Gbv all inclusive

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Gbv all inclusive

  1. 1. B Y M I C H A E L G A I TH O GBV PERSPECTIVE FOR HEALTH WORKERS……..MIKE (0722685594)
  2. 2. By the time this slide is finished, one person will be raped within this part of the world
  3. 3. BACKGROUND GBV is one of the most widespread human rights abuses in the world today GBV is devastating, affecting women and girls’ long- term physical and mental well-being The ripple effects of GBV compromise the well-being of families, communities and societies A strategy to address the problem is needed decision- makers and communities
  4. 4. RESPONSE TO GBV • Over the last decade, GBV has been widely recognized as a public health and human rights problem • Several conventions and declarations have established international/governmental commitment to addressing and eliminating GBV • KWCWC has played a pivotal role in these developments within the county • Our primary emphasis has been on the involvement, not only of the community duty bearers, but of women themselves, their families (men) and communities
  5. 5. SCOPE OF THE PROBLEM • It is a wide spread international human rights and public health issue. • Millions of girls and women suffer from violence and its consequences because of their sex and their unequal status in society. • While men are also victims of violence, violence against women is characterized by its high prevalence in the family • 49% of women reported as having experienced violence since age 15(KDHS,2003) • 83% of women and girls reported one or more episodes of physical violence in childhood; 46% reported one or more episodes of sexual abuse in childhood (UNAIDS,2006) • 25% of 12-24 year olds lost their virginity by force (UNAIDS,2006)
  6. 6. DEFINITION • It is harm that is perpetrated to a person against his /her will • It has negative impact on the physical, psychological development or health of the person, • It refers to violence that targets individuals or groups on the basis of their gender, this includes acts that inflict physical, mental, or sexual harm. • Women and girls are more vulnerable compared to their male counterparts
  7. 7. RESPONSE TO GBV VAW is “…any act of gender based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women…” SOCIETY COMMUNITY RELATIONSHIP INDIVIDUAL PERPETRATOR - Being male - Witnessing marital violence as a child - Absent or rejecting father - Being abused as a child - Alcohol use - Marital conflict - Male control of wealth and decision-making in the family - Poverty, low socioeconomic status, unemployment - Associating with delinquent peers - Isolation of women and family - Norms granting men control over female behaviour - Acceptance of violence as a way to resolve conflict - Notion of masculinity linked to dominance, honour or aggression - Rigid gender roles ECOLOGICAL MODEL OF FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE
  8. 8. GBV HAS SEVERE HEALTH IMPACTS • Violence during Pregnancy • Intimate partner violence prevalence of 4-15% during pregnancy • Leading cause of death among pregnant women may be homicide • Violence and HIV/AIDS • Forced sex is correlated to HIV risk • Victims of violence tend to engage in behaviors that put their health at risk • Proposing condom use may increase women’s risk of violence • Disclosing HIV status may increase risk of violence
  9. 9. SOCIAL COSTS OF GBV • Reflected in economic and health costs • Effects on school attendance and performance • Decline in health status and quality of life • Intergenerational effects of violence • Reduced civic/community participation • Culture of violence
  10. 10. SOCIAL COSTS OF GBV • Reflected in economic and health costs • Effects on school attendance and performance • Decline in health status and quality of life • Intergenerational effects of violence • Reduced civic/community participation • Culture of violence • Psychological trauma ….etc
  11. 11. CONSEQUENCES OF GBV Non fatal outcomes • Physical health outcomes • Injuries from lacerations and fractures • Unwanted pregnancies • Gynecological problems • STD’s including HIV • Miscarriage • Pelvic inflammatory diseases • Headaches • Permanent disabilities • Asthma • Irritable bowel syndrome • Self injurious behaviors (smoking, unprotected sex)
  12. 12. MENTAL HEALTH OUTCOMES • Depression • Fear • Anxiety • Low self esteem • Sexual dysfunction • Eating problems • OCD • PTSD
  13. 13. FATAL OUTCOMES • Suicide • Homicide • Maternal death • HIV/AIDS
  14. 14. CORE CONCEPTS OF GBV • GENDER AND SEX • HUMAN RIGHTS • CONSENT • VIOLENCE • USE OF FORCE • COERCION • ABUSE • POWER • HARM
  15. 15. GENDER VS. SEX • SOCIAL • UN-NATURAL • ACQUIRED • CULTURE SPECIFIC • CHANGEABLE • BIOLOGICAL • NATURAL • INBORN • UNIVERSAL • UNCHANGEABLE (Roles)
  16. 16. HUMAN RIGHTS • Right to life • Freedom from discrimination • Freedom from torture, cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment • Right to property • Right to health-including reproductive health and emergency health treatment • Right to education • Right not to be forced into any cultural rites or practices • Right to equality in marriage • Equal access to justice
  17. 17. GBV CAUSES • Gender inequality • Attitudes of disrespect- especially towards women and girls • Assumptions about behaviour of men and women • Desire for power and control • Politics- a weapon of ethnic cleansing • Traditional tensions • Religious beliefs • Alcohol and drug abuse • Lack of a capable legal system- Impunity
  18. 18. TRIGERS • Idling • Personal frustrations • Peer pressure • Drug abuse /alcoholism • Criminal scenes and environments.
