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  1. 1. Riverhead Police Department Training Division Title: Active Shooter Training PPT Version: Windows 2002/XP Created: February 23 rd , 2003 by Information & Technologies Section - Version: 1.1 “ Click” to START
  2. 2. RIVERHEAD POLICE DEPARTMENT Active Shooter Training <ul><ul><ul><li>2003 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. “ There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct , or more uncertain in its success, than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things. - Niccolo Machiavelli
  4. 4. ACTIVE SHOOTER OVERVIEW <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>History of Active Shooter Events </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in Law Enforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Concept of Rapid Deployment </li></ul><ul><li>Contact and Rescue Teams </li></ul><ul><li>Local School Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  5. 5. Please keep in mind that although this presentation focuses on a public school as the primary setting, the training itself can be utilized in any building or even an outdoor setting.
  6. 6. Introduction
  7. 7. <ul><li>Hostage and Shooting Incidents unfortunately are nothing new in our society and appear to be on the rise. </li></ul><ul><li>There may come a time when there is a need for rapid Police Patrol or Tactical Unit response to conduct an Emergency Rescue Operation. </li></ul><ul><li>What is meant by an Emergency Rescue is, the situation is in the hands of a person or persons bent on terrorism and has or will use violence or threat of violence to accomplish their goal. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Now Law Enforcement intervention is necessary. Containment of the situation, attempted negotiations with the suspects for a peaceful resolution, or possibly even violent means may be necessary to save lives. </li></ul><ul><li> The information contained in this Program is straight forward and not sugar coated, for the express purpose of understanding & assisting Law Enforcement in keeping as many people as possible safe and uninjured. </li></ul>
  9. 9. What is Active Shooter Training?
  10. 10. Active Shooter Training is a tactical training concept that is being utilized by Law Enforcement agencies nationwide that provides the average Police Officer with the skills and equipment necessary to confront certain Active Shooter situations.
  11. 11. Important Definitions! <ul><li>Active Shooter </li></ul><ul><li>Barricaded Suspect </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional Deployment </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid Deployment </li></ul>
  12. 12. Active Shooter An Active Shooter is a Suspect who’s activity is immediately causing death and serious bodily injury. The activity is not contained and there is immediate risk of death and serious injury to potential victims.
  13. 13. Barricaded Suspect A Barricaded Suspect is a Suspect who’s in a position of advantage, usually barricaded in a room or a building and is armed and has displayed violence. May or may not be holding hostages and there is no indication that the subject’s activity is immediately causing death or serious bodily injury.
  14. 14. Primary Difference between Active Shooter and Barricaded Suspect - Active Shooter Events are primarily DYNAMIC <ul><ul><li>The situation is evolving very rapidly along with the suspect’s action. i.e. - Shooting and Moving. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Primary Difference between Active Shooter and Barricaded Suspect - Barricaded Suspect Events are primarily STATIC The situation is not evolving or in motion, suspect actions appear to be contained. i.e. - The suspect is barricaded in a room.
  16. 16. Traditional Deployment A tactical concept where Police Officers maintain a secure perimeter around a life threatening armed suspect situation and wait until specially trained units (C.I.R.T., E.S.U., S.W.A.T., etc.) arrive at the scene to finally intervene.
  17. 17. Rapid Deployment The swift and immediate deployment of law enforcement personnel to on-going , life threatening situations where delayed deployment could otherwise result in death or great bodily injury to innocent persons.
