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Mi M Intro Pp


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Mi M Intro Pp

  1. 1. Jr. High Inclusion
  2. 2. Inclusion <ul><li>What does it Look Like? </li></ul><ul><li>Is It Beneficial? </li></ul><ul><li>These questions and many more will be answered by parents and administrators. </li></ul><ul><li>Parents – students with disabilities vs, students with out disabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Schools – differences within </li></ul>
  3. 3. Teacher Views <ul><li>Can Inhibit </li></ul><ul><li>Must be sold on – beneficial for “All” </li></ul><ul><li>LRE </li></ul><ul><li>Legal mandates </li></ul><ul><li>Needs to be a service not a placement </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes & Actions – 2005 Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education </li></ul><ul><li> Previous experience </li></ul><ul><li> Support from Administrators </li></ul><ul><li> Support from Resource personnel and TA’s </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li> Increased Social Skills </li></ul><ul><li> Acceptance </li></ul><ul><li> Awareness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comfort Zone </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Attitudes <ul><li>Are thoughts or ideas that reflect feelings and influence behaviors related to a particular object. </li></ul><ul><li>Components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive – Knowledge and thoughts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affective – Cognitive understanding of a disability – can motivate or exclude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral – To behave or respond in a particular way when around students with disabilities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Essential for a successful program </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Social Civil Rights <ul><li>“ More Than a Least Restrictive Environment” </li></ul><ul><li>Refocus from individual needs of one --- Social Civil Rights of “All” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Legal mandates that govern special education services have significantly more Teeth than those that have shaped educational programs for English Language Learners” (Sylvester & Poe) </li></ul><ul><li>Civil rights involve social rights that guarantee citizens the capacity to participate fully in society. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Discussions <ul><li>What is possible </li></ul><ul><li>What is desirable </li></ul><ul><li>How do we address </li></ul><ul><li>We need to remember that all students are part of a school – both academically and socially. We want students to feel a sense of belonging, to acquire a sense of ownership in the school. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Full Participation <ul><li>Not just one but the entire class </li></ul><ul><li>Shift from labels to meeting needs of group </li></ul><ul><li>Not so different – behavior, desire to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Create Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on needs of community </li></ul><ul><li>Move for changing students with disabilities to structures of classrooms and schools need to change </li></ul><ul><li>Shift from focusing on deficits of students with disabilities to their value as a community member </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>New teachers are receiving training in school put are we providing enough in-service opportunities for others. </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits of inclusion – </li></ul><ul><li>1. Gains in academic achievement for all </li></ul><ul><li>2. Increased peer acceptance and friendships </li></ul><ul><li>3. Higher self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>“ What goes on in a place, not the location itself, is what makes a difference” (Zigmond) </li></ul><ul><li>Attributes of classroom culture underlying successful inclusive classrooms. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Valuing of student voices and authority sharing </li></ul><ul><li>2. Accountability of students to each other </li></ul><ul><li>3. Attention to individual differences </li></ul><ul><li>4. School wide community spirit </li></ul><ul><li>5. High expectations for all </li></ul>
  9. 9. Sociocultural <ul><li>A sociocultural perspective holds that learning is social even to the extent that “all higher mental functions are internalized social relationships” (Vygotsky) </li></ul><ul><li>Mainstream </li></ul><ul><li>Social contexts and interactions must figure into theories of causation and intervention regarding students with disabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Shared activities and teacher’s actions – can have a significant effect on students’ learning itdentities. </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to learn may involve complex dynamics such as: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Exclusion from aspects of community life </li></ul><ul><li>2. Teacher evaluations of learning potential </li></ul><ul><li>3. Deliberate social positioning </li></ul><ul><li>4. Power Relationships. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Classroom <ul><li>Students actively engaged – with peers and teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforce social skills </li></ul><ul><li>1. Seeking help </li></ul><ul><li>2. Giving help </li></ul><ul><li>3. Taking turns talking </li></ul><ul><li>4. Working independently </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher </li></ul><ul><li>1.Provides cognitive tools for comprehension & engagement of activity </li></ul><ul><li>2. Link current & prior knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>3. Prompt students </li></ul><ul><li>4 .Manage direction of discussion </li></ul><ul><li>5. Use cooperative learning – promotes individual learning, interdependence, interpersonal skills and peer tutoring </li></ul>
  11. 11. Meet In The Middle <ul><li>Grant from Department of Education to Special Olympics </li></ul><ul><li>University of Minnesota </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Boys PE Class </li></ul><ul><li>Avid Students </li></ul><ul><li>Top School in the State </li></ul>
  12. 12. Goal <ul><li>Continuation of inclusion program </li></ul><ul><li>Higher expectations not only from principal but staff </li></ul><ul><li>Individualize plan for each student student to attend at least one General Ed class besides Music or PE. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Reference: <ul><li>Berry, R. (2006) Inclusion, Power, and Community: Teachers and Students Interpret the Language of Community in an Inclusion Classroom. American Educational Research Journal. Vol. 43:3, pp. 489-529. </li></ul><ul><li>Benjamin, S. (2002) Valuing Diversity: A Cliché’ for the 21st Century?, International Journal of Inclusive Education 6(4): 309-23. </li></ul><ul><li>Bloom B.S. (1956) Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook 1: The Cognitive Domain. New York: Davi McKay Co. Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Fuller, C. and Jones, L (1997) Extraordinary Kids , Family Publishing, Colorado Springs, Co Leo, E and Barton, Len (2006) Inclusion, Diversity and Leadership: Perspectives, Possibilities and Contradictions. Educational Management Administration Leadership 2006; 34; 167 </li></ul><ul><li>Leatherman, J and Niemeyer, J, Teachers’ Attidudes Toward Inclusion: Factors Influencing Classroom Practice. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education . Vol.26: 1-05;23-36 </li></ul><ul><li>Niemeyer, J. A. and Proctor, R. (2002) The influence of experience on student teachers’ beliefs about inclusion. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education 23:1, pp. 49-57 </li></ul><ul><li>Richmon, M. and Allison, D. (2003) ‘Towards a Conceptual Framework for Leadership Inquiry’, Educational Management & Administration 31 (1); 31-50 </li></ul><ul><li>Skilton-Sylvester, E and Slesaranski-Poe, G. More than a Least Restrictive Environment: Living Up to the Civil Covenant in Building Inclusive Schools. Perspectives on Urban Education, Spring 2009; 32-37. </li></ul><ul><li>Special Olympics, “Meet In The Middle”. </li></ul><ul><li>Stafford, S. and Green, V. (1996) Preschool integration: Strategies for teachers. Childhood </li></ul><ul><li>Education 79.pp.214-218. </li></ul>