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Basic Mechanical Breaching


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Basic Mechanical Breaching

  1. 1. Clark County Sheriff's Department EMERGENCY RESPONSE TEAM LESSON PLAN DATE: September 2003 TITLE: Mechanical Breaching TIME: CLASS: CLSO – In-service Training GOALS: Provide in-service training to enhance / update the individual operator’ skills in mechanical breaching thus enabling a s positive breach 100 percent of the time in critical operations. OBJECTIVES: At the conclusion all operators will be able to: ? Describe / perform a mechanical breach utilizing a Sledge Hammer ? Describe / Perform a mechanical breach utilizing a. Hooligan tool ? Describe / perform a mechanical breach utilizing a Ram. ? Describe / perform a mechanical breach utilizing Bolt Cutters ? Describe / perform a mechanical breach utilizing a Crow Bar. ? Describe / perform a mechanical breach utilizing an Automatic Center Punch. ? Describe / perform a mechanical breach utilizing Shotgun Breaching techniques. Equipment Required: EYE and Ear Protections, Gloves, Helmet, Long Sleeve shirt INSTRUCTORS: Lt. Parker BIBLIOGRAPHY: USMC Assault Breacher’ Guidebook. s FBI Basic SWAT Training, Wisconsin, 1999 - Hirsch FBI Basic SWAT Training, Wisconsin, 2002 - Haines FBI Basic SWAT Training, Wisconsin. 2003 - Backus 1st. Special Forces SRT / SWAT Training – Volk Field, Camp Douglas, WI. SWAT Managers Seminar, Oct 22-24, 1996 Shakopee, MN International Law Enforcement Training & Consulting, Inc. SRT/SWAT Instructional Manual for tactical teams, Steve Matoon 1990 REVISED: Jeff Parker Page 1 08/16/03
  2. 2. Clark County Sheriff's Department EMERGENCY RESPONSE TEAM LESSON PLAN Introduction: An analysis was conducted of a survey (High Risk Warrant Service) by NTOA published in the spring edition of the Tactical Edge 1990 that looked at approximately 1,200 operations. That article contains a summery of the information found and what the results were in terms of obstacles observed / encountered in and around crisis sites where breaching occurred. A breacher, team leader, and any other essential personnel should conduct a scouting mission to observe the target location as part of the planning process. Breaching can be defined as the method by which an entry / special op team gains access to a target or crisis site. An element during a breach uses speed, surprise and violence of action to accomplish its mission. Without a successful breach to provide access to a specific target, there is no entry and no entry means mission failure. A breacher’ knowledge of mechanical breaching and the ability to apply that s knowledge to penetrate any target encountered makes the breacher a critical member of a team. One could argue the most important team member. 1. The mission of the breacher is to recognize, analyze, and breach. ? Recognize - The breacher must recognize: 1. Potential entry points 2. Potential danger areas ? Analyze - the breacher must analyze to: 3. Determine which potential entry points would make the best primary and alternate breach points. 4. Determine the best primary breaching method / technique to use for the primary, alternate, and unknown breach points. 5. Determine the best secondary breaching methods / techniques to use for the primary, alternate, and unknown breach points. Jeff Parker Page 2 08/16/03
  3. 3. Clark County Sheriff's Department EMERGENCY RESPONSE TEAM LESSON PLAN ? Breach - provide positive, safe, entry for the team with minimal time on target where the team is exposed. HISTORY: The early use of explosive entry was developed for hostage rescues and situation where armed suspects were believed to be barricaded. One of the first documented uses of this concept was by the Los Angles Police Department in December 1969, after three LAPD officers were shot by barricaded militants. No injuries result from the use of the explosive charge, which caused a large hole to be breached in the ceiling and resulted in the surrender of the heavily armed suspect. Training: Breacher training is covered only generally in basic swat training. Specific skills and techniques in the art of breaching are not covered in the depth necessary to provide the critical skills needed. Most training is covered in-house and is informal in nature and usually not very well documented. Breaching can involve a single operator or a two man team. What determines this is the technique used, the tools involved and the number of operators available. Breacher’ responsibility in planning. s A breacher’ responsibility in planning will vary from team to team. In all cases it s is very important that the team leader and the primary breacher work together to formulate the breach plan. Many of the planning considerations covered in this block of instruction may seem to be the responsibility of the team leaders. But no matter who is responsible, the primary breacher needs to ensure all planning considerations are completed because they impact directly on the success of the breach planning and mission outcome. Jeff Parker Page 3 08/16/03
