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Ethical school of thoughts one


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Ethical school of thoughts one

  2. 2. CLASSIFICATION OF ETHICS RULE  Appeals to a set of criteria, norms or rules  Ten commandments ACT  Weighing the consequences of the act itself.  Ex.  Utilitarianism  Situation ethics
  3. 3. TELEOLOGICAL-  Gk. Telos, teleos– end or purpose  Also consequential ethicsDEONTOLOGICAL  Gk. Deontos, deon ---duty  Also called duty ethics  Focus on the kind of act
  4. 4. ETHICAL RELATIVISM There is no universal or absolute moral principle Standards of right and wrong are always relative to a particular society  Examples: Eskimos lending or allowing one’s wife to sleep with a special guest  Igorots “olog” or trial marriage  Live-in among Americans  Muslims to have several wives  African culture to kill twins at birth  Jehovah’s witness refuses blood transfusion
  5. 5. SITUATION ETHICS Joseph Fletcher 3 approaches to morality 1. Legalism- laws, norms 2. Antinomianism- by the decision of the person involve 3. Situationism Moral norms depends on situations 3 types of love 1. Eros 2. Philia 3. Agape Always act on Christian love (AGAPE)
  6. 6. 6 PROPOSITIONS OF SITUATIONISM1. Only one thing is intrinsically good, namely love: nothing else2. The ultimate norm of christian decisions is love: nothing else3. Love and justice are the same, for justice is love distributed.4. Love wills the neighbor’s good whether we like him or not.5. Only the end justifies the means: nothing else6. Decisions ought to be made situationally, not prescriptively.
  7. 7. PRAGMATISM Charles Pierce and William James True and valid form of knowledge:  Practical  Workable  Beneficial  Useful
  8. 8. Questions Should the patient be told about the nature of his/her seriouse illness? Would it be more practical to withold the information for the patient’s own good? Would it be more humane and beneficial for a grossly deformed fetus to be aborted than to suffer and live a life of unbearable mistery?
  9. 9. UTILITARIANISM Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill Actions are good > promote happiness Actions are bad > produce unhapiness Example:  Vehicular accident and comatose patient Principle of greatest happiness An action is good/right insofar as it produces the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people.
  10. 10. Questions a child born with spina bifida occulata, with open spine, grossly deformed limbs and damaged brain.  Should we give the child ordinary treatment?  Should we give the child special medical assistance?  Should we just allow the child to die by giving no treatment at all?  Should we put the child to death in a painless way.