Tactical Breaching 101 Forcible Entry Techniques and Equipment
Tactical Breaching 101 Presented by: Clay Anderson Training Officer / Team Leader Dyer P.D. Special Response Team Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Cell / Voice Mail: (731) 225-0747
Tactical Breaching 101 “ If you can’t get in, you might as well just stay at home!” Christopher Whitcomb, veteran FBI / HRT operator and author of the best-selling book, Cold Zero-Inside the FBI Hostage Rescue Team.
Tactical Breaching 101 Breaching isn’t rocket science, but the person tasked with opening doors must have a clear understanding of what keeps them closed and how they can be opened quickly. Even the biggest and strongest team member is a poor choice for a “breacher” if improperly trained and equipped.
Tactical Breaching 101 “ Any team that does not take their breaching procedures seriously, risks exposing themselves to hostile fire while delayed outside in the open.” Mark V. Lonsdale, DEA Specialized Tactical Training Unit. The longer it takes to get through a door, the more time suspect’s have to escape, destroy evidence or prepare defenses.
Target Location <ul><li>The first order of business is to identify and verify the exact target location, both address and physical description. This will be followed by a more complete study using: </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence reports from undercover officers </li></ul><ul><li>Drive bys by the raid team leader </li></ul><ul><li>Photography / video of the location and entry points </li></ul><ul><li>Interview of the UC and CI </li></ul><ul><li>Study of available building plans </li></ul>
Target Location <ul><li>Entry Points: Special attention must be given to the location and type of entry points into the location. </li></ul><ul><li>Doors </li></ul><ul><li>Windows </li></ul><ul><li>Walls </li></ul><ul><li>Gates </li></ul>
Entry Point - Doors <ul><li>Wooden / hollow / metal (peephole field of view) </li></ul><ul><li>Width / thickness </li></ul><ul><li>Opening direction </li></ul><ul><li>Number of hinges / location / individual or piano </li></ul><ul><li>Additional locks </li></ul><ul><li>Deadbolt / location </li></ul><ul><li>Knob or handle </li></ul><ul><li>Objects in front of door </li></ul><ul><li>Storm door / screen door </li></ul>
Entry Point - Windows <ul><li>Glass construction (Pane glass or safety glass) </li></ul><ul><li>Dimensions (large enough to enter through) </li></ul><ul><li>Height off ground </li></ul><ul><li>Curtains / blinds / boards </li></ul><ul><li>Security bars (inside or out) / attachment points </li></ul><ul><li>What is behind window ? </li></ul><ul><li>Construction / location of cross members </li></ul>
Entry Points - Education Undercover officers or confidential informants will need to be educated or briefed on what to look for in the way of fortifications or hardening of the target.
Entry Point - Selection <ul><li>Cover / Concealment </li></ul><ul><li>How will the team stack-up </li></ul><ul><li>Ease / speed of approach </li></ul><ul><li>Porch / deck (will it support weight?) </li></ul><ul><li>Windows </li></ul><ul><li>Steps / stairs or ground level access </li></ul>
Entry Point - Selection The breacher is responsible for gaining entry and the process of ensuring an effective breach begins long before the entry team approaches the door. Target surveillance must be done first. This is a critical aspect of dynamic entry and its value and necessity cannot be overstated.
Entry Point - Selection <ul><li>The surveillance should determine at a minimum : </li></ul><ul><li>Primary entry point (Which door does the suspect use?, How much time does it take them to enter?) </li></ul><ul><li>Alternate entry point </li></ul><ul><li>Door movement (open in / out) </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware (locks / hinges) </li></ul><ul><li>Fortification </li></ul><ul><li>Surveillance equipment (Clan labs) </li></ul>
Breaching Methods <ul><li>The first and obvious way to get the door open is to Knock and Announce or simply try the door handle. If this does not work then some of the following may be useful: </li></ul><ul><li>SUBTERFUGE </li></ul><ul><li>Repairman (Plumber, electric or water dept.) </li></ul><ul><li>Welfare (DHS/DCS) / Probation / Health Inspector </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery man (Federal Express, UPS, US Postal) </li></ul><ul><li>Staged incident (traffic accident) </li></ul><ul><li>Concerned citizen (“Someone is messing with your car?”) </li></ul>
Two Types of Breaching Methods <ul><li>Mechanical Breaching </li></ul><ul><li>Explosive Breaching </li></ul>
Mechanical Breaching Two Types of Mechanical Breaching Tools MANUAL TOOLS : Battering Ram, Haligan Tool, Bolt Cutters, Duckbill, Crow Bars, Sledge Hammer, etc. POWER ASSISTED TOOLS (Tools that are hydraulic powered): Rabbit Tool, Jamb Spreader VEHICLE ASSISTED : “J” Hooks and rope
Tools of the Trade Ram Haligan Tool Sledge Bolt Cutters
Tools of the Trade Haligan Tool Duckbill for defeating padlocks.
Mechanical Breaching - Rams The basic breaching process for an “open in” door is as follows: 1. The team moves covertly to the point of entry. 2. Cover is provided on doors and windows as the team stacks and the breach team prepares to open the door. 3. Upon “tapping up”, the breacher will quietly test the door to determine if its locked. 4. If there is a screen door it will be opened fully and clear the way for breaching the other door. 5. If the screen door is locked use the hook of the pry bar to force the lock. Then fully open the door and clear the entry way for the breacher.
Mechanical Breaching - Rams 6. If the main door is locked (after proper announcement) the ram will be used to strike the door near the knob. If both a knob and deadbolt lock are present then strike between the two. The strike will be delivered with all available energy which is best generated by a swinging motion. 7. The first impact is critical because it “tells” the experienced breacher whether the door can likely be defeated - and he will communicate this to the team leader.