  18. 18. Additional Definitions <ul><li>Time Line of Violence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- The period of time from the suspects first violent action until his action is stopped or he/she transitions to another activity. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incident Transition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- That point in the incident where the “active shooter” stops his/her violent actions and tries to escape or barricades themselves. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. History of Active Shooter
  20. 20. Texas Tower Incident <ul><li>August 1 st , 1966. </li></ul><ul><li>Occurred in Austin, Texas. </li></ul><ul><li>Suspect – Charles Witman. </li></ul><ul><li>Killed 15 People (Including unborn baby). </li></ul><ul><li>Wounded 31 People (As far away as 2 blocks). </li></ul><ul><li>Resolved by 2 Police Officers. </li></ul>
  21. 21. McDonald’s Massacre <ul><li>July 18 th , 1984. </li></ul><ul><li>Occurred in San Ysidro, California. </li></ul><ul><li>Suspect – James Huberty. </li></ul><ul><li>Killed 21 People. </li></ul><ul><li>Wounded 11 People. </li></ul><ul><li>Resolved by S.W.A.T. Sniper. </li></ul>
  22. 22. North Hollywood Bank Robbery <ul><li>February 27 th , 1997. </li></ul><ul><li>Occurred in North Hollywood, California. </li></ul><ul><li>Suspects – Larry Phillips and Emil Mosuranyo. </li></ul><ul><li>Wounded 13 People. </li></ul><ul><li>One Suspect commits suicide and the other is killed by S.W.A.T. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Columbine High School <ul><li>April 20 th , 1999. </li></ul><ul><li>Occurred in Littleton, Colorado. </li></ul><ul><li>Suspects – Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold. </li></ul><ul><li>Killed 13 People. </li></ul><ul><li>Wounded dozens. </li></ul><ul><li>Both suspects commit suicide. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Barricaded-Hostage Incident <ul><li>February 13 th , 2000. </li></ul><ul><li>Occurred in Westhampton, New Jersey. </li></ul><ul><li>Suspect – Jonathan Fischer (18 years old). </li></ul><ul><li>Barricades himself with 1 Hostage. </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually surrenders to Police. </li></ul><ul><li>No one was injured. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Wilkinsburg, PA <ul><li>March 1 st , 2000. </li></ul><ul><li>Started out as an “Active Shooter” Event. </li></ul><ul><li>Suspect – Ronald Taylor. </li></ul><ul><li>Killed 3 People. </li></ul><ul><li>Wounded 3 People. </li></ul><ul><li>Barricades himself with 5 Hostages. </li></ul><ul><li>Surrenders to Police after a 2 hour standoff. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Countless Others January 18 th , 1993 – Grayson, KY - 2 Seriously Wounded February 2 nd , 1996 – Moses Lake, WA - 3 Killed, 1 Wounded February 19 th , 1997 – Bethel, AK - 2 Killed, 2 Wounded October 1 st , 1997 – Pearl, MS - 3 Killed, 7 Wounded December 1 st , 1997 – Paducah, KY - 3 Killed, 5 Wounded March 24 th , 1998 – Jonesboro, AK - 4 Killed April 24 th , 1998 – Edinboro, PA - 1 Killed May 19 th , 1998 – Fayettville, TN - 1 Killed May 21 st , 1998 – Springfield OR - 2 Killed, 20 Wounded April 16 th , 1999 – Notus, ID - 1 Wounded
  27. 27. Lessons Learned <ul><li>Active shooter incidents are spontaneous. </li></ul><ul><li>Suspects behavior unpredictable. </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-incident signs existed in school incidents. </li></ul><ul><li>Incidents occur in a target rich environment. </li></ul><ul><li>First responders outgunned and/or didn’t have the training to respond to an active shooter situation. </li></ul><ul><li>A tactical intervention was too late. </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-jurisdictional response issues were present. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Santana High School <ul><li>March 5 th , 2001. </li></ul><ul><li>Occurred in Santee, California. </li></ul><ul><li>Suspect – 15 year old (Fires Weapon 30 times). </li></ul><ul><li>Killed 2 People. </li></ul><ul><li>Wounded 13 People. </li></ul><ul><li>Suspect is taken into custody without further incident 4 Minutes after Police arrival, long before S.W.A.T. Teams ever arrive. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Buffalo V.A. Hospital <ul><li>August 17 th , 2001. </li></ul><ul><li>Occurred in Buffalo, New York. </li></ul><ul><li>Suspect – Samuel Bobo. </li></ul><ul><li>Armed with .22 Caliber Rifle. </li></ul><ul><li>Wounded 3 People. </li></ul><ul><li>Police intervene rapidly and the Suspect flees the area but is taken into custody after he surrenders at his residence an hour later. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Changes in Law Enforcement
  31. 31. Columbine was defined as a unique set of circumstances by which Law Enforcement had never dealt with before. It was the catalyst that reshaped the approach to first responder (Patrol) tactical priorities.