  4. 4. Clark County Sheriff's Department EMERGENCY RESPONSE TEAM LESSON PLAN Planning Phase – The primary breacher will normally be responsible to the team leader for completing the following tasks during the planning phase: ? Accessing all intelligence information available on potential breach points. ? Assisting the command element in selecting the best method of entry (mechanical, shotgun, ect.) ? Assembling and preparing tools and equipment and diversionary devices. ? Initiating a breaching report. ? Briefing team members. ? Rehearsing (if time permits). Deliberated Planning. Deliberate planning refers to a planning process for anticipated situations involving the deployment of resources expected to be available. The time factor is not usually a concern. Deliberate planning begins prior to a team being tasked with a mission. Deliberate planning for the breacher consists of writing standard operating procedures (SOP). Team SOPs greatly facilitate the mission planning and preparation process and allow the breacher to quickly accommodate the common aspects of every mission. Team SOPs are the cornerstone of rapid response operations. This makes SOPs that are well throughout in advance, practiced, rehearsed, and thoroughly known by all players a necessity for accomplishing, time sensitive planning for the breacher. SOPs may vary from team to team; items that affect breaching and that should be addressed include, but are not limited to: 1. Equipment lists 2. Ammunition Breakout 3. Ammunition Safety 4. Personnel Assignments 5. Intelligence Requirements – Essential Elements of Information (EEI) 6. Compromise Procedures Jeff Parker Page 4 08/16/03
  5. 5. Clark County Sheriff's Department EMERGENCY RESPONSE TEAM LESSON PLAN 7. Command and Signal The above list is not all inclusive. Everything that can be planned for or anticipated should be incorporate in the Team SOP. Crisis Planning Crisis planning is conducted upon receipt of a mission or op plan. The team may have only an hour or less to plan and prepare before they are required to execute a mission. The planning process itself must be rehearsed. Traditionally, 50% of available time is allocated to plan and prepare for a mission. This is of course when we know about the mission in advance. Crisis planning for the breacher consists of the following: 1. Determining the primary and alternate breach points 2. Determine the primary breaching methods for the primary and alternate breach points 3. Determine the secondary breaching method for the primary and alternate breach points 4. Planning for the what if’ s. Primary and Alternate Breach Points The team leader / commander and any other essential personnel will assemble and analyze all available information, data, and intelligence pertaining to the intended target. This involves examining the design, construction, and material makeup of the target to determine the best primary and alternate breach points. Tactical considerations also play a significant role in this analysis. Tactics to be employed may dictate or rule out specific entry points. The following represents some of the EEIs required to select a primary and alternate breach point: 1. What type of mission is it? Jeff Parker Page 5 08/16/03
  6. 6. Clark County Sheriff's Department EMERGENCY RESPONSE TEAM LESSON PLAN 2. Are drawings (blueprints) available of the target? (Is tactical diagramming an option) 3. Are photographs available of the target? 4. Where are the scout / containment personnel located in relation to the target? 5. Can the scout / containment personnel give a detailed description of the target? 6. Is there any intelligence available from the occupants / neighbors / agency personnel that have been there before? 7. Is the target a crisis or non-crisis breach? ( A crisis breach is a situation where there are friendly personnel / victims / hostages inside the target) 8. If it is a crisis breach, is the location of the friendly personnel / victims / hostages known? 9. What is the distance from the LCC to potential breach points? 10. What type of shielding / cover / concealment is available at the potential breach points? 11. How close can the entry team be positioned to the potential breach points (explosive breaching)? 12. Does the required speed of entry overcome the danger the entry team is exposed to due to close positioning? 13. Do drawings of the target (if available) include gas lines, power lines, plumbing, and other similar hazards? 14. What is on the crisis side of the potential breach points (barricades, IEDs, booby traps)? 15. Is there any history regarding the use of IEDs or booby traps? 16. Any children or elderly persons on site? 17. Dogs, Fences, Counter surveillance, Geographic barriers? These are some of the questions that need to be addressed when planning the type of breach. In addition the following information should have been collected: Police Scout Checklist 1. Size & type of windows. 2. Are windows barred, alarmed, screened, dual pane, wired, etc.. 3. Size & type of doors (open in or out) Jeff Parker Page 6 08/16/03
