Fakes & forgeries


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  • Text relates how Constantine 288a.d. to 227 the first chrisian roman emperor was cured by leprosy by Pope sylvester and in return handed over the western church to the pope in rome. Laid out like a legal contract. Attested to by named witnesses.
  • Fakes & forgeries

    1. 1. Lecturer: Lorna Moloney
    2. 2. Basis for Standard aquisitions <ul><li>On seeing a new image, write down the first words or phrases that come to mind. </li></ul><ul><li>Make a deliberate and pedantic description of what you see. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the condition of the image, noting every mark or label </li></ul><ul><li>Ask what the image depicting? </li></ul>
    3. 3. Basis for scrutiny <ul><li>Determine if the condition of the image backs up how it was used </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the style of the work, Is there a single, homogenous style or both </li></ul><ul><li>Establish if the supposed date and style are in accord </li></ul><ul><li>Assemble all the documentary information </li></ul>
    4. 4. Basis for scrutiny <ul><li>Gather all published references, exhibitions, collections, etc, do these make sense? Does this image have a provenance, one that can be proven. </li></ul><ul><li>Subject the image to scientific examination, ranging from Carbon 14, thermoluminescence, ultraviolet X-ray, autoradiography, the common magnifying glass </li></ul><ul><li>Assess the market place for its opinions if possible </li></ul>
    5. 5. Ancient world <ul><li>Old as mankind itself </li></ul><ul><li>Phoenicians, earliest recorded forger’s around the Meditteranean in the sixth century b.c. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Pious frauds’ – dating from pagan times. In early Christian times, accelerated </li></ul><ul><li>Ancient Egypt – 1922, craze for Egyptian artefacts </li></ul>
    6. 6. Greeks <ul><li>Ancient greek word for fakes is nothoi </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive sections of the Old Testament Book of Daniel which relate to detailed prophesies,supposedly written in the sixth century b.c. Found in the third century a.d to be second century b.c. </li></ul><ul><li>Porphyry reasoned that Daniel was able to foretell four hundred years in advance of the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem by the Greeks. </li></ul>
    7. 7. The story of Susanna <ul><li>Bible translabed from Hebrew into Greek in the second century b.c. </li></ul><ul><li>Temple relics routinely faked </li></ul><ul><li>Rhetoric schools of ancient greece trained their pupils to create fakes of the works of earlier writers, particularly private letters. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Ancient city of Rome <ul><li>Art forgeries prolific in the 212 b.c. </li></ul><ul><li>Demand for Greek art, silver and jewellery </li></ul><ul><li>Owning a prime greek work was a status symbol </li></ul><ul><li>Horace ‘ He who knows a thousand works knows a thousand frauds’ </li></ul><ul><li>Forging of documents carried severe documents, not so for Art </li></ul>
    9. 9. The Middle Ages <ul><li>Christian fakes intended to denigrate pagans </li></ul><ul><li>Scriptores historiae Augustae ‘Writings on the histories of the emperors’ – fourth century A.D. tales of degradation and cruelty, exposed as fake in the sixteenth century </li></ul><ul><li>Letters faked around A.D. 300 Christ exchanged with King Abgar of Edessa </li></ul>
    10. 10. The Dark Ages <ul><li>Fifth to eight centuries, to the time of Charlemagne </li></ul><ul><li>Manuscripts and documents </li></ul><ul><li>Believed that over half are fakes </li></ul><ul><li>Donations of Constantine, - Proving that Rome not Byzantium was the seat of the church. Lorenzo Valla disproved this document . </li></ul>
    11. 11. Age of Relics <ul><li>Fashionable and economically viable to possess holy evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Reliquaries & shrines, pieces of the true cross, nails from the true cross, the crown of thorns,Longinus’ lance, dice thrown by the Roman soldiers, all sorts of shrouds and veils </li></ul>
    12. 12. ‘ Tricks of the renaissance and shams of the baroque’ <ul><li>Watershed for fakes </li></ul><ul><li>Passionate nostalgia for the golden ages of ancient civilisations </li></ul><ul><li>Famous architects employed copyists and fakers, Robert Adams, </li></ul><ul><li>1775- Modern thinking about restoration emerged </li></ul>
    13. 13. Materials favoured by forgers <ul><li>Clay – convenient, easy to age </li></ul>
    14. 14. Forged painters <ul><li>Corot (1796-1875) </li></ul><ul><li>Honore Daumier (1808-1879) </li></ul><ul><li>Renoir (1841-1919) made lacklustre copies, </li></ul><ul><li>Max Liebermann (1847-1935) Disclaimer – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Art historians make it easier for bad paintings to be attributed to forgers’ </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Claude Monet 1840-1926 <ul><li>Placed advertisements in local french newspapers offering for sale works of haystacks, poplars and the façade of Rouen Cathedral </li></ul>
    16. 16. Case Study <ul><li>Hanricus Antonious van Meegeren (1889-1947) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ The Vermeer man’ </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch painter </li></ul><ul><li>Invented new Vermeer’s </li></ul>
    17. 19. How did he do it? <ul><li>Prepared the canvas </li></ul><ul><li>Scraped entire canvas but used a seventeenth century one </li></ul><ul><li>Preserved original ground with its thin layer of gesso and beige wash </li></ul><ul><li>Ground was full of natural cracks </li></ul><ul><li>Used canvas as a template and rolled it with a large cylinder </li></ul>
    18. 20. Preparation of canvas <ul><li>Removed all the paint except the seventeenth century white and incorporated this into the new subject </li></ul><ul><li>Signed the picture with the standard I.V.M. </li></ul><ul><li>Roasted his novel combination of hand-ground colours, lilac oil and bakelite in an oven at a temperature of 450 degrees fahrenheit for a couple of hours, </li></ul><ul><li>Responded to the alcohol test </li></ul>
    19. 22. Methodology <ul><li>Picture given several coats of varnish </li></ul><ul><li>Rolled on a cracking cylinder </li></ul><ul><li>Covered the surface with india ink soaked into the crack </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaned the picture so ink remaining would heighten the effect of the craquelure </li></ul><ul><li>Deliberately damaged the canvas with a number of abrasions and a small rip </li></ul>
    20. 23. Methodology <ul><li>For a fillip, he carried out some small bumbling repairs of the damage and tacked the canvas on to the wood of an old stretcher which he cut down, used nails of the right age also </li></ul><ul><li>Painting became the toast of the art world though many denounced them as fakes </li></ul><ul><li>Became collectors items and nazi Herman Goering possessed them </li></ul>
    21. 24. Other paintings <ul><li>Isaac blessing Jacob </li></ul><ul><li>Washing of the feet </li></ul><ul><li>Last supper </li></ul><ul><li>Helped by the fact that there was a war and no-one was travelling to Holland to see them </li></ul><ul><li>Exposed after the war </li></ul>
    22. 26. Faked Photographs <ul><li>http://www.cracked.com/article/118_the-15-most-shameless-fake-photos-ever-passed-off-as-real/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.museumofhoaxes.com/tests/hoaxphototest4.html </li></ul>