Group 1: Miranda Michael Nicholas Hui Qing Victoria    Mini Project 1: Survey              NM4102 Advanced Research       ...
IntroductionTo study the relationship between the attitudes towards socialnetworking sites (SNS), circadian rhythm sleep d...
BackgroundCommon knowledge that undergraduates sleep late. According to Walters and Pilcher(1997), many college students a...
Literature Review Media use lacks a clear start and end and is likely to be extended.      Leads to heightened alertness, ...
Theoretical frameworkSocial Cognitive Theory (SCT)A persons behavior is partially shaped                                  ...
Theoretical FrameworkSocial environment can be operationalised as ones social network (interpersonalrelationships). being ...
Conceptual Definitions1. Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome (DSPS) is one type of circadian rhythm sleep disorders affecting the ...
Operational DefinitionsVariables        Operational Definition                                Measures Question and ScalesDS...
HypothesesH1: DSPS is dependent on outcome expectations towards theuse of social networking sites H2: DSPS is dependent on...
MethodologyPre-test of 20 NUS Undergraduates85 NUS undergraduates surveyedConvenience samplingOnline Survey               ...
Survey reliability   Variables     Chronbach’s Alpha   Reliability   Outcome  Expectation                      0.828      ...
ProcedureDSPS - Nominal                                                  12AM AND BEFORE    NO DSPS      Sleeping time: Ho...
Results from Descriptive Statistics   Mode and Median   DSPS score         Mode = 2 (Sleep at 2am)         Most NUS studen...
Results from Inferential Statistics   Chi Square Test of Independance   A chi-square test of independence was calculated c...
Frequencies for OE and SE         Chi-Square                               DSPS*SelfEfficacy                               ...
InterpretationH1: Delayed sleep pattern consistent with DSPS is dependenton outcome expectations towards the use of social...
ConclusionΜost of our respondents are sufferingfrom some form of DSPSOther factors that may have arelationship to DSPS  Im...
LimitationsLimited pool of samples: NUS students, mostly from FASS    Students from other faculties may have a different s...
Future DirectionsSocial cognitive theory:   a.       the relationship between an individual’s social   environment (friend...
Group 1: Miranda Michael Nicholas Hui Qing Victoria               Thank You                      The End                  ...
ReferencesAmerican Academy of Sleep Medicine. (2001). The international classification of sleep disorders, revised:diagnost...
ReferencesCompeau, D., Higgins, C. A., & Huff, S. (1999). Social cognitive theory and individual reactions to computer tec...
Appendix: Survey QuestionaireSurvey QuestionnaireWe are a group of students from NM4102 Advanced Research for Communicatio...
Appendix: Survey Questionaire3. What are some of the reasons that keep you from going to sleep? Please check all that are ...
Appendix: Survey QuestionaireQuestions 6 AND 7. Please circle ONE of the numbers that best describes how you feel with 1 b...
Appendix: Survey QuestionaireSection 4: Personal Details (Please select where applicable)Gender:    Male          FemaleAg...
Appendix- Descriptive statistics                                     27
Appendix- Descriptive statistics                                     28
Appendix- Descriptive statistics                                     29
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4102 Survey

  1. 1. Group 1: Miranda Michael Nicholas Hui Qing Victoria Mini Project 1: Survey NM4102 Advanced Research 1
  2. 2. IntroductionTo study the relationship between the attitudes towards socialnetworking sites (SNS), circadian rhythm sleep disorderconsistent with Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome (DSPS) andthe social environment, of undergraduates in NUS. 2
  3. 3. BackgroundCommon knowledge that undergraduates sleep late. According to Walters and Pilcher(1997), many college students actually deprive themselves of sleep voluntarily duringthe week and then compensate with sleeping long hours on the weekend. Unstablesleep patterns exacerbate and may even cause the symptoms related to delayed sleepphase syndrome (DSPS) (Brown, Soper, Buboltz, 2001). http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FCR/is_3_35/ai_80744660/?tag=content;col1Undergraduates are also very adept at using social networking sites and spend aconsiderable amount of time on these sites daily. Recent study of 200 University ofMaryland students where they were asked to abstain from media for one full day andthen blog about the experience. Students reported feelings of anxiety and withdrawal,very much like addiction to alcohol or drugs leading to the conclusion that collegestudents are addicted to social media (Whittaker, 2010). http://www.zdnet.com/blog/igeneration/students-addicted-to-social-media-oh-cmon-this-again/4752 3