  7. 7. Clark County Sheriff's Department EMERGENCY RESPONSE TEAM LESSON PLAN 4. Utility & phone shut-off locations. 5. Location of bathrooms (vents / windows). 6. Exterior lighting conditions. 7. Location for diversions. 8. Location for announcements. 9. Locations for chemical agent use. 10. Possible hostile neighbor location(s). 11. Potential hazards (fences, dogs, ect.). 12. Locations requiring evacuation. 13. Description of adjacent buildings. 14. Best approach route & alternative (covered & concealed) 15. Exit points for suspects. 16. Evacuation routes for injured civilians or team members 17. Note line of compromised authority. 18. Suggested sniper vantage-points. 19. Breach & entry points & alternatives. 20. Locations for inner perimeter personnel. 21. Specific address & description. 22. Staging area for team & CP Location. 23. Accurate sketch (to scale). Breaching Techniques Mechanical Breaching: The nature of a particular mission or target may make one or more form of breaching technique inappropriate or impossible. Mechanical entry means can be used effectively when used as a diversion. In theory, the breacher is only limited by his / her imagination when it comes to selecting from the universe of hand tools available to effect mechanical breaches. Targets: Mechanical breaching targets are basically the same as those that by be attacked using explosives. These include windows, walls, roofs, and floors of buildings as well as vehicles. Application of mechanical techniques is limited by the hardness Jeff Parker Page 7 08/16/03
  8. 8. Clark County Sheriff's Department EMERGENCY RESPONSE TEAM LESSON PLAN of a particular target and the teams load carrying capacity (most tools are heavy and somewhat bulky or awkward to carry). Additionally, tool use requires time on target which may compromise a team’ mission and puts them at risk. Normally s we will focus on doors as our main breach point. As such it is more expected and thus more hazardous. General Employment: Each mechanical breaching tool has its own unique means or technique of achieving target damage and / or entry. In some cases prior to entering any target after a successful mechanical breach, it is (depending upon the circumstances and hazards present) recommended that a diversionary device be employed. Employment techniques and feature of individual tools are covered in the following material. Sledge Hammer There are two types of sledge hammers generally used. One has a double face steel head weighing 10 pounds and an unbreakable fibreglasses handle 30 inches long. The other is a double faced steel head weighing 2.5 pounds and fiberglass handle 12 inches long. (See figure 1) Jeff Parker Page 8 08/16/03
  9. 9. Clark County Sheriff's Department EMERGENCY RESPONSE TEAM LESSON PLAN 1. to employ the sledge hammer on inward opening doors, the operator stands on the hinge side of the door and strikes the door directly above the door knob (figure 2) 2. If you encounter a door with both a deadbolt and a doorknob strike the door between the two locking mechanisms (figure 3) 3. Do not attempt to strike the doorknob. Hitting the doorknob could cause the throw mechanism to get stuck in the door jamb ( mainly a concern on metal doors with metal frames) 4. The sledge hammer is easy to use, is widely available, and is almost indestructible. Unfortunately, it is also heavy, usually requires multiple hits and time on target, and is not effective on outward opening doors. Jeff Parker Page 9 08/16/03
  10. 10. Clark County Sheriff's Department EMERGENCY RESPONSE TEAM LESSON PLAN Hooligan Tool The hooligan tool is a very versatile tool that combines the qualities of several different tools and is available in various lengths and weights. The hooligan tool is made of heat treated high alloy steel. It is usually 30 inches long, 1 inch in diameter and weighs 10 pounds. All parts of the hooligan should be welded in place and not pinned. The parts of the hooligan are the duck bill, pick or spike, flat head and standard claw, each of which is describe below. (Figure 4) ? Duck Bill. The duck bill consists of a long smooth incline approximately 6 inches long and two inches wide. It is curved like the natural curve of the palm of the hand for ease of insertion. It is used to pry out door frames and window frames. ? Pick or Spike. The pick or spike is six inches long and tapers down from about one inch to a point and is slightly curved. It is made to be inserted into locks and latches without slipping out. Especially car trunks and door