10social inequality


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10social inequality

  1. 1. social inequality
  2. 2. social inequality <ul><li>social inequality exists when we see people having unequal access to valued resources, goods, and services in a society </li></ul>
  3. 3. social inequality <ul><li>social inequality is significant force in our lives, it influences our chances of going to college, graduating from it, getting a good job, or living a healthy and long life </li></ul>
  4. 4. social inequality <ul><li>social inequality may appear between rich and poor, between dominant and minority groups, between the sexes and between the old and the young </li></ul>
  5. 5. social stratification <ul><li>it is a division of society into categories with some getting more rewards than others: wealth, power, prestige or whatever is highly valued by the society </li></ul>
  6. 6. bases of stratification <ul><li>wealth: karl marx divided industrial society into two major and one minor classes: the bourgeoisie, the proletariat and the petite bourgeoisie </li></ul><ul><li>marx differentiated them on the basis of two criteria: whether or not they own the “means of production” – tools, factories, offices and stores – and whether or not they hire others to work for them </li></ul>
  7. 7. bases of stratification <ul><li>power: the ability to get people to do things they otherwise would not do – is associated with wealth </li></ul><ul><li>most sociologists agree that people with more wealth tend to have more power </li></ul>
  8. 8. bases of stratification <ul><li>prestige: sociologists call this kind of stratification a status system </li></ul><ul><li>prestige is subjective, depending for its existence on how a person is perceived by others </li></ul><ul><li>occupation seems to be the most important source of presitge </li></ul>
  9. 9. what is class? <ul><li>classes are groupings across society involving inequalities in such areas as power, authority, wealth, income, prestige, working conditions, and lifestyles and culture </li></ul><ul><li>class is a category of people who own or do not own the means of production, or have about the same amount of income, power and prestige </li></ul>
  10. 10. identifying classes <ul><li>sociologists have devised three different methods for identifying what our class is: </li></ul><ul><li>reputational method: asks what do others think of us? </li></ul><ul><li>subjective method: asks what do we think of ourselves? </li></ul><ul><li>objective method: asks what do we do, what do we have and how do we live? </li></ul>
  11. 11. identifying classes <ul><li>sociologists have devised three different methods for identifying what our class is: </li></ul><ul><li>reputational method: </li></ul><ul><li>asks what do others think of us? </li></ul><ul><li>2. subjective method: </li></ul><ul><li>asks what do we think of ourselves? </li></ul><ul><li>3. objective method: </li></ul><ul><li>asks what do we do, what do we have and how do we live? </li></ul>
  12. 12. class profiles <ul><li>1. upper class: “people who have really made it”, they include the old rich, the celebrity rich, the anonymous rich, and the run-of-the-mill rich </li></ul><ul><li>2. upper-middle class: “people who are doing very well”, they are professional people, they have very large homes, often vacation in europe, and belong to semi exclusive clubs </li></ul>
  13. 13. class profiles <ul><li>3. middle-middle class: “people who have achieved the middle-class dream”, although having a lot more than the necessities, they don’t have many luxuries, they are suburbanites living in a three-bedroom house with a family tv room, each summer they head for the mountain or the beach </li></ul><ul><li>4. lower-middle class: “people who have comfortable life”, these folks pay their bills on time and even manage to salt something away for a rainy day, they own a six-room, single-family house in a not-too-fashionable suburb </li></ul>
  14. 14. class profiles <ul><li>5. upper-lower class: “people who are just getting along”, often the husband is a factory worker, the wife a waitress or store clerk, they rent a small house or large apartment, they own a more-than-ten-year-old car, a tv set, and a clothes washer, but not a dishwasher </li></ul><ul><li>6. middle-lower class: “people who are having a real hard time”, these men and women are the working poor, proud that they are working and not on the public dole, they are likely to live in a walkup in an old apartment building, the husband could be a custodian, the wife a cleaning lady </li></ul>
  15. 15. class profiles <ul><li>7. lower-lower class: “people who are poor”, most of these families are on welfare, they live in the poorest section of the inner city, cockroaches come out at night in the tiny kitchens of their one-bedroom apartments </li></ul>
  16. 16. correlates of class <ul><li>life chances: we can see the impact of class on life chances in the titanic tragedy; in 1912, on the night when the ship sank into the atlantic ocean, social class was a major determinant of who survived and who died; among females on board, 3 percent of the first-class passengers drowned, compared with 16 percent of the second-class and 45 percent of the third-class passengers </li></ul>
  17. 17. correlates of class <ul><li>lifestyles: tastes, preferences, and ways of living </li></ul>
  18. 18. social mobility <ul><li>the movement of one occupational status to another </li></ul><ul><li>vertical mobility: moving up or down the status ladder </li></ul><ul><li>horizontal mobility: movement from one job to another within the same category </li></ul>
  19. 19. race <ul><li>as a biological concept, race refers to a large category of people who share certain inherited physical characteristics – caucasoid, mongoloid, negroid </li></ul><ul><li>defined sociologically, race is a group of people who are perceived by a given society as biologically different from others </li></ul>
  20. 20. ethnic groups <ul><li>a collection of people who share a distinctive cultural heritage and a consciousness of their common bond </li></ul>