Mega events the olympics and their strategic uses - guest lecture (22 april 2013)


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  • Good morning everyone. Firstly, before I start, thank you for joining this Guest Lecture on ‘Mega-events, the Olympics and their Strategic Uses’; an exciting opportunity for you, as current students, researchers and future potential leaders of events – to not just be a spectator of the mega-event (i.e. the Olympics) watching Ping-Pong and Usain Bolt ‘storm’ the 100m race – but to understand what they symbolise, why they exist in our society and how policy makers, practitioners and communities with people just like you can leverage mega-events like the Olympics for good (not just economically, but the growing concern around regeneration and social benefits).
  • Read and expand on the learning objectives … [Reference to the re-sit examination]
  • Associate Lecturer;experienced teaching in the subject areas of; management, strategy, organisations, research and general transferable skill development. PhD Research; started back in October 2012; where it is now focusing on ‘Olympic Legacy’; what a positive legacy should look like for local businesses situated around the London Olympic Park [and how you conceptualise that!]… and how initiatives planned by Olympic delivery committee’s; and the small businesses themselves have contributed towards achieving those ‘legacy aspirations’. Work and study; I worked for a governmental funded org, called Vitae; developing academic programmes for PhD’s; and I was in your seat just 5 years ago completing my Undergraduate degree here at Anglia Ruskin; so I understand the pain you are going through with your 3rd year studies and dissertation! But work hard, hang in there and it’ll pay off. GO INTO MORE DEPTH AROUND MY EVENT MANAGEMENT EXPERIENCE – HOW IT INCORPORATES THE MORE FUNTIONAL APPROACH TO BUSINESS (I.E. MARKETING EVENT MANAGEMENT ETC) – Connect with the business studies students !
  • So before we begin; ask the class what do they believe to be a mega-event…? Can they give me any examples?! Also ask them what the different therefore may be between a regular small festival or hallmark event… [ensure they understand the smaller type of events, before introducing mega-events to put it in perspective]. Defining mega-event…As with any theory/concept there are a range of definitions; however Roche (2000) a well-known authority in the field of mega-events; states that… Whilst Sola (1998) provides a more practical, measurable definition, stating that for an event to be ‘mega’ it must have the following impact;I like to think that across this spectrum of practical  theoretical definition; we can find an all-encompassing definition – see mine: “A one-off, popular global event, attracting significant international attention to both city and nation, with the opportunity to leverage city/place marketing, enhance worldwide reputations and image, thus increasing tourist volumes, ultimately boosting local and city trade, whilst also focusing on the need to develop the urban infrastructural landscape and local regeneration” (Duignan, 2013)
  • The three core examples of mega-events; both cultural and sporting are; International Exhibitions / World Fairs and Expo’sThe FIFA World Cup; first introduced in 1930 (Uruguay)And the Olympics; the larger father of mega-event genre; a festival of culture and sports developed by ancient Greece over 2500 years ago; to be re-introduced in to our modern day society by Frenchman; Pierre de Coubertin
  • First paragraph….. Agendas, ambitions and expectations for the delivery of mega-events, particularly the Olympics have grown exponentially; hand-in-hand with momentous growth of sustained, outstanding celebrations of human accomplishments in the Arts, Sports and Science (Hall, 1992). Simply - as a global population; we are achieving incredible feats within our society; and the way these are communicated is through the medium of events and mega-events. Second paragraph…..However, the global environment that we operate in. Technology is changing the way; mega-events operate and communicate with the world; which can be particularly seen by the invention of Television; beaming information and images in to your lives with just a switch of a button; a computer click. The resulting effect has been to the detriment of the World Expo; where once the showcasing of goods, services and commodities housed under one roof; they are now so easily assessable via i.e. the internet that their symbolic nature of bringing global communities together; has decreased… thus in turn attracting less interest at economic benefit (from i.e. tourists). However on a positive note; the potential of sporting events; particularly the World Cup and the Olympics have offered society; phenomenal potential, particularly for economic, but also social benefit… to the extent that mega-events, and the Olympic Games are cited as one of the key hallmarks of modernity; modern life (Hall, 2006) NEXT SLIDE
  • Urban regeneration and renewal (of often under developed, and socio-economically deprived neighbourhoods and city suburbs with varying degrees of social problems – areas that are often utilised as a target central focal point for the majority of Olympic infrastructure; sitting within a nucleated site Olympic site (a known preference of the IOC). In theory; such approach aims to optimise and maximise potential regenerative benefits for such areas. Picture:Late 19th Century, Victorian families like this one in the late 19th century had to endure low life expectancy rates caused by squalor, disease and starvation.City marketing, place promotion and enhancing international image (often for economic gain; tourism and investment; and politically used to affirm/re-affirm on to ‘global stage’ – i.e. Beijing, 2008. But for London 2012; all about using the Games as a catalyst for change, for social good, for a chronically deprived area of London and the UK.Short-term visitation impacts and local / domestic economic growth (mention UK’s 2012 growth, 0.5%; without the stimulant of the Olympic we may have been in negative growth)Long-term economic and social effects; often conceptualised as ‘Olympic Legacy’ (since the birth of sustainability agenda, the global / IOC theme, particularly for London 2012; and the importance of justifying huge sums of money in order to plan and deliver an Olympic Games; there must be some long-term economic / social benefit and return for the public capital and private investment employed)Mega-events are now synonymous with achieving economic development – often strategically used; twinned with the growth of the sports industry too.