  32. 32. Traditional Deployment to an Active Shooter Event <ul><li>Method used by Law Enforcement for over thirty years. </li></ul><ul><li>Upon Patrol Officers arrival at the scene – </li></ul><ul><li>a. Secure the Perimeter. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Gather Information/Help Victims. </li></ul><ul><li>c. Wait for E.S.U. to arrive. </li></ul><ul><li>Unfortunately in situations such as Columbine this precedent failed. </li></ul>
  33. 33. John Doe High School
  34. 34. Rapid Deployment to an Active Shooter Event <ul><li>New Tactic used by Law Enforcement. </li></ul><ul><li>Upon Patrol Officers arrival at the scene – </li></ul><ul><li>a. Enter the area / building as fast as possible. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Sole objective is to Neutralize the hostile threat with the least amount of force possible. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>c. Turn scene over to E.S.U. when they arrive. </li></ul>
  35. 35. John Doe High School
  36. 36. Concept of Rapid Deployment
  37. 37. Active Shooter / Barricaded Suspect Intervention <ul><li>The Mission Objective is to bring about the successful resolution of any of the critical incident situations with the intent and purpose to minimize the risk of injury or loss of life to Citizens, Police Officers and Suspects, by utilizing the personnel, training, equipment and assets available or obtainable. </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>There is no foolproof way to do this. </li></ul><ul><li>You, Potential Victims and your fellow Police Officers are not considered expendable in any way. </li></ul><ul><li>An Emergency Rescue (if necessary) and the building search that would follow are some of the most lethal activities a Police Officer will perform. </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>The terrorists or suspects have a considerable advantage over the entering team and if they are determined, will in all probability, at least injure one or more of the team members or hostages / victims. </li></ul><ul><li>The Police Officers realize and accept the dangers, they also realize if they do nothing, more people will die or be injured then if they had taken action. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Law Enforcement Policy and Procedures for Response to Active Shooters <ul><li>Do we need a Police Response Policy for Active Shooter Events? </li></ul><ul><li>Do we need procedures for Active Shooter Events? </li></ul>YES! YES!
  41. 41. When should it be Utilized? <ul><li>Aggressive Deadly Behavior – The Suspect is armed and actively engaged in causing death or serious physical injury. </li></ul><ul><li>And …. The location is believed to contain multiple victims. i.e. Schools, Playgrounds, Daycare, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate Intervention Required – Delayed law enforcement action could result in continued injury to citizens / children. Delayed recovery of victim(s) could result in the victim(s) demise. </li></ul>
  42. 42. What should be done? <ul><li>Asses the situation. Request appropriate resources - Additional Patrol Units, Urban Police Rifle (UBR), Fire Department, Medical Personnel, and E.S.U. </li></ul><ul><li>Are Rapid Deployment Tactics necessary? </li></ul><ul><li>Advise responding units of the situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Quickly assemble the appropriate team(s) and deploy as soon as possible. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Remember! <ul><li>There is a significant difference between an Active Shooter Event and a Barricaded Suspect Event. </li></ul><ul><li>These events can transition back and forth from each other! </li></ul><ul><li>A Hostage situation only complicates a Barricaded Suspect incident. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Barricaded Suspect <ul><li>This normally is a criminal suspect with known or unknown violent potential that has barricaded him / her self (alone or with other suspects/ persons) in a structure and refuses to surrender to Law Enforcement. </li></ul><ul><li>These situations normally provide ample time for detailed planning and negotiations.   </li></ul><ul><li>Note: These person(s) are normally armed and there is the potential for a transition to an active shooter and or a hostage situation. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Contemporary Tactics Using Negotiations and E.S.U. Have Successfully Resolved Over 95 % of Barricaded Suspect Incidents Without Shots Being Fired.
