TEXAS COMMISON ON LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICER STANDARD & EDUCATION ACTIVE SHOOTER Homicide in Progress Texas Tactical Police Officers Association INSTRUCTORS LESSON PLAN TCLEOSE NUMBER: 3300 DATE PREPARED: 12-20-00 BY: M.L.“Sandy” Wall & Stuart Red Houston Police Department SWAT Detail
<ul><li>PREREQUISITE EXPERIENCE OF STUDENTS : </li></ul><ul><li>Certified Law Enforcement Officer. </li></ul><ul><li>INSTRUCTOR AIDS : </li></ul><ul><li>Lap top computer, power point projector and screen. </li></ul><ul><li>Simunition weapons & ammo. </li></ul><ul><li>Hand-outs and practical exercise location. </li></ul><ul><li>STUDENT MATERIALS: </li></ul><ul><li>A pen or pencil & note taking material. All tactical gear & eye protection. </li></ul>
TABLE OF CONTENTS I . OBJECTIVES II. MOTIVATING STATEMENT III. A REVIEW OF INCIDENTS IV. RESPONDING TO THE SCENE V. LOCATING THE THREAT VI. COMMAND, CONTROL, & COMMUNICATION VII. ENGAGING THE SUSPECT VIII. EVACUATION PRICIPLES
GOAL The purpose of this block of instruction is to aid police officers in their ability to safely & effectively respond to an active shooting situation. To improve his or her initial actions, therefore increasing the level of effectiveness of the overall operation.
OBJECTIVES At the end of this course each student will be able to: 1. Students will be able to discuss the dangers the first responder faces as they arrive at a active shooting scenario. 2. Students will be able to demonstrate the different initial actions that the first responder can take to increase officer safety. 3. Students will be able to articulate the consequences concerned with not addressing the fundamental task of the first officer on the scene. 4. Students will be able to demonstrate when a first responder should take proactive measures to address a lethal threat at a active shooting situation. 5. Students will be able to articulate how correct actions taken by the first responder will prepare the scene for a smooth & safe transition from the initial crises to a controlled operation.
Motivating statement As police officers, you may respond to many crises situations throughout your career. None will be more challenging than your response to a “homicide in progress” where life hangs in the balance. Your immediate actions may dictate the best possible outcome and who lives or dies. The homicide in progress scenario is sometimes referred to as an “active shooter or first responder”. We have seen in many incidents throughout America, that the immediate actions taken by the first responder, or the lack thereof, made a difference. These reactionary skills are not inherited. They must be learned. If they are learned, then they must be practiced to insure a correct response. We know the correct response will have a profound impact on the outcome. Your response may determine who lives and who dies.
REVIEW: SCHOOL SHOOTINGS 10-29-79 San Diego, CA Brenda Spencer killed two and wounded nine children at Cleveland Elem. right across from her house. She then wounded one responding officer be fore surrendering to the San Diego SWAT Team. 01-17-89 Stockton, CA Patrick Purdy fire-bombed his car and then entered a school playground armed with an AK47 and a 9mm pistol. He killed five children, wounded 25 and a teacher and then killed himself. 12-18-89 University of Montreal For over 20 minutes Marc Lepine stalked 4 different areas of the school. He was able to kill 14 and wound 13 before turning the gun on himself. 05-01-92 Olivehurst, CA Eric Houston killed 4 and wounded 10 at his former High School. His attack was in retaliation for a failing grade. He was later given the death sentence.
01-18-93 Grayson, KY Scott Pennington, 17, walked into Deanna McDavid’s seventh period English class at East Carter High School and shot her in the head. He then shot a janitor in the abdomen. He is doing life without parole. 02-02-96 Moses Lake, WA 14 year old Barry Loukaitis shot and killed three and wounded four at his middle school. 02-19-97 Bethel, AK 16 year old Evan Ramsey took a shotgun into the commons area and killed the principle and one classmate. Two other students were wounded. 10-01-97 Pearl, MS A 16 year old killed his mother and drove to his High School. There he killed two students and and wounded 7. 12-01-97 Paducah, KY A 14 year old student killed three classmates and wounded five others.
