Alek Tarkowski - Building a National Open Educational Resources Policy; Examples from Poland and Other Countries
Building a national openeducational resources policy.Examples from Poland and other countries. Dr Alek Tarkowski Centrum Cyfrowe / Creative Commons PL With support from Open Society Foundations
American debate on MOOCs ... … vs. regional experience
● Open e-textbooks project in the „DigitalSchool” program● Open Educational Resources Policy and itscontext
● Open e-textbooks project in the„Digital School” program● Open Educational Resources Policy and itscontext
● Open e-textbooks project in the„Digital School” program● Context: OER developments in Poland in the last5 years ● Coalition for Open Education (KOED):16 members ● Public OERs: ● „Polish Aid” program ● „Włącz Polskę” program for Polish schools abroad ● Grassroots activities ● Wolne lektury: open books portal for schools ● Active Wikipedia community ● Khan Academy localization
The „Digital School” program (2011).●● A history of school IT programs in Poland since 2000.● A dominant equipment-based approach (or equipment and infrastructure) since 2011.● „Digital school” as a balanced project: equipment, teacher skills, content.
The „Digital School” program (2011).●● 2012-2013: pilot in 380 schools, 4th grades● 12,8m EUR for equipment, 4.7m EUR for teacher training, 13m EUR for educational resources + supplementary research study in 24 schools (1,2m EUR)
How much textbook(s) cost?Approximately whole textbooks market is 1 billion PLN big;About 15% of textbooks cost are coverd by government in support program for families with financial difficulties;Publishers also used European Union R&D grants, were contractors for many ICT programs where resources were also created beside of textbook Source: Dziennik Gazeta Prawna market.
● What model for educational resourcesdoes Polish education need? ● Need for personalized education ● From textbooks to „content clouds” as optimal proposed model ● Reality: minimal willingness of teachers to adapt / personalize resources and teachings ● Teachers dependent on commercial teaching materials
● Open Educational Resources in the„Digital School” program. ● Open model offers best means for fulfilling programs goals ● Both textbooks and other (non-certified content) ● Crucial questions: ● How to ensure high quality content will be produced (open is not enough) ● How to coexist with the market model and commercial actors?
● Open Educational Resources in the„Digital School” program. ● Approximately 56m PLN, of which 45m PLN (12m EUR) assigned for e-textbooks ● 18 textbooks covering K12 core courses until 2015 Leading institution: Center for Education Development (ORE) ● Partnership model: 1 technological and 4 content partners (instead of a grant model)
● What Open Educational ResourcesModel?● Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) or equivalent ● Strong open licensing due to specificity of educational needs ● In line with Capetown (and currently also Paris Declaration) ● Non/commercial as key controversy ● Also accessibility and open software standards
● Expected results of chosen OpenEducational Resources model. ● CC BY ensures greatest potential impact through ease and scale of use, by decreasing legal uncertainty ● CC BY allows for commercial reuse of textbooks (new business models) ● Print? ● Premium versions? ● „Remixes”?● Free core content can enhance neweducational service development - like a freeAPI for new educational projects
● Why did we succeed with introducingOER policy?● Coalition for Open Education, active since2008● A dialogue process between governmentand civil society● Open public resources initiative within thegovernment
● Key elements for successful open e-textbooks project ● Teacher training, including open models (→ training component) ● Leading institution: innovation and support ● Clear concept for e-textbook and their use ● IT equipment and connectivity as necessary elements ● Fostering use and re-use of OERs, by teachers and publishers
Future is uncertain: challenges ahead●● Lack of a clear concept for an e-textbook ● How it will be used in class? ● Electronic or paper? ● What equipment? (Both technological change and availability of IT in the school system).