locks. ? Flat head. The flat head is a large flat pounding surface similar to a sledge hammer. It can be used in place of a sledge hammer in some instances. ? Standard Claw. The standard claw is a long wide claw that is gently curved and sharpened. It is sharpened for ease of insertion into door jambs, ect. It has a slotted claw to fit hasps, locks, latches, and fuel shutoffs. The standard claw is designed not to stick when force is applied. Employment the Hooligan Tool The hooligan tool’ various parts allow it to be used for many different tasks. Its s most common use in breaching is to open doors or windows. Unlike the sledge hammer, the hooligan tool can be employed successfully against inward or outward opening doors. Jeff Parker Page 10 08/16/03
  11. 11. Clark County Sheriff's Department EMERGENCY RESPONSE TEAM LESSON PLAN To employ against inward opening doors the following procedures are to be followed: (Figure 5) ? Hooligan man inserts the duck bill into the door jamb directly above the locking mechanism. ? Another team member forces the tool deeper by hitting the flat head with a sledge hammer. ? The hooligan man then leans forward into the tool to force the door open. To employ against outward opening doors the following procedures are to be followed: (Figure 6) ? Hooligan man inserts the duck bill in the door jam directly above the locking mechanism. ? Another team member forces the tool deeper by hitting the flat head with a sledge hammer. ? The hooligan man then pulls the tool back to force the door open. To employ against windows use the break and rake technique (Figure 7) Jeff Parker Page 11 08/16/03
  12. 12. Clark County Sheriff's Department EMERGENCY RESPONSE TEAM LESSON PLAN ? Hooligan man smashed through the upper left or right hand corner of the window with the flat head or claw end. ? Keeping the tool directly in contact with the window frame, he pulls the tool down the left or right edge of the window. ? Keeping the tool in direct contact with the window frame, he pulls the tool across the bottom edge of the window. ? Keeping the tool in direct contact with the window frame, he pushes the tool up to the left or right edge of the window. Hooligan tool employed against windows – pushing the mullions ? Hooligan man uses the flat portion of the duckbill, and strikes the mullion (the part of a double hung window where the two windows overlap) as close to the window tracking as possible on either the right or left side of the window (depending on the approach of the team). ? He strikes hard enough to push the window out of the tracking. Jeff Parker Page 12 08/16/03
  13. 13. Clark County Sheriff's Department EMERGENCY RESPONSE TEAM LESSON PLAN ? The procedure is repeated on the other side of the window until the window is removed. Hooligan tool Advantages and Disadvantages The advantages of having a multipurpose tool like the hooligan is that it can do away with the need for may separate tools, and is still easy to operate. Like most mechanical tools, it does require time on target, and the sharp points and edges may present a hazard to the user and other team members. Battering Ram (aka RAM) There are many types of Battering Rams available, from vehicle mounted to one man battering rams. Most Battering rams are bulky. The preferred ram is a one man battering ram that is 30 inches long, weighs 35 pounds and impacts with over 14,000 pounds of kinetic energy. Most rams have two hand holds. The ram can be employed against both the hinge and lock side of inward opening doors. It is also very effective against doors with drop bars and dead-man type locking mechanisms. (Figure 9) Jeff Parker Page 13 08/16/03
  14. 14. Clark County Sheriff's Department EMERGENCY RESPONSE TEAM LESSON PLAN To employ the RAM, hold it by the handles and swing the ram either underhanded (figure 10) or side arm (figure 11), and Strike the door directly above the locking mechanism. Although a valuable breaching tool, the battering ram has two main disadvantages; its weight and the transportability of the tool. Bolt Cutters: Bolt cutters are manufactured in various lengths, weights, jaw hardness, and jaw shapes (straight or diagonal). There are two commonly found bolt cutter sizes in Jeff Parker Page 14 08/16/03