Mechanical Breaching - Rams 8. If the door isn’t opened by the third hit, the secondary entry plan should be set in motion. This may be the primary breacher attacking the door hinges or a team transition to a window porting (break and rake) entry or alternative door. * Bear in mind the “12 Second Rule of Entry”
Two / Four Man Rams The two / four person ram should be considered in all cases where it can safely be deployed and any question exists concerning target hardening and/or fortification. The energy developed has been proven sufficient to defeat even steel door / steel frame deal bolt hotel doors. It is important to note that breaches of this type cause significant damage which generally occurs as the door and frame are permanently reshaped.
12 Second Rule of Entry All dynamic entry processes should consider the “12 second rule”, which suggests that subjects in the target location will have perceived your presence formulated a response, and began implementation if predisposed to do so, within 12 seconds of noise compromise. The “twelve second rule” was established by the Springfield, MO Police Department, based upon observations made during the service of over 1,000 dynamic entry search warrants. Major Steve Ijames, SPD (IACP and NTOA SWAT advisor and instructor)
Enter or Abort ??? The longer you work outside, the less chance you have of success using dynamic entry tactics. Serious consideration should be given to aborting the entry if the breaching effort continues beyond thirty seconds. The element of surprise has been totally lost in such cases and setting up a perimeter and initiating a “surround and call out” is reasonable and prudent. Or transition to Slow and Deliberate Clear Techniques.
Power Assisted Entry Tools Hurst Entry Systems: Rabbit Tool
Power Assisted Entry Tools Hydraulic piston tool that spreads apart the door from the frame. They are a more stealthful technique than a ram and can take a little longer to set-up. Tremendous force up to 10,000 psi. They are silent in operation and are either battery powered or hand/foot pumped.
Power Assisted - Jamb Spreader Over 3 tons of horizontal force Virtually noiseless operation and lightweight at 17 lbs..
Explosive Breaching - Shock Lock Shock Lock is a 12 gauge shotgun round used to defeat door locks and hinges. They are pyrotechnically propelled devices. They are high velocity prefragmented projectiles which are usually made out of compressed powdered zinc. The key benefit of the round is its ability to be deployed numerous times in rapid succession with a very high probability of defeating the fortification.
Shock Lock - Rules of Engagement <ul><li>The use of 12-gauge breaching rounds should be limited and generally considered only when facing circumstances such as the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Operations that are defined as “high risk” </li></ul><ul><li>If the need to affect a rapid entry is present and the potential risks of the operations outweigh the potential risks associated with the use of the breaching round. </li></ul><ul><li>If there appears to be no other viable breaching option. </li></ul>
Shock Lock - Rules continued <ul><li>If the physical barrier/structure to be engaged is accessible in such a manner that the breacher can safely and effectively deploy the round; or </li></ul><ul><li>If the officer is facing unique circumstances beyond those ordinarily encountered, such as interior fortification, or breaching multi-doors. </li></ul>
Shock Lock - Dangers This round delivers a lot of energy. Likewise, the inherent energy of a projectile capable of overcoming solid metallic targets will penetrate any wooden door and certain varieties of metal doors. This penetration can have LETHAL CONSEQUENCES if this round is not delivered at an angle which prevents primary and secondary missiles from entering the room. Controlling the angle of presentation is the single most important aspect of safe and effective deployment.
Shock Lock - Dangers A secondary concern is the potential for the “shock lock” report to be misinterpreted by the occupants of the target location and cause them to believe they are being attacked. This is especially true if he target location is in an area where “drive-by” shootings and armed robberies among rival factions are common. These risks can be addressed with proper identification and notice of police presence.
Shock Lock - Dangers Although these rounds are very powerful and over-penetration is a concern there are new and improved rounds entering the market. Some of the new rounds come in four separate power ratings for attacking different types of problems. Selecting the proper round will generally limit some of the over-penetration concerns.
Shock Lock - Deployment Tech. <ul><li>1. Arrive at the door and take an appropriate position of cover. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Upon receiving the order to breach, check to see if the door is unlocked. </li></ul><ul><li>3. If the door is secure, initiate the shotgun breach in the following manner: </li></ul><ul><li>The point places the shield against the door to protect officers from gunfire; </li></ul><ul><li>Continued on next slide--- </li></ul>
Deployment Techniques - Cont. <ul><li>The breacher examines the door and determines the appropriate aiming point. </li></ul><ul><li>The breacher firmly digs the teeth of the muzzle break into the wood at the deployment location. This ensures that the muzzle does not move as the gun is fired and provides the proper standoff. </li></ul><ul><li>The breacher angles the muzzle as a degree determined by a process of visualizing the trajectory of the round as it passes through the target (dead bolt) and into the flat face of the door frame, at as steep a downward angle as possible. A standard rule of thumb is a 45 degree angle. </li></ul>
Deployment Techniques <ul><li>When practical, the breacher loudly announces, “Police search warrant! Stand away from the door. Stand away from the door!” </li></ul><ul><li>The breacher then aligns the gun and fires a round at each obvious target (dead bolts, hinges, etc). Then steps aside to allow the ram officer to engage the door. </li></ul>
Vehicle Assisted Entry One or two “J” Hooks are inserted into the barrier and attached with a heavy rope to a vehicle. Once set the command is given and the barrier is pulled down. Extreme care must be taken to ensure that team member are clear of the path when the breach is made to avoid being hit with debris.
Explosive Entry Linear Cutting Charge (factory or improvised). Pushing charge for steel doors. Water charge for breaching steel or wood doors. Pole charge for shattering windows. Specialty charges for locks, bars and interior doors. Explosive breaching requires extensive training and is usually reserved for hostage rescue operations or extremely hardened areas.
Tactical Breaching 101 End of Classroom Presentation Questions ??? Practical Exercise Begins