● Challenge no. 1: opposition ofpublishers● Critique at planning: only non-textbooksresources are acceptable● Publicly funded content as unfair competition,fear of market destruction and public monopoly● Low quality of open public resources● Low Research and Development capacity incomparison to professional publishers● Boycott / attack on the public tender process● Negative PR ● Letter to the European Commission ● Letter to public universities
● Challenge no.2: indifference of schoolsystem● Low digital skills and competences of teachers –hey role of the training component● Low awareness of legal issues, teachersfunctioning within loosely defined fair use zone● Low capacity for reuse / remix of content
● Public response to the challenge● Public funding accepted and co-exists along themarket in many sectors; a model for publicfunding of textbooks is acceptable – not unfaircompetition● Many arguments prove that OERs are aneffective public investment in a digital educationalenvironment (but argument still needs to betested)● Support for OER emerging at EC level● Quality to be tested; quality and R&D ofcommercial offer also uneven;
● Public response to the challenge● Open public content can have a positive,although disruptive role on a market that is notadapting fast enough on its own ● Not just open content, also open standards (WCAG, HTML5, open formats) ● Generative character of open content (same argument as with reuse of public information)
● Mythbusting of allegations● Not a monopoly, but cost effective support forequal opportunities to learn. (Public mission vs.Business logic)● Quality management and review process will besame – same chances and risks● Money for commercial R&D comes mostly frompublic grants and has not been well invested.Startups and NGOs have better track record● Quality of textbook does not depend on if itsreuseable or not, but when it is reusable, qualitycan constantly be improved.
● Open e-textbooks project in the „DigitalSchool” program● Open Educational Resources Policyand its context
● Open Public Resources policy as abasic framework for public content● Inspiration from rules for access to publicinformation● Public data as a same type of content thatgenerates value through reuse when openlyavailable – cultural content is similar (HargreavesReport in the UK)● Main types of applicable content: education,science, culture
● Open Educational Resources policy asopen content policy, globally● Policy for public resources just one „path” forOER – alongside a) OER grassroots initiativesand b) OER business models● Capetown Declaration (2007): „governments, schoolboards, colleges and universities should make openeducation a high priority. Ideally, taxpayer-fundededucational resources should be open educationalresources”.
Open Educational Resources policy:●UNESCO Paris Declaration (2011) ● Reinforce the development of strategies and policies on OER. ● Promote the development of specific policies for the production and use of OER within wider strategies for advancing education. ● Encourage the open licensing of educational materials produced with public funds ● Governments/competent authorities can create substantial benefits for their citizens by ensuring that educational materials developed with public funds be made available under open licenses (with any restrictions they deem necessary) in order to maximize the impact of the investment.
● Open Public Resources policy as abasic framework for public content● Elements for European Open Public Resourcespolicy ● Re-use directive extended to cultural institutions ● Open Access Pilot, plans for its extension ● Consultations on Open Educational Resources
● Open Public Resources Bill in Poland● Unified framework for education, science culture– single rule, but with exceptions for each sphere● General rule: all content produced or financedpublicly should be made publicly available● Clear ownership of rights to content + openlicensing (CC BY as standard)● Concurrent declarations on OA by the Ministry ofScience – possibly applying also to highereducation OER
● Open Public Resources policy globally● Open Society Foundations – fostering OERpolicy development in several key countries:Brasil, Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland● Brasil: policy work to supplement work by OERcommunity: ● Sao Paolo city policy (CC BY-NC-SA) ● national policy in the Parliament ● 1) public educational resources to be made openly available ● 2) resources produced by public servants should be OER ● 3) govt support for OER repositories
● Open Public Resources policy globally● United States ● State-level initatives for higher education (California, Washington) ● 2bn USD program for college OER development● Netherlands ● focus on state-supported development of content by teachers: Wikiwijs – focus on platform / repository + active community
● Open Public Resources policy globally● New Zealand: NZGOAL (Open Access andLicensing) as a broad framework for open publiccontent (CC licensing + other models)● Australia: AUSGoal● South Africa: Siyavula ● Collaborative, grassroots production of educational content ● In 2011 approached by govt to align with curriculum, publication of textbooks in 2012● Resources ● COL: Survey on Governments OER Policies ● CC OER Policy Registry
Final Thoughts: specificity of OER●movement● Open Educational Resources vs. OpenEducation – can OER trigger broader educationalreform?● Specific licensing requirements due to needs ofeducators and learners● Education as a basic right, basic education asobligation – strong stakes for educational contentpolicy
● Final Thoughts: specificity of OERpolicy● Must be fitted within broader educational reform /modernization processes● Introduction of OER overlaps with the shift frompaper to digital – time of uncertainty● Synergy of top-down policy and bottom-upactivity● Will new business models develop?● Teachers, students dont necessarily want openeducation – openness as means for fulfilling otherneeds and goals