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Cancer is a large group of
diseases (over 200)
characterized by
uncontrolled growth and
spread of abnormal cells.*
**Amer...
 Oncogenes are mutated forms of cellular
proto-oncogenes.
 Proto-oncogenes code for cellular proteins
which regulate nor...
 Carcinogens
 Chemical- e.g. benzo(a)pyrene
 Radiation- e.g. X rays
 Viruses
 Hereditary predisposition
 Cancer cells:
 Lose control over growth and
multiplication
 Do not self-destruct when they
become worn out or damaged
...
 Cells in culture and in
vivo exhibit contact-
inhibition
 Cancer cells lack contact
inhibition feedback
mechanisms. Clu...
 Size of cancer cells:
 One million cancer
cells = head of a pin
 One billion cancer
cells = a small grape
 230
= 1,07...
 1st
Mutation: alteration of DNA and
reproduction of genetically altered cell
 2nd
Mutation: further mutation, may have
...
1. Growth Factor Receptor Increased
numbers in 20 percent of breast cancers
2. Ras Protein Activated by mutations in
20 to...
 Benign tumours do not spread from their site of origin, but
can crowd out (squash) surrounding cells
 e.g. brain tumour...
 metastasis – establishment of new tumour
sites at other locations throughout the body.
MetastasisMetastasis
Carcinoma: derived from endodermCarcinoma: derived from endoderm
or ectodermor ectoderm
 Change in bowel habits or bladder functions
 Sores that do not heal
 Unusual bleeding or discharge
 Lumps or thickeni...
 Carcinomas (cells
that cover internal and
external body surfaces)
Lung
Breast
ColonColon
BladderBladder
ProstateProstate...
Screening tests:
 Colon
 Breast
 Cervical
 Prostate
Self-exams:
 Testicular
 Skin
The treatment of cancer is
most successful when the
cancer is detected as early
as possible, often before
symptoms occur.
 Most colon cancers
start as a polyp
 Removing polyps can
prevent colon cancer
• AdvancedAdvanced
bleedingbleeding
cance...
 Age of 50 and older; younger if
there is a family history
 Yearly fecal occult blood test (FOBT) or
 Flexible sigmoido...
• Breast cancer occurs primarily in women.
• Signs and symptoms involve changes in breast tissue:
▪ Risk factors
 Family ...
 Cervical cancer screening
should be done every year with
regular pap tests or every two
years using liquid based pap
tes...
 Both prostate specific antigen (PSA) and digital
rectal examinations (DRE) are recommended for
men over 50 and who choos...
 Examination of a man’s testicles is an important
part of a general physical exam. It is
recommended that a testicular ex...
 Fifth leading cause of cancer death for women,
20,180 new cases diagnosed reported in 2006
 Most common symptom is enla...
 The ABCD’s of melanoma (skin
cancer):
 Asymmetry: one half is not like the
other
 Border: the edges are jagged or
irre...
 It is important to:
 Protect your skin with hats, long sleeves and
sunscreen
 Do a self examination of your skin month...
• Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of various
cancers.
• 30% of cancer deaths, including 87% of lung cancer
deaths, ar...
 Cigarette smoking is the
leading cause of preventable
death in the US
 Second hand smoke affects
everyone
 Cancer rates could
decline by up to 20% if
everyone consumed 5
fruits and vegetables a
day!*
 Cancer fighting
substance...
 Men – 2 drinks per
day
 Women - 1 drink per
day
 Limit time outside,
between 10 a.m. & 4 p.m.
 Wear protective clothing.
Use wide-brimmed hats
and sunglasses.
 Prevent...
 Exercise for 30 minutes or
more at least 4 days a week.
 Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma
 Usually detected at the later stages of the
cancer
 Survival rate is <5%
 Tumors of Pancreatic cancer have activating
mutations in the KRAS2 oncogene
 Transcription of mutant will produce an
ab...
 95% of tumors have inactivation of
the CDKN2A gene
 which results to the loss of the p16 protein (a
regulator of the G1...
 TP53 is abnormal in 50 to 75% of tumors,
permitting cells to bypass DNA damage
control checkpoints and apoptotic signals...
 Biomarkers- used for diagnosis
 CA19-9 – carbohydrate antigen which levels
are elevated in patients who have large
tumo...
 Limitations of CA19-9
 It is not a specific biomarker for pancreatic cancer
 Levels maybe elevated in other conditions...
 Protein expressed by mesothelial cells
 Overexpressed in tumors includingpancreatic
cancer
 Identified by Jack Andrada...
 Used Paper Sensors
 Coated with nanotubes laced with mesothelin-
specific antibodies
 mesothelin was then tested again...
