AchmedSukarno First President of Indonesia From 1945 to 1967By: Michelle Silva
The Leader + Historical Context• Indonesian leader with anti- imperialist ideology with communist tendency that established the Indonesian government system called “Pancasila”, term that means the five principles.• He established a system of government, with a controlled democracy, suppressing political parties and taking control of the state.• The most important period of his life, is done in the context of the Second World War, in the year 1942, when Indonesia was a Dutch colony.
• After the entry of Japan in the Second World War, after the attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, by the conquest of the entire Southeast Asia, Indonesia seeks help from Japan in 1942, to expel the Dutch and proclaim their independence.• This helped him to get the total support from the whole Indonesian population.• in 1945 to 1967 Sukarno was proclaimed as president for life, establishing a very strong dictatorial system, is overthrown and imprisoned by a military dictatorship (anti-communist) during Cold War to prevent the proclamation of this ideology throughout the region.
Rise of the Leader• Sukarno came to power through a war of independence through an armed conflict against Dutch colonial rule that dominated the archipelago. This conflict lasted four years and led Sukarno to power in 1945 During 1949 by the diplomatic channel, the Netherlands recognize Indonesia as a unitary and independent country, removing any kind of interference.
Maintaining Power • During his presidency, Sukarno established the following rules to ensure their hold on power: 1- Elimination of all political parties 2- Media control 3-Armed forces control 4-Centralize all state powers in the president, with a "controlled“ democracy 5-Establishment of the Pancasila, with its five principles of government and ideology.
OppositionThere was no opposition from 1945 to 1965 considering Sukarno:Overtook all the political partiesCentralized the powerThe opposition came in 1965 from:The Armed forcesLed by General SuhartoHe launched a purge of society and the armed forces to eliminate theinfluence of the Communist Party and other left-leaning Organization In a military coup led by Suharto, he overthrow and imprisons Sukarno in 1967
Social Policies• Sukarnos government was based on the Pancasila, which consisted in the application of five principles ideological supposedly designed to benefit the people, but because it was a strong dictatorial regime, these principles were never fully met creating even greater social and economic differences among the population.
Belief in one Supreme GodUnifies the thinking of major religions in Indonesia as expressed in theConstitution of this country "The State shall be based in the belief ofone supreme God. Sense of just and civilized humanityIt is based on respect for human beings and against oppression. Indonesia UnitIt is based on the cultural and ethnic differences should not affect theintegrity of the country. It reaffirmed the bands shield is labeledBjinneka Tunggal Ika which means "Unity in Diversity.“ Democracy guided by the inner wisdom and demand of discussionsbetween representatives of the peopleShows the need respect the decisions of the people for the real exerciseof democracy, strengthening the national unity. It is represented by thefigure of a wild bulls head in black and white on a red background inthe top left of the shield. Social justice for all the people of IndonesiaIs framed on the need for the general welfare and progress for thepeople to search for the greatest possible happiness, represented withtwo ears of rice and cotton, in the lower left quarter of the shield.
Economic PoliciesIn the 1960s, the economy was drastically deteriorated due to political instability, theyoung and inexperienced government and economic nationalism, which resulted insevere poverty and hunger. At the time of the fall of Sukarno, the economy wasmired in chaos:• with 1,000% annual inflation• a reduction in exports• lack of infrastructure• factories operating at minimum capacity• very low investmentsAfter President Sukarno´s fall in the mid 1960s, the administration of the "neworder" brought:A greater degree of discipline to economic policy that quickly reduced inflation Established the currencyAttracted foreign aid and investment
Treatment of Women and Religious Groups• Indonesia is a multicultural country that has received a number of external influences basically there were three well-defined trends that Sukarno sought to balance after the liberation of Holland The religion in Pancasila is manifested in the belief in a supreme God respecting the different existing religions, including Islam with extreme closed position in which the woman does not have any kind of participation and not accept other religions. Nationalist influence With his influence Sukarno tried to unify Indonesia under a democratic controlled system Communist Trend Influenced by China and opposed to USA who also had their interests in the region Considering that Sukarno established a totalitarian regimen and because of the many trends discussed above, minority groups or types of religions cannot be clearly established because each trend had its own characteristics , turning Indonesia into a multicultural country. As for racism, we can say that Indonesia was the victim of racism while it was a Dutch colony until 1942.
Education Policies According to the actual constitution of Indonesia: – Every citizen has the right to education – The government shall allocate 20 percent of the state budget to education – Their educational process establishes a system of basic education school and university, as a curiosity it can be concluded that it maintains a preschool educational system as we have in the country, beginning their education at the age of six years.
Removal from Power• in 1967 Sukarno was overthrown by a military coup, anti communist, led by General Suharto who succeeded him in power, the popular assembly named temporary president Suharto, who introduced new policies of a liberal and economic aspects of international type open markets and the acceptance of foreign investment.
Impact on Country/ World The Sukarno regime had a negative impact on Indonesia, leading to a weakening end of its economic system that brought the country to have an inflation which reached 1,000%, accompanied by a severe starvation and extreme poverty in its population. After Suhartos fall, economic policies by the new government allowed the gradual recovery of social and economic status of Indonesia, which is demonstrated today as part of one of the 8 Asian tigers which now constitute a major global economic powers (higher tigers: Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan under tigers: Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and the Philippines)