03-24-98 Jonesboro, AR An 11 and 13 year old set off a fire alarm and then opened fire on their fellow students as they exited the school house. 4 girls and a teacher were killed. 04-24-98 Edinboro, PA A 15 year old shot and killed her science teacher. 05-19-98 Fayetteville, TN An 18 year old honor student opened fire an a parking lot of students. He was mad at a boy that was dating his ex-girlfriend. 05-21-98 Springfield, OR Two students are killed and 20 are wounded by a 15 year old boy. His parents were later found slain at their home. 04-16-99 Notus, IN A sophomore took his grandfathers shotgun to school and opened fire on a group of students. His aim was off and several students narrowly missed being killed.
04-20-99 Littleton, CO Eric Harris & Dylan Keblod armed with over 20 home made bombs, 2 sawed off shotguns, one 9mm carbine, and one tech-9 handgun, shot and killed 12 classmates and a teacher. They wounded another 20 during their assault on their school. 04-28-99 Taber, Alberta, Canada Just eight days after the Columbine shooting, a 14 year old boy walked onto his campus at W. R. Myers High School and killed one student and wounded another. 05-20-99 Conyers, GA A 15 year old at Heritage High School opened fire with a 357 magnum and a rifle in the commons area. He wounded six students, but was disarmed when a school official simply walked up and told him to hand over the gun. 12-06-99 Ft. Gibson, OK A 13 year old student shot and wounded four students at Ft. Gibson Middle School. He was still trying to pull the trigger when a teacher disarmed him.
2-29-00 Mount Morris Township, MI A 6 year old shoots and kills a classmate after quarreling the day before on the playground. 04-10-00 Tucon, AZ Kathy Morris, 35 year old 6th grade teacher is shot by one of her students over a grade dispute. CLOSE CALLS: 04-08-00 Santa Fe, TX (just outside Houston) An 8th grader is arrested bringing 4 handguns to school. He told officers he wanted to get even with some school bullies. 04-17-00 Sonora, CA 2 students were arrested and charged with conspiracy to commit mass murder. They had planned a “Columbine” type assault on their school, for the one year anniversary of the tragedy.
Random acts of violence 08-01-66 Austin, TX Charles Whitman fired on University of Texas students for over an hour at distances up to 500 yds. away. He killed 15 and wounded 31. 01-07-73 New Orleans, LA Mark Essex shoots 22 people from the roof top of a Howard Johnson’s Hotel for over a 36 hours 06-06-81 San Diego, CA Two San Diego police officers were shot and bled to death in the driveway of a barricaded suspect. The suspect fired on responding police and SWAT officers for over 40 minutes before being killed by a SWAT sniper. 07-18-84 San Ysidro, CA James Huberty walked into a McDonalds and opened fire, killing 21 and wounding 19. He was later killed by a SWAT sniper.
10-16-91 Killeen, TX George Hennard drove his pick-up through a plate glass window at the luby’s cafeteria. He opened fire on the customers with two 9mm pistols. He killed 23 and wounded another 24. Once confronted by responding police he retreated in the restroom and turned the gun on himself. 11-19-98 San Diego, CA A man upset over marital problems entered a Day Care Center and shot two women, one fatally. He was killed by responding police officers. 07-04-99 Indiana, IL White supremacist Benjamin Smith went on a shooting spree over the 4th of July weekend. He targeted minorities and jews, killing two people and wounding nine others before committing suicide when confronted by police.
09-15-99 Ft Worth, TX Larry Gene Ashbrook walked into the Wedegewood Baptist church and shot 14 people, killing 7. Ashbrook then committed suicide. 11-04-99 Seattle, WA A W/M suspect walked into a ship yard repair company and shot four people, killing two of them. He then fled the scene but was arrested several weeks later. 03-01-00 Wilkinsburg, PA A B/M suspect angered over a broken lock on his apartment door, shot the maintenance man. He then went to a Burger King and shot four other people, two fatally. He then fled to an office building and held several hostages. He later surrendered to SWAT officers.