  19. 19. GBV AS A HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATION: What Perception does GBV then entail:  All acts related to GBV are regarded as inhuman , cruel and degrading on ones integrity and dignity.  Once the act occurs a persons reputation is lost, negating the aspect of respecting laid out values, Morals and norms of society. What are Some of the causes of GBV:  Poverty : its played a central role in frustrating and necessitating violence.  Drugs: Harmful drugs that are abused  Culture: negative traditional practices : retrogressive in nature  Illiteracy : lack of knowledge and advantage taken over on this  In Adequate protective mechanisms etc
  20. 20. MAIN ACTORS IN GBV • GBV networks • Community – CBO’s, Youth, FBO’s etc • Law enforcers. • Civil Society Organizations. • Local administration. • HCP’s and medical institutions. • CHEW’s, PHO’s, CWH’s • Community leaders • Opinion Leaders
  21. 21. GAPS AND CHALLENGES • Access challenges especially for services e.g. legal, police and medical services. • System friendliness and attitudes of the public. • System insufficiency in terms of delivery of services timely. Longevity of cases. • Lack of information dissemination. • Short cuts to dues process. • Few post SGBV options. • Lower levels of reporting. • Withdrawal of cases. • Poor follow up of cases • Judiciary lenience's
  22. 22. REASONS FOR NOT REPORTING • Stigma • Powerlessness • Traumatic sexualization • Not wanting to relive the event • Fear of conflict • Social embarrassment • ‘Compensation’ from perpetrator • Threats from the perpetrator
  23. 23. FORMS OF GBV • Sexual Violence • Physical Violence • Emotional and Psychological Violence • Harmful Traditional Practices and • Socio-Economic Violence.
  24. 24. SEXUAL VIOLENCE Rape and Marital Rape: (kubaka) • The invasion of any part of the body of the victim or of the perpetrator with a sexual organ, or of the anal or genital opening of the victim with any object or any other part of the body by force, coercion, taking advantage of a coercive environment, or against a person incapable of giving genuine consent (Sexual Offences Act, 2006) Defilement and Incest: (kunajisi) • Any act where a child is used for sexual gratification. Any sexual relations or interaction with a child. In the Children Act, a child is defined as any person under the age of 18 years.
  25. 25. CONTD… • Sexual Exploitation: Any abuse of a position of vulnerability, differential power, or trust for sexual purposes. • Gang Rape: raped by more than one person • Attempted Rape : Attempted forced/coerced intercourse where there is no penetration.
  26. 26. DEFILED BY A GANG- MTOTO ALIYENAJISIWA
  27. 27. . Sexual Abuse/harassment: • Actual or threatened physical intrusion of a sexual nature, including inappropriate touching, by force or under unequal or coercive conditions
  28. 28. SEXUAL HARRASMENT PT1
  29. 29. SEXUAL HARRASMENT PT2
  30. 30. SEXUAL HARRASMENT PT3
  31. 31. PHYSICAL VIOLENCE Physical Assault: • Beating, punching, kicking, biting, burning, maiming or killing, with or without weapons; often in combinations with other forms of sexual and gender-based violence.
  32. 32. PHYSICAL VIOLENCE PT1
  33. 33. EMOTIONAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL • Abuse/Humiliation: Non-sexual verbal abuse that is insulting, degrading, demeaning; compelling the victim/survivor to engage in humiliating acts, whether in public or private; denying basic expenses for family survival. • Confinement: Isolating a person from friends/family, restricting movements, deprivation of liberty or obstruction/restriction of the right to free movement.