  46. 46. Active Shooter <ul><li>This situation is a Barricaded Suspect/s or an outdoor movement situation where the suspect/s is actively discharging a firearm at Law Enforcement or Citizens and or randomly firing into an area where it is reasonably expected that innocent persons could be struck by the suspect(s) fire. </li></ul><ul><li>These situations leave little or no time for proper planning and normally require first arriving Law Enforcement units to take immediate action to end the danger.  </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Active shooter situations can and often do develop into hostage situations upon the arrival of Law Enforcement. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Hostage Situation <ul><li>Any Hostage Situation is a Barricaded Suspect(s) situation with the addition of innocent person(s) being held against their will by violence, threat of violence, or the potential for violence. </li></ul><ul><li>These situations most of the time provide time for detailed planning and negotiations.  </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Hostage Situations often develop from Active Shooter situations or have great potential to develop into them. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Active Shooter Compared to Barricaded Suspect <ul><li>Active Shooter </li></ul><ul><li>Suspect is immediately causing death or serious bodily injury. </li></ul><ul><li>The situation is actively evolving along with suspects actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Delayed response will result in injury or death to innocents. </li></ul><ul><li>Barricaded Suspect </li></ul><ul><li>Suspect in a position of advantage in a room or building. </li></ul><ul><li>Suspect is armed and has displayed violence. </li></ul><ul><li>May or may not be holding hostages. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no indication that the suspect is immediately causing death or other serious injury. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Psychological Differences <ul><li>Active Shooter </li></ul><ul><li>Event is usually short term. </li></ul><ul><li>Suspect is usually not bent on escape. </li></ul><ul><li>90% of the time it is resolved by suspect suicide or suspect neutralization by Police. </li></ul><ul><li>Barricaded Suspect </li></ul><ul><li>Event is usually long term. </li></ul><ul><li>Suspect usually has escape plan. </li></ul><ul><li>95% of the time it is resolved by Police negotiations without incident. </li></ul>
  50. 50. <ul><li>The one consistent theme throughout Rapid Deployment (Active Shooter) situations is that circumstances will dictate our response. It is not a perfect science – Too many variables. </li></ul><ul><li>Whether entering the building with two officers or waiting for a third or fourth. </li></ul><ul><li>Whether stopping to pat down “injured victims” or moving past them. </li></ul><ul><li>Officers must be able to articulate/justify their actions. </li></ul>Active Shooter Rapid Deployment
  51. 51. Resolution of an Active Shooter Event <ul><li>Most likely by Patrol. </li></ul><ul><li>Non – Traditional Response. </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum Number of Officers (4). </li></ul><ul><li>Properly Equipped. </li></ul><ul><li>Properly Trained. </li></ul><ul><li>Able to transition to Barricaded Suspect situation. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Resolution of a Barricaded Suspect Event <ul><li>Most likely by E.S.U. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional Response. </li></ul><ul><li>Patrol will maintain perimeter. </li></ul><ul><li>Assist with any victim evacuations. </li></ul><ul><li>Able to transition to an Active Shooter situation. </li></ul>
  53. 53. Police Response to an Active Shooter Event <ul><li>Evaluate the situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid Deployment / Immediate Intervention. </li></ul><ul><li>Move to the Shooter. </li></ul><ul><li>Apply Necessary Force. </li></ul><ul><li>Rescue and Evaluate. </li></ul><ul><li>Transition to Emergency Services when they arrive to the scene. </li></ul>
  54. 54. E.S.U. Response to an Active Shooter Event <ul><li>Evaluate the situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate Intervention. </li></ul><ul><li>Move to the Shooter. </li></ul><ul><li>Apply Necessary Force. </li></ul><ul><li>Rescue and Evaluate. </li></ul>In short – same as Police
  55. 55. Police Response to a Barricaded Suspect Event <ul><li>Evaluate the situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Secure the Perimeter. </li></ul><ul><li>Gather information. </li></ul><ul><li>Assist with victim evacuation. </li></ul><ul><li>Be prepared to transition to Active Shooter. </li></ul><ul><li>Transition to Emergency Services Unit when they arrive to the scene. </li></ul>In short 4 C’s – Contain, Control, Communicate, and Call E.S.U.