 The antibodies would bind to the mesothelin
and enlarge.
 These would spread the nanotubes farther
apart which changes ...
 10 ng/mL is considered the level of
overexpression of mesothelin consistent with
pancreatic cancer
 The sensor’s limit ...
 It’s a simple and cheap blood test that has
many potential
 It could also be potentially used for other
types of cancer
Development of cancer
Development of cancer
Development of cancer
Development of cancer
Development of cancer
Development of cancer
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Development of cancer

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Developmental Biology

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Development of cancer

  1. 1. Cancer is a large group of diseases (over 200) characterized by uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells.* **American Cancer Society, Cancer Facts and Figures 2005American Cancer Society, Cancer Facts and Figures 2005
  2. 2.  Oncogenes are mutated forms of cellular proto-oncogenes.  Proto-oncogenes code for cellular proteins which regulate normal cell growth and differentiation. 33
  3. 3.  Carcinogens  Chemical- e.g. benzo(a)pyrene  Radiation- e.g. X rays  Viruses  Hereditary predisposition
  4. 4.  Cancer cells:  Lose control over growth and multiplication  Do not self-destruct when they become worn out or damaged  Crowd out healthy cells
  5. 5.  Cells in culture and in vivo exhibit contact- inhibition  Cancer cells lack contact inhibition feedback mechanisms. Clumps or foci develop.
  6. 6.  Size of cancer cells:  One million cancer cells = head of a pin  One billion cancer cells = a small grape  230 = 1,073,741,824 = 1 billion cells 2-6 weeks  Cancer cells reproduce every 2-6 weeks. 2-6 weeks 2-6 weeks
  7. 7.  1st Mutation: alteration of DNA and reproduction of genetically altered cell  2nd Mutation: further mutation, may have different appearance and more prone to division  3rd Mutation: further mutation, speeds up the growth of the tumor  4th Mutation: further mutation, causes the development of more aggressive cancer
  8. 8. 1. Growth Factor Receptor Increased numbers in 20 percent of breast cancers 2. Ras Protein Activated by mutations in 20 to 30 percent of cancers 3. Abl Kinase Activated by abnormal chromosomes in chronic myelogenous leukemia 4. Src Kinase Activated by mutations in 2 to 5 percent of cancers 5. p53 Protein Mutated or deleted in 50 percent of cancers
  9. 9.  Benign tumours do not spread from their site of origin, but can crowd out (squash) surrounding cells  e.g. brain tumour, warts.  Malignant tumours can spread from the original site and cause secondary tumours.  This is called metastasis. They interfere with neighbouring cells and can block blood vessels, the gut, glands, lungs etc.
  10. 10.  metastasis – establishment of new tumour sites at other locations throughout the body.
  11. 11. MetastasisMetastasis Carcinoma: derived from endodermCarcinoma: derived from endoderm or ectodermor ectoderm
  12. 12.  Change in bowel habits or bladder functions  Sores that do not heal  Unusual bleeding or discharge  Lumps or thickening of breast or other parts of the body  Indigestion or difficulty swallowing  Recent change in wart or mole  Persistent coughing or hoarseness
  13. 13.  Carcinomas (cells that cover internal and external body surfaces) Lung Breast ColonColon BladderBladder ProstateProstate (Men)(Men) Leukemia (Blood Cells) Lymphomas (Lymph nodes &tissues) Sarcomas Cells in supportive tissues – bones & muscles
  14. 14. Screening tests:  Colon  Breast  Cervical  Prostate Self-exams:  Testicular  Skin
  15. 15. The treatment of cancer is most successful when the cancer is detected as early as possible, often before symptoms occur.
  16. 16.  Most colon cancers start as a polyp  Removing polyps can prevent colon cancer • AdvancedAdvanced bleedingbleeding cancercancer • A polypA polyp
  17. 17.  Age of 50 and older; younger if there is a family history  Yearly fecal occult blood test (FOBT) or  Flexible sigmoidoscopy every 5 years or  Yearly FOBT and sigmoidoscopy every 5 years or  Double-contrast barium enema every 5 years or  Colonoscopy every 10 years Of the options above ACS prefers yearly FOBT and Sigmoidoscopy every five yearsOf the options above ACS prefers yearly FOBT and Sigmoidoscopy every five years
  18. 18. • Breast cancer occurs primarily in women. • Signs and symptoms involve changes in breast tissue: ▪ Risk factors  Family history ▪ Women with mothers, sisters, or daughters who have breast cancer  Age ▪ Rare before age 20 ▪ Risk increases throughout the 20s ▪ Rises dramatically during the 30s through mid-70s (majority or cases occur in women 40 and over) ▪ Drops significantly after mid-70s
  19. 19.  Cervical cancer screening should be done every year with regular pap tests or every two years using liquid based pap tests.  At or after age 30, women who have had three normal test results in a row may get screened every two to three years.