  • But its not just economic benefits that mega-events, and the Olympics attempts to contribute to……. The Games can now not just rely on economic contributions, but more social issues… regeneration initiatives are therefore form a key objective. Reports suggest that local and national event strategies; that are in search of a regeneration boost are focussed on sports events (Olympics/FIFA World Cup). Explain and expand on this section… Introduce famous cases of urban regeneration; can be found as far back as Rome 1960 and Tokyo 1968 (Essex and Chalkley, 1998); where regeneration and infrastructural developments informed longer term benefits for host city, and Olympic Legacy. Barcelona 1992 (Garcia, 2004) in particular where urban regeneration [and also city marketing/enhanced global reputations] was at its pinnacle. Substantial levels of public money (approx $6.2 Billion - Malfas, 2004), where roughly 83% was used to stimulate regeneration plans; infrastructural, commercial ‘spatial’ strategies and cultural programmes (Gold and Gold, 2008). By looking at previous Games, specifically since Barcelona 1992, this has been a key strategy, particularly for Sydney’s Homebush Bay area for the 2000 Games, London’s Lower Lea Valley for 2012 (MENTION THAT LONDON 2012 WILL BE DISCUSSED IN MORE DEPTH SHORTLY) and Rio 2016 Games Deodoro area (former area for previous Pan-American Games) – WHO IS FROM / HAS BEEN TO RIO? COULD YOU SEE DEPRIVED SOCIAL AREAS?Despite this Barcelona 1992 Games provided the best practice model for both urban regeneration; and city marketing strategies (Vigor et al, 2004); of which many Olympic cities have tried to replicate but without as much success (MacRury and Poynter, 2009). Time will tell, if similar effects will be seen for London 2012; where longer-term benefits may be realised in 10, even 20 years (same time scale as Barcelona, 1992).
  • Mention briefly, and apply to London 2012’s opening ceremony with the chimney towers.
  • [Mention how the area earmarked for the Olympics; Lower Lea Valley, was one of the most deprived areas in the UK -- justifying Ken’s statement…
  • And this was a specific example of how Lower Lea valley saw the transformation of their built environment; from industrial brownfield wasteland to post-industrial utopia… We can see, clearly how the physical, built environment has significantly changed, pre-Games, through to now, 2013. We can see the development of buildings, the clearance of ‘brownfield’ sites like the one in the bottom left hand corner and physically regenerated area; but by looking at these images, can you see anything missing?? THE PEOPLE. THE COMMUNITIES – BE IT RESIDENTIAL, LOCAL SMALL BUSINESSES (LIKE MIKE THE MECHANIC, OR SANDRA THE SANDWICH LADY). Of course, I have selected these images, and you will find images that do have people in them; however, one of the key criticisms of regeneration programmes; is the lack of humanism, often the disregard for people and the communities that exist in such neighbourhoods, before the ‘necessary games infrastructure’ is build on top.Raco and Tunney (2010) note that such regeneration programmes often erode, or completely destroy “pre-existing socio-economic practices”
  • Intro:Mega-events are widely thought to generate new opportunities for radical and significant local development by bringing new jobs, investment, and hope back to areas that have suffered from severe and on-going de-industrialisation (Raco, 2004), whilst boosting the confidence of local communities (Roche, 2000). However the true picture and impact of regeneration on local communities is a complex concern, continuing to spark heated debates within both the academic and political arena (Raco and Tunney, 2010).Can anyone hazard a guess why? Ask them to focus on the adjectives used… 1) Image of superficiality; a spectacle often though to divert attention and resources away, rather than answer fundamental social problems associated with the deprived areas event’led regeneration aims to tackle
  • ‘Tabula Rasa’ regeneration approach can erode, or completely destroy “pre-existing socio-economic practices” (Raco and Tunney, 2010). Although creates an image of futurity and promise; it simultaneously creates uncertainty and risk for present users, e.g. locals Ultimately leading to ‘displacement’ through issuing of local Customer Purchase Order (CPO’s) - The concept of displacement, broadly defined as the “removal of a thing from its place; putting out of place; shifting, dislocation” (OED, 2013) appears to be the most prolific criticism of event-led regeneration programmes on local communities within Olympic delivery (see authors cited above). The process of eviction, often mobilised through the issuing of Compulsory Price Order’s (CPO’s), underpin such criticism, where communities [residential and business] are displaced in order to make way for the ‘necessary Games infrastructure’ (Raco and Tunney, 2010: p 2070). The low importance of such small business communities within local development agenda’s (Raco and Tunney, 2010), often occurs given that they often exist in in unappealing, low-cost neighbourhoods and “are easily written off as collections of old fashioned firms [ANY IN PARTICULAR], whose decline is inevitable” (Berry et al, 1968; Imrie et al, 1995). Such issues highlight the lack of understanding regarding the type of environment dynamics of which small local businesses operate in; particularly as many local SME’s come to rely on the established, close-knit networks and connections characterised within small area clusters (Amin and Thrift, 2002; Porter, 2000; Davies, 2010). Examples of such close-knit networks and connections are highlighted by Davies (2010, p 15-18), as potentially being of a ‘historical’ nature (e.g. client relationships formed through tradition over the years and use of their area), a ‘practical’ nature (e.g. cost and business location in the area) and of a ‘physical’ nature (e.g. local sports clubs, churches and societies shaped in specific areas). The key issue here is that in a situation where both qualitative and quantitative SME independencies emerge overtime, they can be easily lost through forced relocation, which subsequently “destroy pre-existing socio-economic practices” (Raco and Tunney, 2010; p 2070). Thomas and Imrie (1989) suggest that such ‘clearance schemes’ are often executed with indifference for the future of SME’s and “presumptions against so called low order uses in favour of more marketable purposes and profitable land uses” (p 19). The lack of attention, and de prioritisation for the welfare of such local small business communities, is widely thought to be down to the difficulty in proving their contribution to the ‘social and economic vitality of cities’ (Raco and Tunney, 2010: p 2073). Policy makers responsible for local development within Games delivery, often see small local business as representations of visible symbols of earlier eras of economy activity, of whose presence may be seen as a physical block on economic change and regeneration (Raco and Tunney, 2010). As a consequence, it is therefore unsurprising that little evidence that suggests local SME’s have ever significantly influenced the objectives of high-profile, mega-event projects (Flyvbjerg and Bruzelius, 2002). Raco and Tunney’s study highlighted that just over 300 businesses, and many more residents were forced out of the area!Limited ‘community consultation’ with local people; therefore “fail to be responsive to wider interests and long-term community needs” (Mean et al, 2004: 130-131). The literature identifies that such limited community consultation (e.g Cashman, 2003), avoidance of bureaucratic stakeholder consultation (e.g. Hiller, 2002) and ‘over-riding’ of local concerns are often justified by the pressures placed on delivery authorities to execute mega-projects with immovable time-pressures and deadlines for completion (Raco and Tunney, 2010; Cashman, 2002; Smith, 2012; Hiller, 2002); commonly labelled as ‘in the city and national interest’ (Cashman, 2002). The resulting product as Hiller (2002) explores is that often than not, instead of consulting urban residents and local communities, organising committees conceive their task as “merely informing about people of plans rather than truly seeking input about these plans from the ground up” (p 104)Aggressive, top down, dominant visualisations for regeneration programmes regarding how an area should aesthetically look and function (Davies, 2013) – often it is local elites, and those with political power as to whose visions are prioritised.Davies (2013) highlights that such comprehensive, cataclysmic; mega-event driven redevelopment has ‘infrequently preceded a successful transformation of urban fortunes in the context of other cities’ (p 16). Beijing’s 2008 Olympic Games, is often cited a case where regressive, heavy top-down approach to policy making and regeneration has created severe negativity towards creating space, and clearance for an Olympic site (Becker, 2008). Although, the London Development Authority (LDA), place considerable emphasis in their literature on the aim, and ethos of local community negotiation, one of the core criticisms for regeneration programmes within Olympic delivery is that major aspects are presented as ‘non-negotiable.Media doesn’t want to know; critics usually turn in to boosters – particularly media in the national interest (Cashman, 2002); a political move by governments to ensure no political anti-movement exists; slows down what are already difficult deadlines… Increasing house prices and [residential and entrepreneurial] rents, plus risk of ‘gentrification’ and loss of affordable housing and (Hiller, 2002) – this can often force lower income communities both residential and businesses out of areas.