  56. 56. E.S.U. Response to a Barricaded Suspect Event <ul><li>Set up Secure Perimeters. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish Communications - Negotiate. </li></ul><ul><li>Gather information. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop Tactical Options. </li></ul><ul><li>Resolve with least amount of Force. </li></ul>
  57. 57. Police Priorities during Active Shooter / Barricaded Suspect Event <ul><li>Lives of the Hostages </li></ul><ul><li>Lives of the Innocent Bystanders </li></ul><ul><li>Lives of the Police Officers </li></ul><ul><li>Lives of the Suspects </li></ul>
  58. 58. Contact and Rescue Teams
  59. 59. Components of Rapid Deployment <ul><li>Contact Team </li></ul><ul><li>Objective: Neutralize Active Shooter(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Rescue Team </li></ul><ul><li>Objective: Citizen / Officer Rescue </li></ul>
  60. 60. <ul><li>Requires minimum number of Officers for Entry. </li></ul><ul><li>4 man contact team with “Ad-Hoc” Incident Commander. </li></ul><ul><li>Contact team makes entry and moves to the Active Shooter(s). </li></ul><ul><li>As additional Officers respond, Rescue teams are formed and moved to areas for evacuation. </li></ul>Rapid Deployment Tactics for Patrol Contact / Rescue Team Concept
  61. 61. “ Ad-Hoc” -Temporary Incident Command <ul><li>Responsibilities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- 5 th Officer on the Scene. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Collect information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Direct responding units to a staging area. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Assemble an entry-contact team and move to the shooter. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Remain outside the location to direct additional responding units. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Transition command to a supervisor. </li></ul></ul>
  62. 62. Quick Assessment <ul><li>Obtain as much information as possible enroute to the location. </li></ul><ul><li>Suspect actions (Static or Dynamic), location, description, and any weapons. </li></ul><ul><li>Victim injuries and location. </li></ul><ul><li>Request School Official to meet you in the parking lot (If that is a safe location). </li></ul><ul><li>Upon arrival, position yourself in the best possible location – Front of the School. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine if you have an Active Shooter or possible Barricaded Suspect situation. </li></ul>
  63. 63. Communications <ul><li>5th Responding Officer becomes the “Ad- Hoc” Incident Commander until relieved by Supervisor. </li></ul><ul><li>Collect information enroute and upon arrival at the location and communicate this information as quickly and concisely as possible to H.Q. and responding units. </li></ul><ul><li>Advise H.Q. to set up dedicated radio frequencies to handle the incident. </li></ul>
  64. 64. Contact Team Responsibilities <ul><li>Priority is to make Contact with the suspect(s). </li></ul><ul><li>- Move 360 degree coverage. </li></ul><ul><li>- Stop immediate threat. </li></ul><ul><li>- Limit movement of suspect(s). </li></ul><ul><li>- Continue past victim(s) and explosives. </li></ul><ul><li>- Communicate progress to other responders. </li></ul><ul><li>- Gather information – Victim location, explosive device locations, number of suspect(s) and weapons. </li></ul>
  65. 65. Rescue Team Responsibilities <ul><li>Priority is the Rescue and Recovery of victim(s). </li></ul><ul><li>- Enter and/or approach location of victim(s). </li></ul><ul><li>- Extract victim to safe area. </li></ul><ul><li>- Notify medical personnel if necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>- Triage when multiple victims are present and emphasize Custody, Control, and Accountability of Victim(s). </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinate actions with the Contact Team and other responding personnel. </li></ul>
  66. 66. Organizational Structure of Contact / Rescue Teams <ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Minimum – Four (4) Officers. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Contact Officer – Point man, provides cover in the front of the formation. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Assistant Team Leader – Acts as additional Contact Officer. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Cover Officer – Rear Guard, Communicates with responding units. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Team Leader - Delegates team member responsibilities, formulates and implements plan. </li></ul>
  67. 67. Equipment Considerations <ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All members should have Ballistic Helmet, Vest, Flashlight, and Police Radio. </li></ul><ul><li>Weapons - </li></ul><ul><li>1. Contact Officer – Long Rifle </li></ul><ul><li>2. Assistant Team Leader – 9mm Handgun </li></ul><ul><li>3. Cover Officer – Long Rifle </li></ul><ul><li>4. Team Leader – 9mm Handgun </li></ul><ul><li>Any plain clothes Officers should wear their appropriate identification. </li></ul>
  68. 68. Positioning 1 Contact Officer (Point) L Assistant Team Leader 2 Team Leader 3 Cover Officer (Rear Guard) Standard Four (4) Man Diamond Formation
  69. 69. Armament Long Rifle Long Rifle 9mm Handgun 9mm Handgun Handguns are used for the wing positions because they are the primary room clearers. 1 L 2 3
  70. 70. Coverage Essentially 360 Degree Coverage Every Officer must know and cover his area of responsibility - Stay Sharp! 1 L 2 3
  71. 71. Contact / Rescue Team Movement <ul><li>From vehicles to the building </li></ul><ul><li>Building Entry </li></ul><ul><li>Movement to contact (Shooter or Victim) </li></ul><ul><li>- Halls </li></ul><ul><li>- Stairs </li></ul><ul><li>- Room Entry and Clearing </li></ul><ul><li>Criss Cross or Button Hook </li></ul>
  72. 72. “ Out of the Box Thinking” The movement required for Rapid Deployment breaks many of the tactical and safety protocols that an Officer would utilize when conducting a building search in a hostile environment. This is done so that the teams involved can move as quickly as possible to their objectives. The Officers involved will have to weigh the risks for themselves. The slower they respond, the higher the probability of injury and loss of life to more innocent victims.