  20. 20.  Both prostate specific antigen (PSA) and digital rectal examinations (DRE) are recommended for men over 50 and who choose to undergo screening for prostate cancer
  21. 21.  Examination of a man’s testicles is an important part of a general physical exam. It is recommended that a testicular exam be conducted during routine cancer-related checkups.
  22. 22.  Fifth leading cause of cancer death for women, 20,180 new cases diagnosed reported in 2006  Most common symptom is enlargement of the abdomen  Risk factors include: family history, age, childbearing, cancer history, fertility drugs, talc use in genital area, genetic predisposition  Prevention: diet high in vegetables and low in fat, exercise, sleep, stress management, and weight control
  23. 23.  The ABCD’s of melanoma (skin cancer):  Asymmetry: one half is not like the other  Border: the edges are jagged or irregular  Color: the color is varied, tan, red, black etc  Diameter: the diameter is larger than 8mm (the top of a pencil eraser) AA BB CC DD
  24. 24.  It is important to:  Protect your skin with hats, long sleeves and sunscreen  Do a self examination of your skin monthly  Become familiar with any moles, freckles or other abnormalities on your skin  Check for changes once a month. Show any suspicious or changing areas to your health care provider.
  25. 25. • Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of various cancers. • 30% of cancer deaths, including 87% of lung cancer deaths, are attributed to tobacco use. • Smoking cigarettes is most common cause. • Women are more susceptible to lung cancer than men due to presence of the GRPR gene, which is linked to the abnormal growth of lung cells and is more active in women.
  26. 26.  Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the US  Second hand smoke affects everyone
  27. 27.  Cancer rates could decline by up to 20% if everyone consumed 5 fruits and vegetables a day!*  Cancer fighting substances:  Antioxidants  Dietary fiber  Carotenoids  Flavenoids *American Institute for Cancer Research, 1998.
  28. 28.  Men – 2 drinks per day  Women - 1 drink per day
  29. 29.  Limit time outside, between 10 a.m. & 4 p.m.  Wear protective clothing. Use wide-brimmed hats and sunglasses.  Prevent sunburns, especially for children under 18. Use waterproof sunscreen of SPF 15 or higher. Reapply as directed.  Avoid tanning beds.
  30. 30.  Exercise for 30 minutes or more at least 4 days a week.
  31. 31.  Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma  Usually detected at the later stages of the cancer  Survival rate is <5%
  32. 32.  Tumors of Pancreatic cancer have activating mutations in the KRAS2 oncogene  Transcription of mutant will produce an abnormal Ras protein  The Ras protein is “locked” in activated form, therefore resulting in activation of proliferative and survival signaling pathways
  33. 33.  95% of tumors have inactivation of the CDKN2A gene  which results to the loss of the p16 protein (a regulator of the G1–S transition of the cell cycle) and a corresponding increase in cell proliferation.
  34. 34.  TP53 is abnormal in 50 to 75% of tumors, permitting cells to bypass DNA damage control checkpoints and apoptotic signals and contributing to genomic instability
  35. 35.  Biomarkers- used for diagnosis  CA19-9 – carbohydrate antigen which levels are elevated in patients who have large tumors
  36. 36.  Limitations of CA19-9  It is not a specific biomarker for pancreatic cancer  Levels maybe elevated in other conditions such as cholestasis  Patients who are negative for Lewis antigen a or b (approx. 10% of patients with pancreatic cancer), are unable to synthesize CA19-9
  37. 37.  Protein expressed by mesothelial cells  Overexpressed in tumors includingpancreatic cancer  Identified by Jack Andrada as a biomarker for detecting pancreatic cancer even for early stages
  38. 38.  Used Paper Sensors  Coated with nanotubes laced with mesothelin- specific antibodies  mesothelin was then tested against the paper biosensor  any change in the electrical potential of the sensor strip was measured, before and after each application.
  39. 39.  The antibodies would bind to the mesothelin and enlarge.  These would spread the nanotubes farther apart which changes the electrical properties of the network  The more mesothelin present, the more antibodies would bind and grow big, and the weaker the electrical signal would become.
  40. 40.  10 ng/mL is considered the level of overexpression of mesothelin consistent with pancreatic cancer  The sensor’s limit of detection sensitivity was found to be 0.156 ng/mL
  41. 41.  It’s a simple and cheap blood test that has many potential  It could also be potentially used for other types of cancer

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