02 henry too


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02 henry too

  1. 1. Pig Production in Asia and Experiences with Circovac ® 3 rd Merial Forum April 13 th to 15 th 2011 Malta Henry Too Merial Asia Pte Ltd
  2. 2. Introduction Name: Henry Too Veterinarian, BVSc (University of Melbourne), MVSc (University of Sydney) Joined Merial end 2001 Last held position prior to joining Merial: associate professor in Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Malaysia Current position: Technical Services (Swine) in Asia Cluster Region
  3. 3. Pig Production in Asia <ul><li>Farms are either: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small holder operations i.e. backyard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial pig farms </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Pig Production in Asia Domesticated wild boars
  5. 5. Pig Production in Asia Village pigs
  6. 6. Management Systems <ul><li>Commercial farms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single site farrow-to-finish operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Few true all-in, all-out systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multisite operations are usually either 2 or 3 sites </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Sucklers Weaners Growers/Finishers Majority are farrow-to-finish herds, all stages in one farm Gestation Breeding
  8. 8. Pigs in commercial piggeries are housed indoors. Farm housing in tropical Asia is usually open-sided. Some trends towards closed housing system.
  9. 9. Pigs in commercial piggeries are housed indoors. Farm housing is usually open-sided. Sows are usually kept in individual stalls.
  10. 10. Mating is usually by artificial insemination. In most cases, this is due to labour constraints rather than a desire for better reproductive efficiency.
  11. 11. Mating is usually by artificial insemination although in some of the smaller farms, natural mating is still the norm. Supervised mating in East Malaysia
  12. 12. Quality of farrowing house facilities and management is highly variable.
  13. 13. Quality of farrowing house facilities and management is highly variable.
  14. 14. Quality of farrowing house facilities and management is highly variable.
  15. 15. Closed housing system is common in Korea. Nursery house in Korea.
  16. 16. Closed housing system is common in Korea. Nursery house in Korea.
  17. 17. Swine demographics in Asia cluster region: sow population (in 000) 1% 1,134 1,052 1,101 1,104 CWD -5% 988 988 1,330 1,148 THL -2% 608 615 621 650 TWN 2% 658 642 626 615 PHL -4% 875 816 913 1,004 KOR COMMERCIAL POPULATION -3% 8,518 7,920 9,073 9,204 CWD -5% 988 988 1,330 1,148 THL -2% 676 684 690 722 TWN 2% 2,454 2,393 2,333 2,291 PHL -4% 875 896 913 1,004 KOR TOTAL POPULATION CAGR ’ 07-‘10 2010 2009 2008 2007 ENTITY
  18. 18. Swine demographics in Asia cluster region: Commercial versus backyard sow population (in 000)
  19. 19. Economically important emergent and endemic pig diseases in Asia <ul><li>PRRS and highly virulent PRRS </li></ul><ul><li>Foot and mouth disease </li></ul><ul><li>Porcine epidemic diarrhoea (PED) </li></ul><ul><li>Porcine circovirus type 2 diseases (PCVD) </li></ul><ul><li>Classical swine fever </li></ul><ul><li>Aujeszky’s disease (pseudorabies) </li></ul><ul><li>Glasser’s disease (Haemophilus parasuis) </li></ul><ul><li>Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae </li></ul><ul><li>Porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) </li></ul><ul><li>Mycoplasmal pneumonia </li></ul>
  20. 20. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) <ul><li>Endemic in all major pig rearing areas in Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Most sows in commercial herds are serologically positive </li></ul><ul><li>However, the disease in some herds are actually inactive and stable although seroprevalence in sows may be high due to past history of infection (or vaccination). </li></ul>
  21. 21. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) <ul><li>Of late, PRRS became a disease of greater concern in China, Philippines, Vietnam and Thailand. </li></ul><ul><li>Outbreaks of “blue ear disease” or highly virulent (atypical) PRRS – previously known as swine high fever pig disease </li></ul><ul><li>Started in Jangxi province in China. Spread rapidly throughout China </li></ul><ul><li>Spread to Philippines, Vietnam, Myanmar, Laos Cambodia and lately, Thailand </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Started in small and backyard piggeries in 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Spread to many regions in China </li></ul><ul><li>Serious economic losses </li></ul><ul><li>However, very little information about the disease </li></ul><ul><li>Also called Blue-eared disease </li></ul><ul><li>killed over 80,000 pigs, led to the culling of 235,000 others and set pork prices rocketing. </li></ul><ul><li>Pork price went up 85% </li></ul>Swine High Fever Disease