Workplace violence 08-20-86 Edmond, OK Postal worker Patrick Sherill shot 20 co-workers, killing 14 of them 01-24-96 Portland, OR A deliveryman recently fired over sexual harassment allegations entered a high-rise building and opened fire with an AK-47, a shotgun, and a handgun. 08-05-99 Pellham, AL Alan Miller shot two co-workers to death then drove to another former place of employment and killed a third person. 11-02-99 Honolulu, HI Bryan Uyesugi walked into a meeting of his co-workers at Xerox and shot and killed seven people.
12-30-99 Tampa, FL Silvio Layva, a Cuban immigrant had worked at the Radisson Hotel for about a month. On this date he walked into the hotel and killed four co-workers and fled the scene. He later killed another person while attempting a car jacking. 12-26-00: Boston, Mass. Michael McDermott opens fire on his co-workers at an internet consulting company. He killed 3 men and 4 women until responding units tackled and disarmed him. 01-08-01 Bryan, TX A chicken breeder, angered over a deal gone bad, walked into a chicken processing plant where he had been doing business and shot two the owners, killing one. He then turned the gun on himself.
Domestic Violence 01-09-00: Houston, TX Ki Yung Park believed his wife was having an affair with a business associate who was also double-crossing him in a business deal. On this day Mr.Park shot and killed his wife at their place of business and stuffed her body in the store cooler. He then drove across town and walked into the associate’s place of business and opens fire. Just before shooting he is quoted by witnesses as saying, “This man has destroyed my family, now I am going to destroy his”. He shoots the daughter, Kathy Chang, 23 and then turns the gun on the wife, Hyun Chang, and kills her. Both die instantly from gunshots to the head. He then spots the business owner, Chong Chang, who turns a runs. The suspect chases Chong and shoots him in the back one time. Chong falls to the ground and the suspect shoots him once more in the head. Park then attempts to leave but is confronted by a responding patrol officer. He retreats back into the business and patrol officers hear one more gunshot. Officers surrounded the business till arriving SWAT Officers could go in and clear the building. SWAT Officers found Park dead of a self-inflicted gunshot wound. Two more customers were found still hiding in the back for over 45 minutes.
Crimes in Progress Dade County, FL F.B.I. Shootout with Platt & Maddix Hollywood, CA Bank of America shootout
The sequence of events and responses: <ul><li>The call comes in: Multiple shots being fired! A homicide in progress. </li></ul><ul><li>Respond directly while gathering as much intelligence as possible through the dispatcher: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>location of the suspect(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>description(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>weapon(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>surrounding area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>communication with anyone at the scene </li></ul></ul>
ARRIVAL: 1. Approach from a direction that provides the most cover/concealment and retreat if it should become necessary. *cutting off lights & sirens at some distance away *just because another officer is at a location doesn’t mean it’s a good one *utilization of trees, shrubs, buildings *be aware of windows, glass doors, etc.. 2. Stay in communication with: * the dispatcher * other responding units 3. Take command & control * the uniform will draw a reaction from both the suspect and citizens * give directions, instructions, be decisive * look before you go (know the next point of cover before exposing yourself in an open area)
LOCATE THE THREAT 1. LOOK! * OBSERVE SIGNS OF DESTRUCTION THAT MAY GIVE YOU INFORMATION (bullet holes, explosive destruction, etc...) 2. LISTEN * SOUNDS OF GUNFIRE, SCREEMING 3. COMMUNICATE WITH OTHER OFFICERS WHAT YOU SEE: * LOCATION OF THE SUSPECT * DAMAGE * VICTEMS * DON’T ASSUME THAT THEY SAW OR HEARD THE SAME THING
IDENTIFY THREAT LEVELS <ul><li>Question witnesses/victims when possible (who, what, where, how) </li></ul><ul><li>Evacuate / question victims (how many, description, weapons) </li></ul><ul><li>Continue to evaluate collateral damage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(size of bullet holes, explosive damage) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the sounds of weapons </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(rifles, shotguns, & handguns all sound different) </li></ul></ul></ul>
DETERMINE CAPABILITIES <ul><ul><li>Weapons (scoped rifle, automatic weapons, explosives) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training (ex-military) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suspect’s position (high ground, fortifications) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobility (does he/they have access to other areas, vehicles) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to vital components (utilities, gas, lights, etc...) </li></ul></ul>
DETERMINE INTENTIONS <ul><li>Obvious actions (mass killing or target specific) </li></ul><ul><li>Notes, letters, signs left behind </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment or actions taken by the suspect(s) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(survival supplies, personal fortifications, armament) </li></ul></ul></ul>