  73. 73. Levels of Response Level 1 Rapid Response : Suspect(s) are actively shooting – You can hear the shots and the screaming as you approach their location. Level 2 Cautious Response : Suspect(s) whereabouts are unknown – You no longer can hear the shots and the screaming. Level 3 Search Response : Suspect(s) have been apprehended. You are now clearing and securing rooms in a slow and cautious manner.
  74. 74. Movement The initial line-up in the formation should never change. Hallway Setting Forward Contact Officer Cover Officer 1 L 2 3
  75. 75. If something happens and the team has to reverse direction then positions are switched (Not done physically). Each Officer must know the responsibilities of each position in the team. Forward Contact Officer Cover Officer 1 L 2 3
  76. 76. This parameter however is not etched in stone. There are certain unique situations where flexibility of the formation is allowed and should be utilized.
  77. 77. If Contact is made - 1 L 2 3 Provided rear coverage is secure, it is better to have 4 weapons down range then 3. And the Contact Team is fired upon.
  78. 78. Moving Down a Hallway 1 L 2 3
  79. 79. Try to Avoid Hugging Walls in the Hallways Bullets do not Ricochet as we Think! Correct 1 L 2 3
  80. 80. Bullets do not Ricochet as we Think! Incorrect 1 L 2 3
  81. 81. Moving to a “Stack Formation” through a Small Opening 1 L 2 3 1 L 2 3 1 L 2 3 1 L 2 3 1 L 2 3
  82. 82. “ Slicing the Pie” Angles create a major issue when navigating Hallways!
  83. 83. Moving down a Hallway; T-intersection “ Point Method”
  84. 84. Moving down a Hallway; T-intersection “ Wrap method”
  85. 85. Moving through an Intersection
  86. 86. Be Careful when using Corners as Cover!
  87. 87. Moving down a Hallway - Clearing a Room 1 L 2 3 1 L 2 3 1 L 2 3 1 L 2 3 1 L 2 3
  88. 88. Who Goes First? 1 L 2 3 #2 Man has sliced the Pie? 1 st Officer in goes into the Unknown! ????
  89. 89. ? Room Clearing: Criss Cross Method 1 L 2 3 1 2 3 GO
  90. 90. Room Clearing: Button Hook Method 1 L 2 3 1 2 3 GO ?
  91. 91. Considerations <ul><li>Losing contact with the suspect . </li></ul><ul><li>Suspect contact and apprehension. </li></ul><ul><li>Evacuations. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of deadly force. </li></ul><ul><li>What to expect on entry. </li></ul><ul><li>Encountering explosive devices. </li></ul>
  92. 92. Losing Contact <ul><li>What to do when the shots and the screaming stops during your entry? </li></ul><ul><li>- Has the suspect committed suicide? </li></ul><ul><li>- Has he taken a hostage and barricaded himself? </li></ul><ul><li>- Has he escaped? </li></ul><ul><li>Have a Plan! </li></ul>
  93. 93. Suspect Contact and Apprehension <ul><li>Primary Goal: </li></ul><ul><li>- Stop suspects deadly behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>- Take suspect into custody. </li></ul><ul><li>Remain in a position of cover, bring the suspect to you. </li></ul><ul><li>Give clear and concise orders to the suspect. </li></ul>
  94. 94. Keep in Mind! 1 2 3 If a Suspect is being apprehended by a Team L His area of coverage has just tripled because of the situation at hand! The Cover Man (Rear Guard) must stay focused on his assignment!
