9. us cattel production current approaches to brd in us feedlots

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9. us cattel production current approaches to brd in us feedlots

  1. 1. 1 US cattle production – Current approaches to BRD in US feedlots
  2. 2. 2 Why the risk is so high for pneumonia in US cattle Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD)
  3. 3. 3 Calves on the farm
  4. 4. 4 US Beef cattle production • Beef Cows – 32,434,500 head • Replacement Heifers – 5,646,500 head • Number of operations – 766,350 • Average herd size (cows) – 42.3 USDA. 2008 Beef 2007-08, Part III: Changes in Beef Cow-Calf Industry, 1993-2008
  5. 5. 5 US beef cattle production • 54.1 percent of cows from herd size 100 head or more • Calves born from Feb-April – 58.8 % • Calf average age at weaning – 207 days • Calf average weaning weight – Bulls and steers – 559 lbs (254 kg) – Other heifers – 515 lbs (234 kg) – Replacement heifers – 532 lbs (241 kg) USDA. 2008 Beef 2007-08, Part III: Changes in Beef Cow-Calf Industry, 1993-2008
  6. 6. 6 US beef cattle production USDA NASS
  7. 7. 7 Trailer to the auction
  8. 8. 8 Through the auction
  9. 9. 9 US beef cattle production • Marketing Methods in the US – Auction – 82.4 % – Direct-video – 1.1 % – Direct-private treaty – 11.6 % – Consignment – 1.1 % – Forward contract – 0.3 % USDA. 2008 Beef 2007-08, Part III: Changes in Beef Cow-Calf Industry, 1993-2008
  10. 10. 10 Re-grouped into trucks
  11. 11. 11 US beef cattle production • Transported to feedlots in “pots” – Pots are the common term for the type of trailer used – A full trailer is termed a “pot load” – A pot load = 50,000 lbs (22,680 kg) of calves – At 500 lbs a head = approximately 100 head of calves per pot load – On average – calves from at least 2 origins on each pot load
  12. 12. 12 Into the feedlot (150K head)
  13. 13. 13 US beef cattle production • US Feedlots – in 1995 – 41,365 feedlot operations in the top 13 states marketed 23.4 million cattle – 95.3% of feedlots had less than 1000 head one time capacity – Feedlots with 1000 head or greater one time capacity marketed 90.2% of cattle – Number of 1000 head plus capacity – approximately 1,800 (1999) Managing for Today’s Cattle Market and Beyond, March 2002, CE Ward, TC Schroeder
  14. 14. 14 US beef cattle production Managing for Today’s Cattle Market and Beyond, March 2002, CE Ward, TC Schroeder 22
  15. 15. 15 US beef cattle production Animal Health Research Reviews 10(2); 101-103, 2009. DG Miles
  16. 16. 16 US beef cattle production NASS, USDA, Agriculture Statistics Board, Cattle on Feed, December 2009
  17. 17. 17 US beef cattle production NASS, USDA, Agriculture Statistics Board, Cattle on Feed, December 2009
  18. 18. 18 Processed at the feedlot
  19. 19. 19 US beef cattle production USDA. 2000 Part I: Baseline Reference of Feedlot Management Practices, 1999.
  20. 20. 20 US beef cattle production USDA. 2000 Part I: Baseline Reference of Feedlot Management Practices, 1999.
  21. 21. 21 2 points of antibiotic use Off the truck Sick in pen
  22. 22. 22 US beef cattle production USDA VS Info Sheet, Treatment of Respiratory Disease in US Feedlots, October 2001
  23. 23. 23 US beef cattle production USDA VS Info Sheet, Treatment of Respiratory Disease in US Feedlots, October 2001
  24. 24. 24 US beef cattle production USDA VS Info Sheet, Treatment of Respiratory Disease in US Feedlots, October 2001
  25. 25. 25 US beef cattle production Animal Health Research Reviews 10(2); 101-103, 2009. DG Miles
  26. 26. 26 US beef cattle production Animal Health Research Reviews 10(2); 101-103, 2009. DG Miles
  27. 27. 27 Terminology Metaphylaxis = control = prevention Treatment = pull & treat