KILL ZONES <ul><li>Areas the suspect has control of, both visually and with lethal </li></ul><ul><li>force. </li></ul><ul><li>Determined by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Range and capabilities of the suspect’s weapons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skill of the suspect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lee Harvey Oswald </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charles Whitman </li></ul></ul>
COMMUNICATE SAFE ROUTES <ul><li>Responding officers need to know the best route to your location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>or the location they should go to </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Invisible deployment is a good rule </li></ul><ul><li>This may not always be the route you took </li></ul>
EVALUATE THE NEED TO CLOSE DISTANCE <ul><li>Can you reduce or remove the suspect’s potential to do further harm </li></ul><ul><li>Can you restrict the suspect’s movements </li></ul><ul><li>Can you take resources away from the suspect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(additional weapons, utilities, escape routes) </li></ul></ul>
SEARCHING FOR THE THREAT <ul><li>Fundamentals of C.Q.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Visualize as much of the area as you can before committing yourself to it </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate to others your intentions </li></ul><ul><li>Weapons discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Clear the corners / threat areas </li></ul><ul><li>Point/cover principles if working with a partner </li></ul><ul><li>Direct to threat (stop the killing) </li></ul><ul><li>To draw the suspect(s) attention away from his/their victims, can sometimes be a good thing. To draw the suspect(s) attention away from their intended victims. </li></ul>
OFFICER SAFETY <ul><li>do not leave cover if there is not a reason to </li></ul><ul><li>always assume that there could be additional threats </li></ul><ul><li>cover any and all threat areas at all times </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is easier to maintain coverage than to obtain coverage. If you loose coverage, if for only a moment, it must be re-acquired tactically </li></ul></ul><ul><li>do not force the confrontation if it is not necessary </li></ul>
ENGAGING THE THREAT <ul><li>Element of surprise, speed, & violence of action </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(intimidating your opponent) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Historically mass-murderers have been cowards </li></ul><ul><li>Watch the hands, not the facial expressions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(weapons are operated by the hands) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Take appropriate actions as it becomes appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>* establish communication with the suspect(s) </li></ul><ul><li>* verbal commands </li></ul><ul><li>* use of impact weapons </li></ul><ul><li>* use of lethal force </li></ul>
STAY WITH THE THREAT <ul><li>If force is used to engage the suspect, it should be continued until the threat is no longer present. If the threat is down, never assume the threat will remain down </li></ul><ul><ul><li>body armor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>suspect recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protect the crime scene </li></ul><ul><li>Access medical condition of the suspect and take appropriate actions </li></ul>
CONTINUE TO ENGAGE ALL THREAT AREAS <ul><li>Always assume that there could be additional suspects </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a dominate position and continue to scan for addition threats </li></ul>
CONTROL & COMMUNICATE <ul><li>Deescalate the situation </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare for unusual or even bizarre behavior </li></ul><ul><li>It is instinctual to follow an authority figure </li></ul><ul><li>Project authority & people will follow </li></ul>
EVACUATE WHEN POSSIBLE <ul><li>Evaluate the need to move an individual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(unsafe, injuries, not necessary at this time) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the safety in evacuating any individual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>do you have enough information to do so safely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>you may be evacuating the suspect </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the urgency in evacuating any individual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is there a potential of danger for them to remain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(explosives, no ballistic protection, etc...) </li></ul></ul>
SUMMARY: We have addressed but a few of the considerations when responding to active shooting scenarios. These types of scenes are extremely dynamic and the appropriate response will change drastically from scene to scene. Officers must continue to train on those fundamental skills that will adapt to any type of scenario. These skills will provide the individual officer with a tactical advantage. This “tactical advantage” may make the difference. One point is clear, a swift and effective response by law enforcement will serve to minimize the damage and save the lives of potential victims.
REFERENCES: <ul><li>Houston Police Department/SWAT Detail, </li></ul><ul><li>Standard Operating Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Texas Tactical Police Officers Association </li></ul><ul><li>First Responder Lesson Plan </li></ul>