  95. 95. Evacuations <ul><li>An Evacuation for an Active Shooter is not like a Fire Drill – Move to a safe distance behind cover. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Evacuations </li></ul><ul><li>- Escorted </li></ul><ul><li>- Unescorted </li></ul><ul><li>When in doubt LOCKDOWN – Have the teachers and students secure themselves in the classroom until a Police escort can be provided. </li></ul>
  96. 96. Use of Deadly Force <ul><li>Based on IDOL (Immediate Defense of Life). </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Officer makes the decision. </li></ul><ul><li>Does not require approval from higher authority. </li></ul><ul><li>Utilized to stop the immediate threat. </li></ul><ul><li>The Law – “Reasonably Justified”. </li></ul>No exception to LAW or POLICY!
  97. 97. Use of Force Pyramid Officer Presence Verbal Commands Soft Hand Control Techniques Taser Chemical Weapons Hard Hand Control Tech. ASP Baton D.P.F.
  98. 98. Levels of Resistance Active Aggression D.P.F. Psychological Intimidation Verbal Non Compliance Passive Resistance Defensive Resistance
  99. 99. Negotiations and E.S.U. Response <ul><li>Negotiator will establish contact with the suspect(s) as soon as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>E.S.U. will begin to develop a tactical plan to resolve the situation if the negotiators fail. </li></ul>
  100. 100. What to expect on entry? <ul><li>Noise, confusion, screaming alarms, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Victims hiding, confused and frightened – not responding to Law Enforcement directions. </li></ul><ul><li>Carnage. </li></ul><ul><li>Fire sprinklers activated. </li></ul>
  101. 101. Columbine Video <ul><li>The following video clip is an excerpt from the Columbine Incident (Cafeteria Video). Two points of Interest – </li></ul><ul><li>Harris (Dressed in White) attempts to shoot the propane tank that did not detonate as they had planned. His attempts luckily failed. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Klebold (Dressed in Black) throwing one of their homemade pipe bombs across the cafeteria. It detonates at the end of the video clip. </li></ul>
  102. 103. Encountering Explosives <ul><li>Identify and report locations. </li></ul><ul><li>Position and Officer for protection if possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t move – Don’t touch. </li></ul><ul><li>Visually inspect for potential detonation. </li></ul><ul><li>- Trip wires, timing devices, burning fuses, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Move past – continue to locate suspect(s) or victims. </li></ul>
  103. 104. Victim Located <ul><li>After locating Victim, the Contact Officer steps over the subject and provides cover. </li></ul><ul><li>Cover danger areas . </li></ul><ul><li>Secure Victim and evacuate – Communicate recovery to Incident Commander. </li></ul>
  104. 105. Evacuating a Victim L 2 1 3 1 L 2 3
  105. 106. Evacuating a Victim 1 3 L 2
  106. 107. Evacuating a Victim 1 3 L 2
  107. 108. E.S.U. Arrival During an Active Shooter Situation <ul><li>Coordinate and relinquish responsibility as soon as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Assist with the containment responsibilities if necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>Assist with rescue teams if necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>Act as a “Pathfinder” for responding E.S.U. personnel. </li></ul><ul><li>- Direct to last known location of suspect(s). </li></ul><ul><li>- Report locations of explosives. </li></ul>
  108. 109. Urban Rifle Policy <ul><li>Deployment of the Urban Police Rifle (UPR). </li></ul><ul><li>May be deployed by specifically trained field Officers including trained supervisors, and absent an immediate threat of death or serious physical injury which preludes waiting for approval, supervisory approval is required prior to using these weapons and ammunition during a field situation. </li></ul>
  109. 110. Advantages of the Urban Rifle <ul><li>Increased Range </li></ul><ul><li>Increases Reactionary Gap </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Stopping Power </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Less Ammunition Used </li></ul>
  110. 111. Importance of Fire Power in an Active Shooter Event Military Target Long Range Attack 2,000 to 500 Miles Medium Range Attack 500 to 100 Miles Close Range Think “Where would I want to be - how far away”.