  28. 28. 28 US beef cattle production Treatment protocol Arrival processing at feedlot “Low risk” No metaphylaxis 1st pull treatment “Expensive” long acting product Re-pull treatment Cheaper product Possible “moratorium” Risk determination based on origin, source and history
  29. 29. 29 US beef cattle production Canadian Veterinary Journal 2008; 49:373-378. MW Sanderson, DA Dargatz, BA Wagner
  30. 30. 30 US beef cattle production J Anim Sci 2009.87:314-327. AH Babcock, BJ White, SS Dritz, DU Thomson, DG Renter
  31. 31. 31 US beef cattle production J Anim Sci 2009.87:314-327. AH Babcock, BJ White, SS Dritz, DU Thomson, DG Renter
  32. 32. 32 US beef cattle production • Data from Midwest feedlot collected from 1 Jan 2001 to 2 Feb 2006 • 31,131 cattle treated for respiratory disease • Diagnosis based on opinion of feedlot personnel – Diagnosis based on – Animal appearance – Animal demeanor – Body temperature J Anim Sci 2009.87:314-327. AH Babcock, BJ White, SS Dritz, DU Thomson, DG Renter
  33. 33. 33 US beef cattle production Conclusions • For 5WT and 6WT cattle, the earlier in the feeding period that cattle were diagnosed with BRD and treated the more times they were treated and had a decrease in ADG • Steers were treated an average of 1.6 times J Anim Sci 2009.87:314-327. AH Babcock, BJ White, SS Dritz, DU Thomson, DG Renter
  34. 34. 34 Key individual Pen rider
  35. 35. 35 US beef cattle production • Pen rider – “Cowboy” • The most important decisions about health • Determines the need for further evaluation and/ or treatment – Diagnosis of “buckets” • BRD, GI, lameness, brainer, other
  36. 36. 36 US beef cattle production • Illness determination • Almost uniformly “subjective” • Animal appearance – Lack of rumen fill, nasal discharge, increased respiratory rate and/or effort • Animal demeanor – Lowered head and ears, reluctance to move, decreased response to stimuli • Rectal temperature ? – Must be interpreted in the context of the animals other clinical signs 2007, 79th Western Veterinary Conference, Robert L Larson
  37. 37. 37 US beef cattle production Metaphylaxis protocol Arrival processing at feedlot “High risk” Metaphylaxis Treat all animals in the group “Expensive” long acting product Re-pull treatment Cheaper product Possible “moratorium” Risk determination based on origin, source and history
  38. 38. 38 US beef cattle production - Metaphylaxis • Definition – the mass treatment of animal populations currently experiencing any level of disease before the onset of blatant illness • Can be considered as a prevention as well as a curative treatment Vet Clin Food Anim 26 (2010) 285-301. JS Nickell, BJ White
  39. 39. 39 US beef cattle production - Metaphylaxis • General guidelines for metaphylactic treatment – 1. clinical appearance of cattle on arrival – 2. current (and expected) morbidity/ mortality patterns – 3. feed consumption – 4. elevated body temperature – 5. efficacy of products labeled for the control of BRD Vet Clin Food Anim 26 (2010) 285-301. JS Nickell, BJ White
  40. 40. 40 US beef cattle production - Metaphylaxis • Factors to consider in predicting BRD – Lightweight cattle from multiple origins – Previous health history – Distance of travel to feedlot – Time of year – Weather – Transit conditions (weather extremes) It may be helpful to plot BRD cases to predict disease incidence using epidemic curves Vet Clin Food Anim 26 (2010) 285-301. JS Nickell, BJ White
  41. 41. 41 US beef cattle production - Metaphylaxis Vet Clin Food Anim 26 (2010) 285-301. JS Nickell, BJ White
  42. 42. 42 Questions?

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