  4. 4. Literature Review Media use lacks a clear start and end and is likely to be extended.  Leads to heightened alertness, physiological arousal and difficulty falling asleep (Li, Jin, Wu et. al., 2007) According to Young (1998), the Internet itself is not addictive, specific features affect the waypeople use an application. The more interactive the application (such as on social media), thehigher the inclination to use it and extend its usage because it appears to strengthen onlinerelationships, reinforce offline ones and fulfill real-life unmet social needs. The perceivedbenefit of using social networking sites (SNS) is therefore significant in determining onesusage of the SNS.   Interesting to find out if there is a relationship between sleeping late and social media among NUS undergraduates.  Most of our friends sleep late or dont sleep and almost all are on some form of social media.  4
  5. 5. Theoretical frameworkSocial Cognitive Theory (SCT)A persons behavior is partially shaped Behaviorand controlled by the influences of socialsystems and the persons cognition (e.g.,expectations, beliefs) (Chiu et al, 2006)and if possible include the factors underthe headings like  Personal Environmental Behaviour: Sleeping pattern Personal factors: attitudes toward SNS Environment: social environment (friends and family) 5
  6. 6. Theoretical FrameworkSocial environment can be operationalised as ones social network (interpersonalrelationships). being part of a social network means that an individual hasinternalised the social norms. Measurement of the perceived similarity of an individuals attitudes towards SNS andsleeping habits, with their peers, will reflect the salience of the norms in his or herlifestyle.Source: Pajares (2002). Overview of social cognitive theory and of self-efficacy. 12-8-04. From http://www.emory.edu/EDUCATION/mfp/eff.html.Due to time and sample constraints, we are not studying the social environment butwe believe that it has a reciprocal relationship with both behaviour and anindividuals cognition. Focus of our survey and analysis is on sleeping behaviourrelated to the attitudes that students have of SNS 6
  7. 7. Conceptual Definitions1. Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome (DSPS) is one type of circadian rhythm sleep disorders affecting the timing of sleepamong individuals. This is characterized by:                                                        (American Academy of Sleep, 2001) Later than desired sleep times Later than desired wake times Little or no difficulty in maintaining sleep Difficulty waking up at desired wake times Inability to shift sleeping hours to an earlier one                    2a. Social networking sites (SNSs)  SNSs is defined as web-based services that provide a virtual community in which people with a shared interest may communicate. (Boyd & Ellison, 2008)2b. Attitudes toward social networking sites  Outcome expectation: An individuals expected outcomes of using SNSs Self efficacy: people’s judgment of their capabilities to organise and execute course of action required to attain designated types of performances.” (Spielberger, 2004) 7
  8. 8. Operational DefinitionsVariables Operational Definition Measures Question and ScalesDSPS (DV) Mild: inability to fall asleep within a mean of two Nominal Q: On average what time do you go to sleep hours of the desired sleep time A: Before 9pm, 9-10pm, 10-11pm Moderate: Inability to fall asleep within a mean of three hours of the desired sleep time Severe: Inability to fall asleep within a mean of four hours of the desired sleep timeOutcome Measures outcome such as:  7-point likert Q: If I use SNSs, I will be kept up to date with whatexpectations ones ability to stay in touch and be kept up to date people who are important to me are doing(IV) with peers  A: Strongly agree (1) - Strongly Disagree (7)  ones expectation of expanding social circles ones perception of how they will be perceived by other in terms of the use of SNSs  Self-efficacy (IV)Measures: 7-point likert Q: I could use if I had seen someone using it before ones perceived ability to use SNSs trying it myself without assistance A: Strongly agree (1) - Strongly Disagree (7) one perceived ability to use SNSs with the help of friends (American Academy of Sleep, 2001) (Compeau, Higgins & Huff, 1999) 8
  9. 9. HypothesesH1: DSPS is dependent on outcome expectations towards theuse of social networking sites H2: DSPS is dependent on self-efficacy towards the use ofsocial networking sites  9
  10. 10. MethodologyPre-test of 20 NUS Undergraduates85 NUS undergraduates surveyedConvenience samplingOnline Survey 10
  11. 11. Survey reliability Variables Chronbach’s Alpha Reliability Outcome Expectation 0.828  Self Efficacy 0.706  11
