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18.yy historical background in English Literature


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18.yy historical background in English Literature

  1. 1. The Agustan age Whigs and Tories Scotland The Hanoverian Kings The International Scene
  2. 2.  heralded a period of relative domestic peace and prosperity
  3. 3. GOVERNMENT The Augustan Age Why is the eighteenth century referred to by critics and historians as the Augustan age?
  4. 4. This is due to its similarities with the era of the Roman emperor Augustos who initiated an era relative peace and wealthy.
  5. 5. Prime Minister Constitional monarcyUnder this system, the king or queen formally appointed ministers,but they were then answerable to parliament. The ministers formed a Cabinet that made major policy decisions.
  6. 6. The old aristocracy The middle classes  and Church of England The term ‘Tories’ is still used to refer to the Conservative party Held a mojority in parliament Their origin lay in the Tories supported a stronger monarchy constitutional monarchism and opposition to absolute rule.
  7. 7.  George I came to the throne and started the dynasty of the House of Hanover.  House of Hanover is a German royal dynasty.
  8. 8.  George I became the first British monarch of the House of Hanover.  WHY WAS HE CHOSEN ?  He was the closest Protestant heir to the throne
  9. 9.  The period was one of political stability, and the development of constitutional monarchy.  Great Whig families dominated politics.  The most eminent politician of time was Britain's first Prime Minister, Robert Walpole.  Britain came to acquire much of her overseas empire, despite the loss of the American colonies.
  10. 10.  Scotland Scotland and England were united as ‘Great Britain’ and were to be governed under one parliament. II. The unification of England and Scotland was not universally accepted north of the border. III. A rebel movement grew and fought for Scottish independence. IV. Scotland was finally defeated at the battle of Culloden I.
  11. 11.  The loss of American colonies Reason:The British Parliament insisted it had the right to tax colonists to finance the colonies' military defense, which had become increasingly expensive due to the French and IndianWars The colonists claimed that, as they were British subjects, taxation without representation in Parliament was illegal. The American colonists formed a unifying Continental Congress and a shadow government in each colony. Result: American victory and European recognition of the independence of the United States, with mixed results for the other powers.
  12. 12.  French revolution war  Reason: polemical declarations that any populace wishing to dispose of its rulers would be assisted by French forces.  Result:end of any possibility of reforming England
  13. 13. Ireland  Reason:American War of Independence and The French Revolution proved to be an important influnced on Irish politics  Result:Roman Catholic Relief Act 1791 helped Catholics relieve about certain political, educational, and economic disabilities.
  14. 14.  Choose the correct option 1) During the 18th century, The England passed a) a new century of peace, stability and prosperity b) A new century of war,instability and poverty Answer : a 2) in England heralded a period of peace and prosperity. a) Act of Union b) Glorious or Bloodless Revolution Answer:b
  15. 15. 3) the king or queen formally appointed ministers,but they were then answerable to parliament.What kind of monarchy? a) Absolute monarchy b) Constitional monarchy Answer:b 4)Tories were supported by a) The old aristocracy and Church of England b)Middle classes Answer:a
  16. 16. 5) Their origin lay in constitutional monarchism and opposition to absolute rule. a) Tories b) Whigs Answer:b 6) House of Hanover is a) A German royal dynasty b) An English royal dynasty Answer:a