  111. 112. Apply to Law Enforcement Active Shooter Glock G19 9mm Train 25 – Field 10 Remington 870 Shotgun Train 50 – Field 25 Urban Rifle – AR15 Train 100 – Field 50
  112. 113. Local School Procedures
  113. 114. A School and Police Partnership <ul><li>Working together to develop realistic school safety plans in response to various threats. </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct joint School and Police training sessions and test procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct joint School and Police field training exercises in a realistic environment with maximum sensory overload (3 Dimensional Training). </li></ul>
  114. 115. Memorandum of Understanding <ul><li>Between the Police and the Schools </li></ul><ul><li>- Purpose: </li></ul><ul><li>To establish procedures to be followed when an incident involving an act of violence takes place, the School Administration has knowledge of what plans and tactics the Police may use to resolve the situation. </li></ul>
  115. 116. Lockdown or Evacuate?
  116. 117. School Lock Down Procedures <ul><li>Have a Signal/Code. </li></ul><ul><li>Lock Doors. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish Safe Area. </li></ul><ul><li>Account for Students. </li></ul><ul><li>Do Not Open Door Until Police Arrive. </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate. </li></ul>
  117. 118. Door Placards No Injuries Injuries
  118. 119. T Lock Down Procedure for Classroom S S S S S S S S S S S S
  119. 120. T After the Teacher secures the door, all the students and the teacher will remain against the hallway wall, away from any intruder(s) line of sight through a door window. S S S S S S S S S
  120. 121. T S S S S S S S S S
  121. 122. Rules of Thumb For Schools <ul><li>Call 911 and stay on the phone. </li></ul><ul><li>Meet the Police if possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Isolate and evacuate as soon as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Collect as much information as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t try to be a hero . </li></ul><ul><li>Allow police first responders to make contact. </li></ul>
  122. 123. School Priorities During an Active Shooter Event <ul><li>Protect the lives of the Children, Teachers, and Staff. </li></ul><ul><li>Have a Crisis Management Team and detailed School Safety Plan. </li></ul><ul><li>Implement an “Armed Intruder” procedure. </li></ul><ul><li>Notify the Police. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide follow up counseling to Children, Teachers, and Staff. </li></ul>
  123. 124. Summary <ul><li>Schools and Police must work together to establish response plans and procedures for violent school situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct realistic training for all involved – Police, Schools, Fire Departments, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>First responding patrol Officers must take action using appropriate weapons and tactics if it is necessary. </li></ul>
  124. 125. Conclusion
  125. 126. “ It is of utmost importance that the Officers at the scene of an Active Shooter Event make a rapid assessment and move to spot the Active Shooter with speed and aggression. There is an ethical requirement that the first responding Officers take aggressive steps to intercede. The fact that victims are being killed in a circumstance where Law Enforcement is physically present requires that Officers at the scene confront the suspect and use deadly force to stop the suspect, if necessary. Failure to do an aggressive insertion of Officers, as soon as possible, into the location would be an abrogation of the ethical position that Law Enforcement has historically professed to uphold – To Protect and Save Lives .”
  126. 127. Active Shooter Training 2003 has been presented to you by the Riverhead Police Department’s Training Division. Instructors: P.O. Bernard J. Bobinski P.O. Michael Henry Riverhead Police Department Training Division 210 Howell Avenue Riverhead, New York 11901 (631) 727-4500 Stay Safe! Much of the credit in establishing this block of training belongs to U.S. Air Marshall Shaun Brady (Riverhead P.D. 1995-2000). Without his inspiration, guidance, and vision, this program would not be where it is today. The result of his efforts is a Police force that will be better prepared for tomorrow. SOURCE: The Primary Source Material for this program was developed by the National Tactical Officers Association’s Active Shooter Program – NTOA P.O. Box 797 Doylestown, Pennsylvania 18901 (800) 279-9127 www.NTOA.Org