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  1. 1. Listen carefully! 
  2. 2. Transcendentalists <ul><li>...believe the basic truths of the universe lie beyond the knowledge we obtain from our senses. </li></ul><ul><li>…pay attention to inspiration and insight </li></ul><ul><li>…believe God, humanity, and nature share a common soul </li></ul><ul><li>…believe nature is a part of the universal spirit. </li></ul><ul><li>…study nature as a means to self knowledge. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Thoreau Emerson Whitman  Famous Transcendentalists
  4. 4. Henry David Thoreau <ul><li>1817 born in Concord, Mass. </li></ul><ul><li>1835 became a teacher in Canton, Massachusetts. stayed for a year here </li></ul><ul><li>1835 he contracted tuberculosis and suffered from recurring bouts throughout his life. </li></ul><ul><li>1837 graduated from Harvard University. </li></ul><ul><li>1841 he was invited to live in the Emerson household, where he served as a handyman and assistant to Emerson </li></ul><ul><li>1845 Thoreau built himself a small cabin on the shore of Walden Pond </li></ul><ul><li>1849 Civil Disobedience (this book grew out of an overnight stay in prison as a result of his conscientious refusal to pay a poll tax that supported the Mexican War) </li></ul><ul><li>1854 Walden </li></ul><ul><li>1862 died, Concord, from tuberculosis </li></ul>⏎
  5. 5. Life in the Woods By Henry David Thoreau <ul><li>Why did Thoreau write Life in the Wood? </li></ul><ul><li>What is Thoreau’s overall message about life? </li></ul><ul><li>How does Thoreau feel about progress and technology? </li></ul><ul><li>How does Thoreau respond to the comment that he should feel lonely in an isolated place? </li></ul><ul><li>How does Thoreau’s theory on living relate to today? </li></ul>
  6. 6. In Thoreau’s words… <ul><li>“ I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to front only the essential facts of life, and see if I could not learn what it had to teach, and not, when I die, discover that I had not lived.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ If a man does not keep pace with his companions, perhaps it is because he hears a different drummer. Let him step to the music he hears, however measured or far away.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Only the day dawns to which we are awake.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Let go of the past and go for the future. Go confidently in the direction of your dreams. Live the life you imagined.” </li></ul>
  7. 7. Ralph Waldo Emerson <ul><li>1803 Emerson was born in Boston, Massachusetts </li></ul><ul><li>1821 Graduated from Harvard </li></ul><ul><li>1826 He was licensed to preach by the Middlesex Association of Ministers. </li></ul><ul><li>1829 Emerson married Ellen Louisa Tucker; she dies in 1831 </li></ul><ul><li>1830 Emerson became sole pastor at the Second Unitarian Church of Boston. </li></ul><ul><li>1833 Emerson has a crisis of faith, and his controversial views caused his resignation. </li></ul><ul><li>1835 Emerson married Lydia Jackson and they lived at the east end of the village of Concord for the rest of his life. </li></ul><ul><li>1836 Emerson`s first book, Nature , a collection of essays was published. </li></ul><ul><li>1882 Emerson died on April 27, 1882 in Concord. </li></ul>⏎
  8. 8. Nature by Ralph Waldo Emerson <ul><li>How did Emerson share his philosophy with the public? </li></ul><ul><li>What is Emerson’s overall message? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the difference between looking at nature used for practical benefit vs. a poetic sense of looking at nature? </li></ul><ul><li>Emerson and Thoreau were friends. How were the similar? How is Emerson’s Transcendentalist view different from Thoreau’s ideas? </li></ul>
  9. 9. In Emerson’s words… <ul><li>“ To speak truly, few adult persons can see nature. Most persons do not see the sun. At least they have a very superficial seeing. The sun illuminates only the eye of the man, but shines into the eye and the heart of the child.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Standing on the bare ground – my head bathed by the blithe air, and uplifted into infinite space – all mean egotism vanishes. I become a transparent eyeball; I am nothing; I see all…” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Yet it is certain that the power to produce this delight does not reside in nature, but in man, or in the harmony of both.” </li></ul>
  10. 10. Walt Whitman <ul><li>1819 Walt Whitman born in Long Island, New York. </li></ul><ul><li>1831 begins job as Printing apprentice – works for several newspapers over the years. </li></ul><ul><li>1854 Send pre-published Leaves of Grass to friend R.W. Emerson. Letter of praise in return from Emerson in his second edition of Leaves of Grass . </li></ul><ul><li>1855 Self publishes the first edition of Leaves of Grass ( contains 12 poems). </li></ul><ul><li>1856 Second edition of Leaves of Grass is published (contains 33 poems). </li></ul><ul><li>1860 Third edition of Leaves of Grass is published. </li></ul><ul><li>1867 Fourth edition of Leaves of Grass is published </li></ul><ul><li>1870 Fifth edition of Leaves of Grass is published </li></ul><ul><li>1873 Whitman suffers a severe stroke. </li></ul><ul><li>1876 Whitman publishes sixth edition of Leaves of Grass </li></ul><ul><li>1877 Medically improving, Whitman embarks on lecture circuit. </li></ul><ul><li>1881 Publishes seventh edition of Leaves of Grass </li></ul><ul><li>1888 Publishes eighth edition of Leaves of Grass </li></ul><ul><li>1888 suffers a second, more severe stroke. </li></ul><ul><li>1891 Publishes ninth and final edition (dubbed The Deathbed Edition) of Leaves of Grass </li></ul><ul><li>1892 Walt Whitman dies in Camden, New Jersey. </li></ul>⏎
  11. 11. Song of Myself By Walt Whitman <ul><li>1 I CELEBRATE myself, and sing myself, And what I assume you shall assume, For every atom belonging to me as good belongs to you. </li></ul><ul><li>I loafe and invite my soul, I lean and loaf at my ease observing a spear of summer grass. </li></ul><ul><li>My tongue, every atom of my blood, form'd from this soil, this air, Born here of parents born here from parents the same, and their parents the same, I, now thirty-seven years old in perfect health begin, Hoping to cease not till death. </li></ul><ul><li>Creeds and schools in abeyance, Retiring back a while sufficed at what they are, but never forgotten, I harbor for good or bad, I permit to speak at every hazard, Nature without check with original energy. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Song of Myself by Walt Whitman <ul><li>52. </li></ul><ul><li>The spotted hawk swoops by and accuses me, </li></ul><ul><li>he complains of my gab and my loitering. </li></ul><ul><li>I too am not a bit tamed, I too am untranslatable. </li></ul><ul><li>I sound my barbaric yawp over the roofs of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>The last scud of day holds back for me. </li></ul><ul><li>It flings my likeness after the rest and true as any on the shadowed wilds, </li></ul><ul><li>It coaxes me to the vapor and the dusk. </li></ul><ul><li>I depart as air, I shake my white locks at the runaway sun, </li></ul><ul><li>I effuse my flesh in eddies, and drift it in lacy jags. </li></ul><ul><li>I bequeath myself to the dirt to grow from the grass I love, </li></ul><ul><li>If you want me again look for me under your boot-soles. </li></ul><ul><li>You will hardly know who I am or what I mean, </li></ul><ul><li>But I shall be good health to you nevertheless, </li></ul><ul><li>And filter and fiber your blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Failing to fetch me at first keep encouraged, </li></ul><ul><li>Missing me one place search another, </li></ul><ul><li>I stop somewhere waiting for you. </li></ul>