  23. 23. Mystery Pig Disease in China in 2006
  24. 24. Conclusions <ul><li>Chinese scientists believe that the aetiology of this disease is a highly virulent PRRSV. </li></ul><ul><li>Results (Jian et al ., 2008) unambiguously fulfill Koch’s postulates and define highly pathogenic PRRSV as the aetiological agent of PHFS in China </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to reproduce mortality with isolates (Vietnam, USDA) but ability to reproduce mortality with tissue homogenates (USDA study) may suggest that there might be another pathogen (?) involved. </li></ul><ul><li>Some unanswered questions </li></ul><ul><li>Potential danger of spread to other Asian countries. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Outbreak of “blue ear disease” in Vietnam
  26. 26. Outbreak of “blue ear disease” in Vietnam
  27. 27. Outbreak of “blue ear disease” in Vietnam
  28. 28. Postscript <ul><li>October 24, 2009 - China's agriculture ministry has announced that an epidemic of swine disease that killed more than 80,000 pigs in 2007 has emerged in parts of the country. </li></ul><ul><li>Until October 20, just under 3,300 pigs had died from the disease and 7,724 had been culled. </li></ul><ul><li>In April 2010, outbreaks of so-called blue ear disease have been reported in several areas in Vietnam. </li></ul><ul><li>In November 2010, a sudden increase in morbidity and mortality due to PRRS in Thailand – mainly in backyard piggeries in Phitsanulok province. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Circovac ® Registration Country Registration Date (Sow claim only) Actual Launch Thailand 14 Sep 2007 Feb-2008 Malaysia 07 Dec 2007 Dec -2007 Philippines 10 Sep 2008 Oct-2008 Vietnam 22 Sep 2007 Nov-2008 South Korea 09 Feb 2009 May-2009 Indonesia 21 Sep 2010 Nov-2010 Cambodia 28 Apr 2010 Taiwan 2 nd Qtr 2012
  30. 30. Piglet vaccination trial in Malaysia <ul><li>Farrow to finish farm </li></ul><ul><li>250 sow herd </li></ul><ul><li>12 litters of piglets. Half of each litter was vaccinated at 3 weeks of age with 0.5 ml Circovac® </li></ul><ul><li>Piglets weaned at 4 weeks of age </li></ul><ul><li>Surviving piglets recorded at 3, 4, 7 and 17 weeks of age </li></ul>
  31. 31. Piglet vaccination trial in Malaysia: Post-weaning mortality Farm A and B = piglet vaccination at 3 weeks of age
  32. 32. Piglet vaccination trial in Malaysia: grower mortality Farm A and B = vaccination at 3 weeks of age
  33. 33. Piglet vaccination trial in Malaysia <ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant decrease of mortality in both age groups… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Residual mortality probably due to diseases other than PCVD </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Piglet vaccination in Thailand <ul><li>P. Poolperm et al. (2009) 4th APVS, Tsukuba, Japan </li></ul><ul><li>M&M </li></ul><ul><ul><li>11 barns without vaccination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 barns with CIRCOVAC vaccination, 0.5ml, IM, 3 weeks of age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fattening losses (death and culled) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PCV2 RT-PCR at 15-16 weeks of age </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Piglet vaccination in Thailand <ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Losses during the fattening period (p<0.05) </li></ul></ul>11x1200 pigs 4x1200 pigs
  36. 36. Piglet vaccination in Thailand Table 1 PCV2 load confirmed in NV and V3w (15-16 week-old). Data are represented as mean log 10 (PCV2 copies/ml) ± SD NV = non vaccinated V3w = vaccinated at 3 weeks PCV2 RT-PCR at 15-16 weeks of age 0.00 ± 0.00 7.34 ± 0.81 Mean ±SD V3w (n=5) NV (n=4) Group
  37. 37. Efficacy of CIRCOVAC ® (Merial) in piglets under Japanese field conditions <ul><li>E.Ono¹, M.Sugiyama¹, H.Koimaru¹, G.Kinoshita¹, N.Nakanishi², M.Pasini³. and F Joisel³ </li></ul><ul><li>1.Merial Japan Limited, Tokyo, Japan </li></ul><ul><li>2.Kyoto Animal Science Center, Kyoto, Japan </li></ul><ul><li>3.Merial S.A.S., Lyon, France </li></ul>Proceedings of the 5th Asian Pig Veterinary Society Congress. 7-9 March 2011, Pattaya, Thailand. P072
