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Cloud based Smart City hubs are an attractive approach to addressing some of the complex issues faced when deploying PaaS infrastructure for Smart Cities. In this paper we introduce the general notion of IoT hubs and then discusses our work to generalize our IoT hub as a Smart City PaaS. Two key issues are identified, support for hybrid public/private cloud and interoperability. We briefly describe our approach to these issues and discuss our experiences deploying two cloud-based Smart City hubs, one in the UK and the other in Canada.

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  1. 1. Smart Cities and The Internet of Things Rodger Lea, Mike Blackstock University of British Columbia Canada
  2. 2. •The IoT and Smart Cities •Smart City Hubs •System structure •Deployments •Issues – Interoperability & hybrid cloud •Examples Overview
  3. 3. By 2050, an estimated 70% of the world’s population will live in cities – up from 13% in 1900. Cities consume an estimated 75% of the world’s energy, emit more than 80% of greenhouse gases, and lose as much as 20% of their water supply due to infrastructure leaks. Challenges • Population Growth • Aging infrastructure • Declining tax revenue Opportunities • Economic Development • Quality of Life • Sustainability Why Smart Cities?
  4. 4. System of Systems Physical World Wide Area Network System gatewa y Physical World Sensor Network IoT Service Platform Smart supply chain Smart grid Smart healthcare Smart building app1 app2 app3 Data Center Application gateways System level Frameworks for single systems, eg transport, grid, hospital etc Sensor gateways IoT middleware System of system services Sensor level Physical and virtual 50,000,000,000 devices 500,000 units (1:1000) 500,000,000 units (1:100) Infrastructure for City Wide sensing Participatory Sensing via SmartPhones Our Interests
  5. 5. • WotKit • Web centric toolkit and service for rapid IoT application development • Search and visualize raw sensor data • User configurable dashboards • Mash-up engine for rapid development of IoT applications • Web centric – browser based and internet accessible. • WoTCore • Core platform aggregating data • Integration framework aggregating data from multiple sources, physical sources, web data, social network feeds etc • Core APIs to submit, search, access and manipulate data. SensorsSensors ActuatorsActuators SensorsSensors WoTCoreWoTCore GatewaysGateways External Data Vis and Management Vis and Management Processing Engine Processing Engine Data Source REST APIData Source REST API App API (RESTful) App API (RESTful) GatewaysGateways SensorsSensors Application s Application s Application s Application s ApplicationsApplications Web Apps Mobile Apps Core IoT platform: WoTKit 'IoT Mashups with the WoTKit", In proceedings of: IoT 2012 - Third International Conference on the Internet of Things, Wuxi, PRC
  6. 6. Easy search for data sources
  7. 7. Data viz: user configurable dashboards
  8. 8. Visual tool for application development
  9. 9. Dataset Portal Storage & API Hub Interop API Proxy Hub Landing Site Billing System API Usage Logs External Static Data Sensor Networks & Real Time Updates Uploaded Files Sensor Gateways WoTKit Sensor Data Portal and API Application Container API Usage Information External Apps Hub App Store Hub: IoT + Open-Data
  10. 10. Hub Centric Approach IoT gateway/connectivity Open DataRT DataCore Cloud resource services Data/compute/messaging IoT API Multi-tenant services Lifeycle, Billing, etc Transport App 311 App Other Apps City Infrastructure, Citizens and other data sources • Hub Centric approach • Hub provides common access • Well defined data upload & sensor APIs • Set of user API • Hub to Hub API (interoperability) • Cloud - PaaS • Implemented as a PaaS • Lifecycle and resource mngt • Hub API generalised as part of PaaS • Framework for city services • Exposes interoperability API
  11. 11. Deployments • Smart Streets (UK) • Highways/Transport focused • 3 large civil eng partners • 40k roadside sensor • Running since spring 2013 • TSB: 8 IoT hubs • Urban Opus (Canada) • City wide – citizen focused • 3 cities, 30+ city orgs • More open data + citizen data • Running since spring 2014
  12. 12. Interoperability oHow do hubs interoperate oWhat do they expose and how o Regional groupings (metro), city to city, system to system oWork as part of 8 IoT Smart City projects (UK) oHyperCat – basic city catalogue o Query catalogue, search etc o Basic access
  13. 13. Fig. 3. Example HyperCat catalogue. • HyperCat • JSON-based hypermedia catalogue • Collection of URIs • any number of URIs, each with any number of RDF-like triple statements about it. • Exposes interoperability API • Query, search, set etc • Catalogue • Catalogue describing hub resources • Hub resources described as generic set of values and properties • Exposes interoperability API 'IoT Interoperability", In proceedings of: IoT 2014 - Fourth International Conference on the Internet of Things, Boston, USA
  14. 14. Cloud and Hybrid Cloud o The SmartCity Hub runs as a cloud PaaS o Provides a framework for Smart City services & apps oCities want to use public cloud infrastructure but also manage their own infrastructure. oSolution: Support for Hybrid cloud deployment o Private premises (City IT) runs part of service, part pushed to public cloud for cost/elasticity/performance reasons o Example - 311
  15. 15. Hybrid Cloud Partitioning o Investigation into fine grained partitioning o Code AND data partitioning o Create directed graph, partition Cross-Tier Application and Data Partitioning of Web Applications for Hybrid Cloud Deployment, Middleware 2013. pp.226-246, 2013, Beijing
  16. 16. Hybrid Cloud Partitioning
  17. 17. Examples • SmartStreets - UK city data hub (UK) • Focus on real-time data • Urban Opus – Trusted Broker • Participatory sensing • Precision Agriculture • Focus on WoTKit
  18. 18. App Store ● central location for Hub apps ● View, try and rate apps ● Supports ‘Hosted’ and ‘External’ apps
  19. 19. App examples ● junction analyser ● explore traffic behaviour as junction load increases ● Visualize patterns ● Drill down on specific data points
  20. 20. App examples ● Drain/Gully silt level ● Snapshot of region ● Heat map highlights ‘problem areas’ ● Explore by Gully type, status etc
  21. 21. • Entry screen – City Portal • News, Events, Maps, Reports etc • Configurable • Apps added/removed, themed • App ecosystem • Mobile Web and native apps • External web apps (Translink) • External native (SeeClickFix) City Impact
  22. 22. News Events Video feeds Recycle City Talk City Impact: apps Air Quality
  23. 23. • Tours – themed tours, sites, historical, art etc • Tweets – visualize community (city) tweets • Street Trees – street trees (requires data base) • Air Quality – visualize air quality, alerts, user contributed • Link existing web and native apps to portal Others
  24. 24. Issues and questions oIoT Hubs as common access points o How to define a common API oTrusted data brokers o Trust through user ownership & control o Data brokerage – business models o Cloud PaaS – inter cloud or cloud-to- cloud
  25. 25. Thanks •Demonstrations and more information •http://smartstreets.sensetecnic.com •http://urbanopus.net •WoTKit •http://wotkit.sensetecnic.com
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Cloud based Smart City hubs are an attractive approach to addressing some of the complex issues faced when deploying PaaS infrastructure for Smart Cities. In this paper we introduce the general notion of IoT hubs and then discusses our work to generalize our IoT hub as a Smart City PaaS. Two key issues are identified, support for hybrid public/private cloud and interoperability. We briefly describe our approach to these issues and discuss our experiences deploying two cloud-based Smart City hubs, one in the UK and the other in Canada.

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