  • [Ask one of the students to give me a example local business – to engage them..]the knock of effects could be;- Increasing rents forcing out of the area, or have serious impact on your business profits Jobs in the local area may be lost due to displacementsExisting customer bases and more historical connections lost (socio-economic relationships destroyed)Elements of the community atmosphere lost, part of the culture and local identitySupplier relationships destroyed; i.e. if Ben’s Bucher, provides 50 steaks to Alessandro’s Italian restaurant; if either are forced out, dyadic supplier-customer relationship is broken
  • Although we have argued so far the strategic opportunities, and then the darker side to Olympic [regeneration] programmes…. In order to secure a future for local businesses; there are potential benefits for such local businesses to exploit – often referred to as; ‘Leveraging’ Close your eyes, or keep them open if they wish… they have 1 minute to think off the top of their heads; if they were a small business, where are the opportunities for them in an area where millions of tickets have been sold for a venue situated close to them…
  • At the beginning of seminar, I will talk for approx. 5 minutes about what the literature says about the challenges for small business, and set the scene…Some businesses are able to capitalise on sport more than others…largely down to how well local merchants are able to capitalise on the visitation impacts, potential high footfall and spending behaviour of sports spectators [particularly those on holiday] Forms a conducive environment for impulse spending (Godbey and Graefe, 1991)How can local businesses cultivate such opportunity; this will be their first challenge!! – A TACTICAL ACTION PLAN !! PROBLEM!But there is a problem; a key issue highlighted in the literature identifies that local businesses may be either LEAST WILLING (Malone and Jenster, 1991) OR THE LEAST ABLE (Davis, 1997) to leverage the kind of opportunities that a sport event represents Also appears to be significant issue of geographical proximity to the main core event zone (in London’s case the Olympic Park and key stadia)Also theme in the literature that it is the key service industries of restaurants; retailers and hoteliers with greatest potential for leverageAlso risks of substitution effects and eversion markets – how do you prevent these markets forming, and substitution?! How do you retail spending of the local people; in period of intensity, where many choose to avoid the event zone, or take a break away?!The literature highlights that one of the main drawbacks for small local business owners, is that they either lack the ‘inclination’ (Malone and Jenster, 1991); the ‘skills needed to leverage’ OR the ‘information’ to engage in strategic planning / exploitation of leverage opportunities SO THE TASK FOR THE SEMINAR:Leveraging Olympic opportunities for local small business communities… x3 teams of businesses (ill provide business description, sector, name, no of employees, main weaknesses/strengths etc)x1 team of event organisers X1 team of local policy makersConsidering the following (relating back to the theory, and issues discussed in the lecture – I could print out slides for each group) they also have to use their own ideas too…Potential opportunities and risks you can identify for local businesses situated within close proximity of the London 2012 Olympic Park [you may reference to both economic and social issues]How you as either a local business, local policy maker or event organiser – can use the identified opportunities, to cultivate benefits for your business – WHAT WOULD YOU DO PRE, DURING AND POST OLYMPICS?! – you are now consultants…develop a pre, during and post-Games tactical and strategic action plan (20 minutes); and from each perspective, present your plan to the group. We’ll then have an all-encompassing; de-brief and final brainstorm to consolidate the key themes and issues…
  • Thank you for listening and see you in the seminar !All slides will be on the VLE.