  38. 38. Material and methods <ul><li>Good Clinical Practices conditions (GCP) </li></ul><ul><li>Blinded, randomized & controlled trial </li></ul><ul><li>3 farrow-to-finish farms </li></ul><ul><li>2 experimental groups of 350 pigs each </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccinated (VG): CIRCOVAC 0.5ml, IM once at weaning (3 weeks of age) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-vaccinated (NVG): left as controls </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dead pigs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recorded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Submitted to a full necropsy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pathology + Immuno-histochemistry </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Material and methods (cont’d) <ul><li>Weighing at weaning and 18 weeks of age </li></ul><ul><li>Under grown pigs = pigs weighing less than 75% of the average weight of the group </li></ul><ul><li>60 pigs blood sampled at 3, 12 and 18 weeks of age for PCV2 PCR test in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feces </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Material and methods (cont’d) <ul><li>Chi² test applied for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mortality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Under grown pigs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PCR detection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Student t-test applied for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average daily weight gain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age at slaughter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wilcoxon’s test applied for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antibody titres </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Results <ul><li>Safety in the target species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No general reaction in the vaccinated pigs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No local reactions to the vaccine </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Results <ul><li>Mortality rates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>p<0.05 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PCVD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>p<0.05 </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Results <ul><li>Average daily weight gain in g/day (3 to 18 weeks of age) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>p<0.05 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Age at slaughter (days) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NVG: 201±24 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VG: 176± 13 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>p<0.05 </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Results <ul><li>Undergrown pigs (%) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>p<0.05 </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Results Viraemia and fecal shedding results - *p<0.05 2/49 12/52 0/60 13/60* 14/60 1/60 NVG 0/60 7/60 0/60 3/60* 7/60 3/60 VG 18w 12w 3w 18w 12w 3w age PCV2 antigen in feces PCV2 antigen in serum
  46. 46. Conclusion <ul><li>Safety in the target species has been confirmed </li></ul><ul><li>In this GCP trial, CIRCOVAC has been shown to significantly: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dramatically reduce mortality and PCVD-specific mortality (- 30%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve growth (+ 232g/day), homogeneity and reduce undergrown pigs (-61.9%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce time to slaughter (-25days) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase the number of pigs delivered to slaughter (+30%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce viraemia in the vaccinated pigs at 18 weeks of age </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. General conclusions <ul><li>Market share of Circovac® in Malaysia, Thailand and Philippines ranges from 40 to 70% </li></ul><ul><li>Except in South Korea, Circovac® is recommended in both sows and piglets either as registered claims or as off-label </li></ul>
  48. 48. General conclusions <ul><li>NEW POSITIONING “CIRCOVAC, the only proven “ Whole HERD PCV2 ” vaccine, flexible for use in controlling PCV2 infections through sows or piglet application. With CIRCOVAC, devastating effects in piglets are controlled while retaining the reproductive benefits in sows, which no other PCV2 vaccine can do.” </li></ul>