  34. 34. HARMFUL PRACTICES. • Female Genital Mutilation (FGM): Kupasha tohara kwa wasichana ukeketaji • Cutting of genital organs for non-medical reasons, usually done at a young age
  35. 35. HTP.PT2
  36. 36. HARMFUL TRADITIONAL PRACTICES PT1
  37. 37. HTP PT3
  38. 38. OTHERS • EARLY MARRIAGES – ndoa za mapema • WIFE INHERITANCE – kurithi wanawake wajane • INFANTICIDE/NEGLECT – kuua mtoto mchanga • DENIAL OF EDUCATION – kutompeleka mtoto shule • CHILD TRAFFICKING – uuzaji wa watoto /biashara haramu ya kuuza watoto
  39. 39. SUMMARY • GBV DEFINITION • CORE CONCEPTS OF GBV • FORMS OF GBV • CAUSES AND EFFECTS
  40. 40. THANK YOU
  41. 41. GBV RESPONSE LEGAL PERSPECTIVE MICHAEL GAITHO
  42. 42. Kenya has various laws and policies on gender- based violence, including; 1. Inheritance rights policies, 2. Marriage and divorce laws, 3. Domestic and sexual violence laws, 4. Laws around cultural practices such as female genital mutilation (FGM) and early marriage. 5. Registry for sexual offenders – recent development, 24TH April 2012 (TFSOA) SOA – The aim of the Sexual Offences Act is to explain sexual offences and make ways to prevent and protect all persons from illegal sexual acts.
  43. 43. LEGAL INSTRUMENTS • The Constitution of Kenya • Children’s Act No.8 of 2001 • Sexual Offences Act 2006
  44. 44. • RAPE • ATTEMPTED RAPE • GANG RAPE • SEXUAL ASSAULT • INDECENT ACTS • CHILD TRAFFIKING • INCEST • SEXUAL HARRASMENT • 10 years or life • 5 years or life • 15 years or life • 10 years or life • Child- 10yrs, adult – 5 yrs, 50K or both • 10 years , 2M for a company • 10 years or life • 3 years, 100K or Both FORMS PENALTY
  45. 45. • TRANSMITTING HIV DELIBERATELY • DEFILEMENT • 11years and below • 12-15 years • 16-18 years • 15 years or life • Life imprisonment • 20 years in jail • 15 years in jail FORMS PENALTY
  46. 46. FALSE ALLEGATIONS • Any person who makes false allegations against another person to the effect that the person has committed an offence under this Act is guilty of an offence and shall be liable to punishment equal to that for the offence complained of. PERSONS WITH DISABILITY • Committing rape, defilement, or any indecent act within the view of a family member, a child or a person with mental disabilities is an offence that attracts a penalty of not less than 10 years imprisonment.
  47. 47. REASONS FOR NOT REPORTING • Stigma • Powerlessness • Traumatic sexualisation • Not wanting to relive the event • Fear of conflict • Social embarrassment • ‘Compensation’ from perpetrator • Threats from the perpetrator
  48. 48. REPORTING GUIDELINES • All acts of violence should be reported • Records should be accurately recorded, according to the victim’s words • Once reported, • Perpetrator should be tried in court and convicted according to the law. • Perpetrator and survivor should be educated and counseled. • Victim should be provided with support from the community, the law, the family.
  49. 49. WHAT INFORMATION IS NEEDED • Victim’s statement • Any Eyewitnesses? • Relatives, friends and neighbours • Hospital and medical reports • Police reports (OB, P3, Statement) • Evidence that has been preserved, weapon, clothing, photographs of injuries, used condom.
  50. 50. JUSTICE • Fight for justice • A large percentage of the healing comes from gaining justice for what happened. • Helps the survivor know the violence is being addressed when the case it is moving along. There's a process for action and their ordeal has not been ignored. • Being actively involved in what is going on keeps them occupied and they use their time constructively.
  51. 51. WHAT VICTIMS NEED • Create Social network • Have sustainable Social support • Psychological support from a professional • Justice for violence meted against them • Safe shelter pending justice
  52. 52. REFERRALS /NETWORKING • Child abuse 116 • Sexual and physical violence 1195 • MSF 0711 400 506 , GVRC • KWCWC – see our brochures • WRAP – women rights awareness program: 0722 252 939 • Nearest Chiefs office’s • CPU – Children’s protection unit
  53. 53. PROBONO SERVICES • NALEAP (National Legal Aid program) • CREAW • FIDA • COVAW • WRAP e.t.c

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