The moral issues of contraception

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The moral issues of contraception

  1. 1. Mevelle L. Asuncion, RNCentral Mindanao University College of Nursing 1
  2. 2. Contraception Voluntary prevention of conception Uses artificial means that prevents the union of sperm and egg Synonymous with  Family planning  Planned parenthood  Responsible parenthood  Birth control Mevelle L. Asuncion, RN Central Mindanao University College of Nursing 2
  3. 3. BIRTH CONTROL??? Mevelle L. Asuncion, RN Central Mindanao University College of Nursing 3
  4. 4. Birth control is a misnomer!!!!The birth of a baby cannot be prevented from being born or coming out once it is conceived in the womb Mevelle L. Asuncion, RN Central Mindanao University College of Nursing 4
  5. 5. STERILIZATION Positive use of artificial methods Cutting off the sexual capacity in a man and woman Usually done surgically Types: (according to willingness)  Voluntary  Involuntary Types: (according to purpose or ends)  Therapeutic  Contraceptive  Eugenic  Social  Punitive Mevelle L. Asuncion, RN Central Mindanao University College of Nursing 5
  6. 6. 1.Therapeutic sterilization Removal of part or all of the reproductive organ To save ones life or promote bodily integrity Principle of totality (under natural law ethics) Mevelle L. Asuncion, RN Central Mindanao University College of Nursing 6
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  9. 9. Mevelle L. Asuncion, RNCentral Mindanao University College of Nursing 9
  10. 10. 2. Contraceptive sterilization Justification: 1. Serious illness of either husband of wife  TB, epileptics, syphilitics and lepers 2. Probability of genetic abnormality  Carrier of defective gene 3. Financial burden 4. Child-bearing puts one’s health in danger Mevelle L. Asuncion, RN Central Mindanao University College of Nursing 10
  11. 11. 3. Eugenic and social sterilization Purpose of hindering the conception of undesirable and physically or mentally unfit offspring Social engineering  Society free from individuals afflicted with social diseases  Grave mental defects  Lepers, idiots  Imbeciles  Morons  Insane  Carriers of congenital defective genes Mevelle L. Asuncion, RN Central Mindanao University College of Nursing 11
  12. 12. 4. Punitive sterilization Done as punishment for crime or antisocial behavior Catholic theologians defended this under the double effect principle  The sterilization is not “direct” since the primary and intended effect is punishment and the contraceptive effect is therefore “indirect” or secondary Mevelle L. Asuncion, RN Central Mindanao University College of Nursing 12
  13. 13. Justifications of contraception1. Parenthood and birth are matters of moral responsibility and intelligent choice.2. An individual should be the one to determine his/her fertility and should be able to control his/her fecundity3. One should be able to decide how many children one is able to bear and support4. Contraceptive technology makes men and women persons of will and decision, and not inert and powerless bodies subject to church proscriptions or to the divine will.5. Contraception checks the transmission of recessive disorders or genetically-linked diseases.  Genetic testing and chromosomal analysis Mevelle L. Asuncion, RN Central Mindanao University College of Nursing 13
  14. 14. Methods of Contraception1. Folk methods  Precoital/Poscoital Douche  Prolonged Lactation  Withdrawal- coitus interruptos, coitus reservatus2. Mechanical methods  condom  Diaphragm  Sponge3. Chemical methods  Vaginal suppositories and tablets  Vaginal jellies, creams, and foams Mevelle L. Asuncion, RN Central Mindanao University College of Nursing 14
  15. 15. 4. Hormonal methods  Contraceptive pills  Injections and implants5. Abortifacients  Intrauterine Device  DES( diethylstilbestrol  Prostaglandin  Antipregnancy vaccine  Low-dose of contraceptive pills Mevelle L. Asuncion, RN Central Mindanao University College of Nursing 15
  16. 16. 6. Surgical methods  Tubal ligation  Vasectomy  Hysterectomy7. Natural or behavioral methods  Rhythm or calendar method  Temperature method  Ovulation (Mucus) Method  Sympto-thermal method  Sex relations during menstruation Mevelle L. Asuncion, RN Central Mindanao University College of Nursing 16
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  25. 25. Application of ethical theories Natural law ethics had two division  only rhythm method and abstinence  Voluntary sterilization as WRONG Utilitarianism  Justify contraception and sterilization for the greatest happiness and benefits Pragmatism  Contraception and sterilization is practical, useful, beneficial Mevelle L. Asuncion, RN Central Mindanao University College of Nursing 25
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