  • Mega events the olympics and their strategic uses - guest lecture (22 april 2013)

    1. 1. Guest Lecture Michael Duignan (MAIB, MBA, BA) 22 April, 2013 Event and Conference Management Delivering an Olympic mega-event: strategic uses and the local business community
    2. 2. What you will learn from this lecture…  Understand how mega-events have evolved in society and why host cities even consider to bid for mega-events like the Olympics, stating; - How they are used as a strategic tool for achieving wider objectives [predominantly social and economic]? - Potential positive impacts Vs. risks they present – particularly for local [residential and business] communities Using the Olympic Games as the “archetypal and most prized event of this genre” (Essex and Chalkley, 2002)…
    3. 3. [Very] quick blurb about me…  Current Lecturer at the Business School here and PhD researcher at the IIMP „Impact of London 2012 Olympics on small businesses‟  Experienced leading governmental national academic and strategic project teams  Previous Undergraduate and Postgraduate student of Anglia Ruskin University
    4. 4. So what is a ‘mega-event’?... Any ideas from the floor…? “Large scale cultural (including commercial and sporting) events which have a dramatic character, mass-popular appeal and international significance” (Roche, 2000) Whilst Sola (1998) suggest for an event to be „mega‟ it must; - Increase tourist volumes, and visitor expenditures; boosting local trade - Create a positive image and internationally publicise; host city‟s and their culture - Lead to infrastructural improvements to stadia and surrounding areas leading to prosperity pre, during and following the event
    5. 5. Examples of [mega]-events and how they have evolved … The Crystal Palace in Hyde Park, home to the „Great Exhibition’ of 1851 (Source: Rivera, 2001) The Opening Ceremony at the 1896 Athens Olympics (Source: Rivera, 2001) The first FIFA World Cup poster (1930) / 2014 official logo (Source:, 2013)
    6. 6. The evolving of the mega-event in to the 21st Century… Over the 20th and in to the 21st Century…  there has been a momentous growth of sustained, outstanding celebrations of human accomplishments in the Arts, Sports and Science (Hall, 1992)  globalisation and the rise of technology; has shaped how mega-events are delivered (Hall, 2006)… particularly leading to the fragmentation of World Expo‟s, as they; - Fail to have the international impact they used to (Rydell et al, 2000) both economically and symbolically
    7. 7. Strategic uses of a 21st Century Olympic mega-event… • Urban regeneration and renewal • City marketing, place promotion, enhancing international image • Short-term visitation impacts and local / domestic economic growth (6.6m tickets sold) • Sustainability Long-term economic and social effects; often conceptualised as ‘Olympic Legacy’ Others include: - Boosting civic pride - International leverage / networking opportunities for local business - Political exploitation - etc…. Late 19th Century, Victorian family (Guardian, 2012)
    8. 8. Urban regeneration and renewal…a key objective What is urban regeneration…? DCMS Definition: “the positive transformation of a place –whether residential, commercial or open space- that has „previously displayed symptoms of physical, social and/or economic decline” (DCMS, 2004: 10) Role in society…  Increasing role in the growth and transformation of the modern urban environment  Central, rather than peripheral element of urban modernity (Vigor et al, 2004)  “Olympic planning must now be viewed as almost synonymous with urban planning” (Hiller, 2002: 102)  Predictions estimate that over 50% of the world population will live in urban areas in the future (Munoz, 1999)
    9. 9. How mega-events are effective tools for event-led regeneration?  ‘Fast track’ and mobilise new and existing national/local regeneration policies (Essex and Chalkley, 2002)  Absorbs dynamic changing city agendas (Rustin, 2009) and attract government funding and support (Burbank, 2002)  Recognised single focal point and immovable pressured deadline for completion (Smith, 2012)  Provides local authorities with reason to invest in local “physical regeneration, transport and heritage restoration (Pappalepore, 2011)  Connects tourism strategies with urban planning, boosting local confidence (Roche, 1994)
    10. 10. London 2012; The regeneration of East End (Lower Lea Valley) Olympic areas Periods of industrialisation in 19th Century East End of London (English Heritage, 2012) London 2012 Opening Ceremony- Symbolism of London East End history(English Heritage, 2012)
    11. 11. “The London 2012 Olympics, is an opportunity that will underpin the next 50 years of East London‟s future” (Livingstone, 2008)London‟s Mayor at time of July, 2005 bid
    12. 12. London 2012 Games; The regeneration of the East End (Lower Lea Valley) Olympic areas Pre-Olympic regeneration (2006) During construction (2010) Post-Olympic Regeneration (2012)
    13. 13. The darker side to Olympic regeneration programmes (criticisms)  Policies often referred to as; „Cosmetic exercises‟ (Garcia, 2004) „Carnival Masks‟ (Harvey, 1989)  Mega-events broadly as „parades‟ / „shows‟ (Roche, 2000) Can anyone hazard a guess why?  Image of superficiality; divert attention and resources away from fundamental social problems  „Bread and Circus‟ character; focus towards end, rather than long-term aspiration of regeneration and legacy
    14. 14. The darker side to Olympic regeneration programmes (criticisms continued) 1) ‘Tabula Rasa’ regeneration approach can erode, or completely destroy “pre-existing socio-economic practices” (Raco and Tunney, 2010) ‘Displacement’ of local [residential and business communities] 2) Top down, dominant visualisations of how an area should aesthetically look and function (Davies, 2013) Limited ‘community consultation’ with local people; therefore “fail to be responsive to wider interests and long-term community needs” (Mean et al, 2004: 130-131) 3) Increasing house prices and [residential and entrepreneurial] rents, plus risk of ‘gentrification’ (Hiller, 2002)
    15. 15. So, imagine you‟re the local business… impact?!  Through act of „Tabula Rasa‟ you could be just told to „move‟ and displaced  Potential for your voices to be never heard… limited consultation, just top down (local elites)  If you stay, and you rent your business unit (like most do!) – what will happen to your rental costs?