  12. 12. ProcedureDSPS - Nominal 12AM AND BEFORE NO DSPS Sleeping time: How many hours does it differ from 12am? 2AM MILDOutcome Expectations - Ordinal 3AM MODERATE 1. Took the mean for 6 questions for each subject 4AM AND AFTER SEVERE 2. Found the median: 3.833 3. Low < 3.833 < HighSelf Efficacy - Ordinal  1. Took the mean for 4 questions for each subject 2. Found the median: 3.000 3. Low < 3.000 < HighRan Pearsons Chi Square for:1. DSPS*OutcomeExpectations2. DSPS*SelfEfficacy 12
  13. 13. Results from Descriptive Statistics Mode and Median DSPS score Mode = 2 (Sleep at 2am) Most NUS students have mild DSPS Outcome Expectations Mode = 4 (Neutral) Median = 3.833  A majority of the respondents are neutral with regard to outcome expectations when using social networking sites Self Efficacy Mode = 2 (Agree) Median = 3  A large number of respondents perceive themselves capable of using social networking sites to achieve desired performances 13
  14. 14. Results from Inferential Statistics Chi Square Test of Independance A chi-square test of independence was calculated comparing DSPS score and outcome expectations. No significant relationship was found (chi square= 1.71, chi square critical = 7.815 (3df), p > .05). This indicates that DSPS is not dependent on outcome expectations towards the use of social networking sites  A chi-square test of independence was calculated comparing DSPS score and self-efficacy. No significant relationship was found (chi-square (2) = 0.60,chi square critical = 7.815 (3df), p > .05). This indicates that DSPS is not dependent on self-efficacy of using social networking sites  14
  15. 15. Frequencies for OE and SE Chi-Square DSPS*SelfEfficacy Chi-SquareFrequencies for DSPS DSPS*OutcomeExpectations 15
  16. 16. InterpretationH1: Delayed sleep pattern consistent with DSPS is dependenton outcome expectations towards the use of socialnetworking sites H2: Delayed sleep pattern consistent with DSPS is dependenton self-efficacy towards the use of social networking sites We fail to reject H0 for both hypotheses. 16
  17. 17. ConclusionΜost of our respondents are sufferingfrom some form of DSPSOther factors that may have arelationship to DSPS  Implications: a change in the time classesstart? A campaign to change sleepinghabits?  17
  18. 18. LimitationsLimited pool of samples: NUS students, mostly from FASS Students from other faculties may have a different sleeping patternOnly able to study how personal factors influences personal behavior (one aspectof the SCT) but SCT has 3 components in total Behaviour, personal factors, social factorsTo derive at more measurements for DSPS Wake time (later than desired norm) Actual sleep time is the same every night No difficulty in maintaining their sleep pattern Ability to enforce a conventional sleep and wake times 18
  19. 19. Future DirectionsSocial cognitive theory: a.       the relationship between an individual’s social environment (friends and family) and an individual getting DSPS   b.      the relationship between an individual’s social environment and its influence on the individual’s behaviors and attitudes The relationship between DSPS and its subsequent effect onacademic performance 19
  20. 20. Group 1: Miranda Michael Nicholas Hui Qing Victoria Thank You The End 20
  21. 21. ReferencesAmerican Academy of Sleep Medicine. (2001). The international classification of sleep disorders, revised:diagnostic and coding manual. Illinois, IL:  American Academy of Sleep Medicine.Bandura, A. (1986). Social Foundations of Thought and Action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice HallBoyd, D. M., & Ellison, N. B. (2008). Social network sites: definition, history and scholarship. Journal ofcomputer-mediated communication, 13, 210 - 230. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.libproxy1.nus.edu.sg/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?hid=8&sid=e213a797-f1e7-45f1-b2e1-992ca576251a%40sessionmgr11&vid=4Brown, C.F., Soper, B. & Buboltz Jr., W.C. (2001). Prevalence of delayed sleep phase syndrome in universitystudents. College Student Journal. Retrieved from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FCR/is_3_35/ai_80744660/?tag=content;col1Chiu, C.-M., Hsu, M.-H.,  & Wang, E. (2006). Understanding knowledge sharing in virtual communities: An integration of social capital and social cognitivetheories. Retrieved February 9, 2011 from Communications and Mass Media Complete  21
