Using a Hierarchy of Reactive Behaviors to Simplify Nao Control
Nao
    25 Actuators
    30 FPS Video
    Infrared
    Gyrometer
    Accelerometer
    Good at falling over

Price: ...
COMPLEX PROBLEM
Ronaldo
    639 Actuators
    18 FPS Video
    No Infrared
    Good balance
    Proven technology
    Also good at f...
94 000 000 / 4000 = 23 500

 Can twenty-three-thousand-
 five-hundred Nao bots beat
          Ronaldo?

         (think ab...
World VS Belgium VS Robots

   Cristiano Ronaldo   $ 94 000 000
    Zinedine Zidane    $ 73 000 000


  Marouane Fellaini ...
Using
  a Hierarchy of Reactive Behaviors
                         to Simplify Nao Control
“Reactive behavior” means
     Output is a direct reaction to the input
     No reasoning about symbolic world
      kno...
“a Hierarchy”
     Behaviors are ordered in layers

     A behavior can only change the
      activation factor of a beh...
Like subsumption...
But with layers...
What does this mean?
    Behaviors on the bottom layer only influence
     actuators
    The next layer can configure th...
Speed
    Each layer is updated by the control loop
     at a different speed.
    Bottom = fastest
    Speed decreases...
Speed IIo
    Behaviors can only access sensors and
     actuators on their own layer

    The speed at which a sensor u...
Aggregated percepts
    Sensors are given access to the history of
     the entire layer below
    This way a sensor on ...
A hypothetical example
A real example
Lessons learned
A Layered Hierarchy
of Reactive Behaviors can
 Reduce Complexity
  of Robot Control
World Cup 2006
A Team of Dedicated Germans
     Can Beat Ronaldo


        3 1
  This is good news for UM
Using a Hierarchy of Reactive Behaviors to Simplify Nao Control
Using a Hierarchy of Reactive Behaviors to Simplify Nao Control
Using a Hierarchy of Reactive Behaviors to Simplify Nao Control
Using a Hierarchy of Reactive Behaviors to Simplify Nao Control
Using a Hierarchy of Reactive Behaviors to Simplify Nao Control
Using a Hierarchy of Reactive Behaviors to Simplify Nao Control
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Using a Hierarchy of Reactive Behaviors to Simplify Nao Control

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My Bachelor thesis presentation.

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Using a Hierarchy of Reactive Behaviors to Simplify Nao Control

  1. 1. Using a Hierarchy of Reactive Behaviors to Simplify Nao Control
  2. 2. Nao  25 Actuators  30 FPS Video  Infrared  Gyrometer  Accelerometer  Good at falling over Price: $ 4000
  3. 3. COMPLEX PROBLEM
  4. 4. Ronaldo  639 Actuators  18 FPS Video  No Infrared  Good balance  Proven technology  Also good at falling over Price: $ 94,000,000
  5. 5. 94 000 000 / 4000 = 23 500 Can twenty-three-thousand- five-hundred Nao bots beat Ronaldo? (think about it)
  6. 6. World VS Belgium VS Robots Cristiano Ronaldo $ 94 000 000 Zinedine Zidane $ 73 000 000 Marouane Fellaini $ 20 000 000 Vincent Kompany $ 12 500 000 Honda Asimo $ 1 000 000 Nao RoboCup Edition $ 4 000
  7. 7. Using a Hierarchy of Reactive Behaviors to Simplify Nao Control
  8. 8. “Reactive behavior” means  Output is a direct reaction to the input  No reasoning about symbolic world knowledge  End result emerges from the interaction of a number of behaviors  Interaction occurs through changing other behaviors' measure of activity
  9. 9. “a Hierarchy”  Behaviors are ordered in layers  A behavior can only change the activation factor of a behavior on the layer directly below it
  10. 10. Like subsumption...
  11. 11. But with layers...
  12. 12. What does this mean?  Behaviors on the bottom layer only influence actuators  The next layer can configure the last layer.  It can select or mix behaviors!  If the bottom layer has a behavior “go_left” and a behavior “go_right” the second layer decides where to go  This way each layer gets more abstract
  13. 13. Speed  Each layer is updated by the control loop at a different speed.  Bottom = fastest  Speed decreases with each layer Why ?  Low level actuator control needs fast feedback  High level decisions don't need to be re- evaluated every 20 ms
  14. 14. Speed IIo  Behaviors can only access sensors and actuators on their own layer  The speed at which a sensor updates determines which layer it is placed on  Similarly, actuators are placed on the layer the best correspond to  Behaviors are placed on the layer that gives them access to the right sensors, actuators and lower level behaviors
  15. 15. Aggregated percepts  Sensors are given access to the history of the entire layer below  This way a sensor on layer z can “sense” the average output of sensors on layer z – 1  So as we move up the chain, sensors generate increasingly abstract percepts  Similarly, actuators can set abstract internal variables (parameters)
  16. 16. A hypothetical example
  17. 17. A real example
  18. 18. Lessons learned
  19. 19. A Layered Hierarchy of Reactive Behaviors can Reduce Complexity of Robot Control
  20. 20. World Cup 2006 A Team of Dedicated Germans Can Beat Ronaldo 3 1 This is good news for UM

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