  15. 15. Clark County Sheriff's Department EMERGENCY RESPONSE TEAM LESSON PLAN tactical operations. One is 36 inches long with diagonal jaws the other is 14 inches long with straight jaws. (Figure 12) During employment, bolt cutters are used like a pair of pliers. The item to be cut is placed as far back as possible in the jaws for maximum cutting, and the handles are drawn together to cut the item. The size of the bold cutters is chosen in accordance with the size of the item to be cut. Ticker, heavier items will require more leverage and the large bolt cutter should be used; while small thin items can be better handled with the small bolt cutters. Bolt cutters can be used against a wide variety of targets such a padlocks, chains, fences, cables, and wire. The bolt cutter gives the team an advantage in the ability to quickly cut locks or chains that may prevent entry. They are also very effective against fences and wire the may me encountered while in transit to the objective. The main disadvantage to using the larger bolt cutters over the small bolt cutter sit he that they are heavy and bulky to carry, and they need a larger operating area. Crowbar: The crowbar is used for prying open doors, windows, cabinets, and chest or floor boards. The crowbar’ main advantages are that it is lightweight, easy to carry, s and virtually indestructible. It can also be very effective against light to medium targets. The only disadvantage is the multipurpose tools, such as the hooligan, can be used for the same function and more. (Figure 13) Automatic Center Punch: The automatic center punch is about 6 inches long. It is constructed of brass and steel. One end has a point; the other is blunt. The automatic center punch is designed to mark metal and other material with out the use of a hammer. The Jeff Parker Page 15 08/16/03
  16. 16. Clark County Sheriff's Department EMERGENCY RESPONSE TEAM LESSON PLAN punch uses a series of heavy springs to drive the point. The springs are put under tension as the punch is pushed against the material to be marked. After the springs are compressed a given distance, they release and drive a metal rod into the back of the point marking the material. (Figure 14) The automatic center punch is used to break car windows and plate glass by putting the point in the lower corner of the target glass and pushing until the window shatters. When this has been done, the rake and break technique is used to complete the job. The automatic center punch is a small lightweight tool that can be carried in a pocket or pouch, without adding much weight or taking up valuable room. Its only disadvantage is that it will not work on Plexiglas or Lexan. Shotgun Breaching: Shotgun breaching should be reserved as a secondary method of breaching and for any unforeseen circumstances the breach team may encounter. For these reasons, shotgun breaching should be incorporated into the breaching plan. Breaching Shotguns: Any pump action shotgun can be used for breaching, although some are more practical than others due to certain characteristics and availability. The most common shotguns found is law enforcement arsenals are the Remington 870, Mossberg 500, and the Winchester 1200. Characteristics of breaching shotguns. Breaching shotguns should have a short overall length (for use in confined spaces), but still maintain a high magazine capacity; they should be pump action for simplicity and ease of training; they should be a standard gage (12 gage) and readily accept available ammunition; and they should be easily maintained at the user level. Although there are many “ exotic”shotguns on the open market, most are very expensive to purchase and repair and are thus not practical for breaching purposes. Jeff Parker Page 16 08/16/03
  17. 17. Clark County Sheriff's Department EMERGENCY RESPONSE TEAM LESSON PLAN Employment: Standoff: The generally recommended stand-off when employing the shotgun is 2 inches. Round Placement; Round placement is critical, when choosing an attack point, chose the side with the least amount of attachment points; Plan on two shots per target. Most locking mechanisms will be defeated on the first shot. Always be prepared – just in case the door does not open. Door Locks. For door locks and deadbolts, aim between the locking mechanism and jam. This is illustrated in figure 15. Hinges: For hinges, aim at a 45 degree angle from the door toward the jam, with the weapon level with the hinges. This is illustrated in figure 16. Jeff Parker Page 17 08/16/03
  18. 18. Clark County Sheriff's Department EMERGENCY RESPONSE TEAM LESSON PLAN Techniques: Get level with the target. An angled weapon tends to fire over or under the locking mechanism; therefore, always level your weapon with the target. Angle the muzzle slightly towards the jamb. On wood frame doors, angle the muzzle of the weapon towards the jamb. This allows the round to remove the locking mechanism and a portion of the jamb. Angling the muzzle in illustrated in figure 17. Do not use the weapons sights. If the weapon you are using for breaching is equipped with a sight do not use it. Instead, watch the muzzle as it approached the target. If you use a sight you will fire under the target. It is advisable to train with the load that you will be using to ensure familiarity, function, and that it will perform as expected. This information is not all inclusive in regard to breaching. It is what I have learned from my research and should not be used as a substitute for qualified training. Any Questions?? Jeff Parker Page 18 08/16/03