  22. 22. ReferencesCompeau, D., Higgins, C. A., & Huff, S. (1999). Social cognitive theory and individual reactions to computer technology: Alongitudinal study. MIS Quarterly, 23(2), 145-158. Retrieved February 9, 2011 from http://www.jstor.org/stable/249749 .Hendriks, P. (1999) Why share knowledge? The influence of ICT on the motivation for knowledge sharing. Knowledge andProcess Management, 6 (2), 91–100.Lin, S., Jin, X., Wu, S., et al. (2007). The Impact of Media Use on Sleep Patterns and Sleep Disorders among School-AgedChildren in China. SLEEP, 30(3), 361-367  Pajares, F. (2002). Overview of social cognitive theory and of self-efficacy. Retrieved February 9, 2011 from http://www.des.emory.edu/mfp/eff.html Spielberger, C. D. (2004). Encyclopedia of applied psychology. Retrieved February 13, 2011 from Google booksWhittacker, Z. April 24, 2010. Students addicted to social media: Oh cmon, this again?. ZD Net. Retrieved from http://www.zdnet.com/blog/igeneration/students-addicted-to-social-media-oh-cmon-this-again/4752Young, K. (1998). Internet Addiction: The Emergence of a New Clinical Disorder. Cyberpsychology and Behaviour, 1(3),237-244   22
  23. 23. Appendix: Survey QuestionaireSurvey QuestionnaireWe are a group of students from NM4102 Advanced Research for Communications and New Media and we are conducting a survey to investigate National University of Singapore (NUS)undergraduatesʼ sleeping habits and social media usage. Your response is greatly appreciated and we will ensure that all information will be kept strictly confidential. Thank you for your participation.Section 1: Sleep PatternsIn this section, we would like to understand your personal sleeping habits as a student in NUS. Please read the questions carefully and check the answers that are most applicable to you.1. On average, what time do you go to sleep?o Before 9pmo 9.01pm – 10pmo 10.01pm – 11pmo 11.01pm – 12amo 12.01 am – 1amo 1.01am – 2amo 2.01am – 3amo 3.01am – 4amo After 4.01am2. How many days a week do you sleep at this time (as mentioned in Qn1)? o Less than 1 day o 2 – 3 days o 4 – 5 days o 6 – 7 days 23
  24. 24. Appendix: Survey Questionaire3. What are some of the reasons that keep you from going to sleep? Please check all that are applicable. o School work o Talking on the phone o Watching TV o Reading leisurely o Housework o Using the internet for: a. Social network (Facebook, Twitter, Four Square) b. Streaming of entertainment programs c. Online shopping d. Checking emails e. Others, please specify: ______________________________________________________________Section 2: Your attitude towards Social Networking SitesIn this section, we would like to understand your use of social network sites. Recently, social networking sites has been a popular phenomenon. In this survey, social networking sites is defined as web-based services that provide a virtual community in may communicate. Examples of SNSs include LinkedIn, Facebook, MySpace, Flickr, Foursquare, Twitter, Bebo, Blogs 4. What are the SNSs that you use? Facebook LinkedIn Twitter Myspace Flickr Foursquare Blogs (e.g. Livejournal, Tumblr, Wordpress) Others: please specify 5. How much time do you typically spend on SNS in a day? Not at all Less than 1 hour 1 - 2 hours 3 - 4 hours 5 - 6 hours More than 6 hours 24
  25. 25. Appendix: Survey QuestionaireQuestions 6 AND 7. Please circle ONE of the numbers that best describes how you feel with 1 being STRONGLY AGREE and 7 being STRONGLY DISAGREE. (Note: People who are important to me refers to friends, family member are people who I keep in contact with frequently) 6. If I use social networking sites... ...I will be able to stay in touch with the people who are important to me Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Strongly Disagree ...I will be kept up to date to with what people who are important to me are doing Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Strongly Disagree ...I will be seen highly by the people who are important to me Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Strongly Disagree ...I will be seen as more sociable by the people who are important to me Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Strongly Disagree ...People who are important to me will perceive me as highly competent Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Strongly Disagree ...I will be able to expand my social circle Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Strongly Disagree 7) I could use SNS... ...If there was no one to tell me how to use the social networking sites Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Strongly Disagree ...If I only had a brief idea of what the social networking sites does Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Strongly Disagree ...If I had seen someone using it before trying myself Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Strongly Disagree ...If someone had showed me how to use the social networking sites Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Strongly Disagree 25
  26. 26. Appendix: Survey QuestionaireSection 4: Personal Details (Please select where applicable)Gender: Male FemaleAge: ___________Year of Study:Faculty: This is the end of the survey. Thank you for your participation 26
  27. 27. Appendix- Descriptive statistics  27
  28. 28. Appendix- Descriptive statistics  28
  29. 29. Appendix- Descriptive statistics  29

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