Accessibility Research Legacy 508 not covered by WCAG Section 508 Legacy Requirement Relevant 5.2 checkpoints Impact Analysis Comments and guidance 1194.22 (d) Documents shall be organized so they are readable without requiring an associated style sheet. 1.3f Cascading style sheets Web pages are readable without requiring style sheets. No impact Compliance can still be met by Equivalent Facilitation (via Windows High Contrast mode). 1194.22 (f) Client-side image maps shall be provided instead of server-side image maps except where the regions cannot be defined with an available geometric shape. 1.1c Image maps Client-side image maps are used and alternative text is provided for image map hot spots. Equivalent text links are provided if a server-side image map is used. No impact Almost no applications use image maps, so this should affect very few applications. Teams that are affected must carry out techniques and tests documented for 1.1c Image maps. 1194.22 (k) A text-only page, with equivalent information or functionality, shall be provided to make a web site comply with the provisions of these standards, when compliance cannot be accomplished in any other way. The content of the text-only page shall be updated whenever the primary page changes. 4.2a Text-only page If accessibility cannot be accomplished in any other way, a text-only page with equivalent information or functionality is provided. No impact Where teams are unable to provide a fully accessible application, they must provide a text-only page if it is possible to provide equivalent information or functionality in this way. 15
  16. 16. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 IBM Accessibility Research Web-only products, what else do I need? • Appendix A Section 508-covered ICT • Chapter 2, Scoping, E205.4 • Chapter 3, Functional Performance Criteria • Chapter 5, Software • Chapter 6, Documentation 16
  17. 17. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 IBM Accessibility Research Functional Performance Criteria • C202.1 General. Where the requirements in Chapters 4 and 5 do not address one or more functions of telecommunications or customer premises equipment, the functions not addressed shall conform to the Functional Performance Criteria specified in Chapter 3. • Equivalent facilitation • Substantially equivalent or greater accessibility • “the Board intends to provide further guidance on the applicability of final E204.1 in its technical assistance.” 17
  18. 18. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 IBM Accessibility Research 501.1 Scope “Chapter 5 shall apply to software…” • EXCEPTION: Where Web applications do not have access to platform accessibility services and do not include components that have access to platform accessibility services, they shall not be required to conform to 502 or 503 provided that they conform to Level A and Level AA Success Criteria and Conformance Requirements in WCAG 2.0 (incorporated by reference, see 702.10.1). 18
  19. 19. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 IBM Accessibility Research 504 Authoring Tools • Authoring Tool. • Any software, or collection of software components, that can be used by authors, alone or collaboratively, to create or modify content for use by others, including other authors. • Content creation and editing, Prompts, Templates • Excluded other ATAG requirements: B.3.1 Checking, B.3.2 Repairing, B.4.2 Documentation • When a social media app allows comments, is that an authoring tool? 19
  20. 20. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 IBM Accessibility Research 504.3 Prompts • Authoring tools shall provide a mode of operation that prompts authors to create content that conforms to Level A and Level AA Success Criteria and Conformance Requirements in WCAG 2.0 (incorporated by reference, see 702.10.1) for supported features and, as applicable, to file formats supported by the authoring tool. 20
  21. 21. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 IBM Accessibility Research Documentation • 602.2 Accessibility and Compatibility Features. Documentation shall list and explain how to use the accessibility and compatibility features required by Chapters 4 and 5. Documentation shall include accessibility features that are built-in and accessibility features that provide compatibility with assistive technology. • 602.3 …”Documentation in electronic format, including Web- based self-service support, shall conform to Level A and Level AA Success Criteria and Conformance Requirements in WCAG 2.0” 21
  22. 22. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 IBM Accessibility Research Conclusion for Web applications • WCAG 2.0 level A + AA (plus conformance criteria) • 504 Authoring Tools • 602 Support Documentation Clarification required for: • Functional Performance Criteria • Software 502 Interoperability/503 Applications, when WCAG not met 22
  23. 23. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 IBM Accessibility Research Considerations for Non-Web Software • Interoperability/Applications 500s (15 criteria) • WCAG to non-web ICT (WCAG2ICT) (34 criteria) • Increase in scope • Authoring Tools (4 criteria) • Documentation (2 criteria) • Functional Performance Criteria • 55 criteria in total 23