    16. 16. So you‟re one of the surviving businesses… … you‟re in the immediate vicinity, close by the Olympic Park; it is estimated that 6.6 million tickets have been sold – most of which will be sold for the Olympic Park venue.. Can you spot potential Olympic opportunities… ? If you were a [x] business, how do you exploit them…[left for the seminar…]
    17. 17. So for the seminar, you‟ll be… Apply Contextualise Local policy maker Event organisers Local business owner Three key stakeholder perspectives:
    18. 18. Any questions…
    19. 19. References Davies, J (2013) „2012 London Olympics: Public Policy Group‟: [pdf online] Available at: [accessed on 9 Feb, 2013) Department of Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS), (2008) „Before, During and After – Making the Most of the Games‟ [pdf online] Available at: [Accessed 26 October, 2012] Essex, S; Chalkley, B (2002) „The Infrastructural Legacy of the Summer and Winter Olympic Games: A Comparative Analysis‟ chapter in (Eds.) IOC (2002) „The Legacy of the Olympic Games 1984-2000‟ - International Symposium Lausanne, 2002 García, B. (2004). „Urban Regeneration, Arts Programming and Major Events: Glasgow1990, Sydney 2000 and Barcelona 2004‟. International Journal of Cultural Policy. Vol.10, p 113-118 Harvey, D. (1989) „Transformations in urban governance in late capitalism‟, Geografiska Annaler, 71B, pp. 3–17. Hall, C. M. 1992, „Hallmark Tourist Events: Impacts, Management and Planning‟, Belhaven Press, London Hiller, H (2002) „Toward a Science of Olympic Outcomes: The Urban Legacy‟, chapter in (Eds.) IOC (2002) „The Legacy of the Olympic Games 1984-2000‟ - International Symposium Lausanne, 2002 Livingstone, K (2007) „Five Legacy Commitments‟, London: Major of London Pappalepore, I (2011) „The Olympic Games Cultural Programme and its Role in Fostering Creativity: A report to the International Olympic Committee‟ [pdf online] Available at: [accessed on 2 January, 2013) Raco, M; Tunney, E, 2010, Visibilities and Invisibilities in Urban Development: Small Business Communities and the London Olympics 2012, Urban Studies, Vol.47, p2069-2091 Roche M. (1994), „Mega-Events and Urban Policy‟, Annals of Tourism Research, 21, p. 1- Roche, M (2000), „Mega-events and modernity revisited: globalization and the case of the Olympics‟, The Sociological Review, 2006, Vol.54, p.25 (16) Rustin, M (2009) „Sport, Spectacle and Society: Understanding the Olympics‟ chapter in (Eds.) Poynter G; MacRury I. (2009), Olympic Cities: 2012 and the Remaking of London, Ashgate, Farnham Smith. A (2012), Events and Urban Regeneration; the Strategic Use of Events to Revitalise Cities, Routledge, London
    20. 20. How to get in touch…  Via staff email –  Via Skype – „michaelbduignan‟  Via blog –  Via Twitter - @michaelbduignan  Via LinkedIn If you would like to talk about any aspect of this lecture, or my research in the area of mega-event impacts on local small business performance - please contact me:
    21. 21. Thank you for listening – all slides on the VLE