  24. 24. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 IBM Accessibility Research Table A-2. Final Rule Requirements for Software Final Rule Heading Corresponding 508 Reference Requirement Stated in Reference 502.2 Documented Accessibility Features 1194.21(b) Applications shall not disrupt or disable activated features of other products or operating systems that are identified as accessibility features, where those features are developed and documented according to industry standards. 502.3 Accessibility Services New (current practice) Platforms (such as operating systems) would be required to provide a documented set of accessibility services, usually referred to as Application Programming Interfaces (APIs). 502.3.1 Object Information Expanded from 1194.21(d) (current practice) For all user interface components, the name and role can be programmatically determined; states, properties, and values that can be set by the user can be programmatically set; and notification of changes to these items is available to user agents, including assistive technologies. 24 Final Regulatory Impact Analysis
  25. 25. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 IBM Accessibility Research WCAG to Non-Web ICT • 26 of 38 WCAG requirements apply as written • 8 of 12 remaining, replace “web page” references • 4 do not apply (“Set of web pages”) • 2.4.1 Bypass Blocks, 2.4.5 Multiple Ways, 3.2.3 Consistent Navigation, and 3.2.4 Consistent Identification. • 1194.21(e) “…meaning assigned to those images shall be consistent throughout an application…” • Major Issues, section B Final rule • WCAG2ICT 25
  26. 26. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 IBM Accessibility Research IBM’s current interim guidance • Software checklist 6.1 • “Stable” 508 Refresh NRPM (2015) • WCAG, Interoperability (502), Application User Preferences (503) • Legacy 508 • 1194.22 (software), 1194.24 (multimedia),1194.31 (FPC) • Interim moved from 17 to 57 checkpoints • Section 508 Comparison to Software checklist 6.0 26
  27. 27. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 IBM Accessibility Research Considerations for mapping • 1:1 matches • (I) “Color coding shall not be used as the only means of conveying information” • 1.4.1 Use of color “Color is not used as the only visual means of conveying information” • 1:2 matches • “product functions shall be executable from a keyboard” • 2.1.1 Keyboard; 2.1.2 No Keyboard Trap 27
  28. 28. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 IBM Accessibility Research Considerations for mapping, continued • In addition to 1:1 and 2:1 mappings… • 1:Many matches • (D) Sufficient information about a user interface element… • (L) When electronic forms are used… • Many:1 matches • 508 item is dated, odd or highly specific, so no match in WCAG/ 508R • No corresponding match 28
  29. 29. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 IBM Accessibility Research Impact Definitions • No impact: Checkpoint is already being done -- causes no additional effort for a development team. These are generally the 1:1 mappings • Minimal impact: there is a direct association between the old checkpoint requirement and a new checkpoint – has strong but not perfect 1:1 or 2:1 relationship. May require minimal additional testing. e.g., Implied or vague 508 requirement now explicitly stated • Moderate impact: New techniques or test required. Represents learning curve and additional effort to achieve. • High impact: Significant effort to implement, remediate and/or test new requirements. (Object Information; Row, Colum, and Headers;Text) • 10 No impact, 17 Minimal, 16 Moderate, 3 High, 4 N/A 29
  30. 30. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 IBM Accessibility Research Producing new guidance Tactical adoption approaches: Checklist, Training, Reporting, Harmonization 30
  31. 31. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 IBM Accessibility Research IBM Interim 2016 Tactics • SW Checklist 6.x to 3.6.1 Comparison & Impact • Phased introduction (Jan-July 2016) • Online impact analysis and guidance on 500x • Reducing effort by indicating overlaps • Clarification/shortcuts on legacy completion • Software 6.0 to Legacy 508 Guidance • Technical seminars • Checklists 31
  32. 32. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 IBM Accessibility Research IBM Interim Tactics, continued • Checklist • WCAG to ICT: make text generic • If any audio plays automatically… • If any audio on a Web page plays automatically… • Relocated exception • Grouped into sections • Checkpoints • Standardized exceptions • simplified “Understanding” • Tab panel for technologies with cross-referencing 32
  33. 33. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 IBM Accessibility Research Dates, actual and anticipated • Final Rule – Jan. 18, 2017 • FAR Council update, July 2017* • “within 6 months” • language in procurement • Agencies required to comply – Jan. 2018 • Safe harbour clause
  34. 34. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 IBM Accessibility Research Information Technology Industry Council VPAT • https://www.itic.org/policy/accessibility/ • Word document • Essential Requirements and Best practices for Information & Communications Technology (ICT) Vendors • FAQ • WCAG: Level A, AA, AAA, Conformance Criteria • 508 Refresh Final: FPC, Hardware, Software, Support Documentation • EN 301 549 Chapters 4-13 34
  35. 35. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 IBM Accessibility Research Harmonization with other jurisdictions • Platform accessibility features, EU lacks requirements: • D. Section 10.6.7 Allow users to choose visual alternative for audio output; • F. Section 10.6.9 Provide speech output services; and • G. Section 10.7.1 Display any captions provided. • Authoring tools • Templates “shall be provided” versus “shall be available and identified as such” • “prompts user to create content” versus “enable and guide” • Europe discussion 35
  36. 36. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2017 IBM Accessibility Research Thank You Michael Gower gowerm@ca.ibm.com @IBMAccess IBM Accessibility Ageandability.com

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