4TH MERIAL FORUM HAVE WE GOT PCVD &SWINE INFLUENZA UNDER       CONTROL?
PCVD        Moderator: Dr François Joisel• Basics in porcine immunology.  Dr. A. Goubier• PCV2 impact and control on early...
Porcine Immunology and        vaccinology : back to basicsA.Goubier_Berlin_2012
Porcine Immunology and vaccinology                            Back to basics        • Immunity: defense strategies        ...
Immunity        • Oxford Dictionnary            “the ability of an organism to resist a particular            infection or...
eign invaders - viruses, bacteria, allergens, toxins and                          Immunity:asites- constantly bombard our ...
Physical and chemical barriers                            Dessication                            Desquamation             ...
oreign invaders - viruses, Immunity:                            bacteria, allergens, toxins and rasites- constantly bombar...
Innate Immunity:                        Pathogens recognition                                        1- Identification of ...
Innate Immunity                                    Pathogens sensing                                 Zymosan             M...
Innate Immunity                        Implementation of the response   Tissue                                   Agression...
Innate Immunity:                         Defense Mechanisms                         Recruitment and                       ...
Immunity:                         INDUCTION OF AN IMMUNE                          Defense strategies against infections   ...
Innate and adaptive Immunity:             Sequential and complementary strategies• Innate Immunity                  • Adap...
Messengers between innate and adaptive immunity:                        The Dendritic CellsTissue                         ...
The actors of Adaptive Immunity               T CD4+ cells: Conductors of the immune system                               ...
The actors of Adaptive Immunity                         T CD8+ lymphocytes: licensed to kill                              ...
The actors of Adaptive Immunity                          B cells: Antibodies factories                                    ...
Swine specificities                      19
Swine Immune system characteristics         Importance of Innate Immune cellsHuman                    Mice                ...
Swine Immune system characteristics     Adaptive Immune cells specificity                 CD8                  T          ...
Porcine Immunology and vaccinology                            Back to basics        • Immunity: defense strategies        ...
Immune memory:                        A guaranty for long-term protection              Characteristics of memory immune re...
Porcine Immunology and vaccinology                            Back to basics        • Immunity: defense strategies        ...
The challenges of vaccination        1.Induce an immune response:              Recognition of abnormal element           ...
Immunomodulation         Vaccination strategies                                                                  Depot eff...
Immunology Basics                           Conclusions           Defense strategies implemented by the         immune sys...
Thanks for your attention!                                            28A.Goubier_Berlin_2012
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01 pcvd anne goubie

  1. 1. 4TH MERIAL FORUM HAVE WE GOT PCVD &SWINE INFLUENZA UNDER CONTROL?
  2. 2. PCVD Moderator: Dr François Joisel• Basics in porcine immunology. Dr. A. Goubier• PCV2 impact and control on early stage of gestation in sows. Pr G. Sarli• PCV2 antibody status of gilts before entering swine commercial farms. Dr G. Perreul
  3. 3. Porcine Immunology and vaccinology : back to basicsA.Goubier_Berlin_2012
  4. 4. Porcine Immunology and vaccinology Back to basics • Immunity: defense strategies – Physical and chemical barriers – Innate Immune response – Adaptative Immune response – Swine specificities • Immune memory • Vaccination strategies 4A.Goubier_Berlin_2012
  5. 5. Immunity • Oxford Dictionnary “the ability of an organism to resist a particular infection or toxin by the action of specific antibodies or sensitized white blood cells” • Cambridge Dictionary: «when you are protected against diseases» Science photo library 5A.Goubier_Berlin_2012
  6. 6. eign invaders - viruses, bacteria, allergens, toxins and Immunity:asites- constantly bombard our body. Defense strategies against infections Physical and chemical barriers Infection Invasion Innate Immunity Inflammation Adaptive Immunity 6
  7. 7. Physical and chemical barriers Dessication Desquamation Fatty acids Tears Normal flora Normal flora Blinking Anaerobia Lysozyme Defensins ProteasesTurbulence DiarrheaSneezingVomitingSaliva Mucus Cilia Coughing Acid pH 7 Vomiting
  8. 8. oreign invaders - viruses, Immunity: bacteria, allergens, toxins and rasites- constantly bombard our body. infection Defense strategies against Physical and chemical barriers Infection Innate Immunity Inflammation Adaptative Immunity 8 A.Goubier_Berlin_2012
  9. 9. Innate Immunity: Pathogens recognition 1- Identification of abnormal element ? 2- Danger evaluation 1+2 = implementation of Immune defenses 9A.Goubier_Berlin_2012
  10. 10. Innate Immunity Pathogens sensing Zymosan Mycoplasmal Peptidoglycan Lipoprotein Lipoprotein (Bacteria) Enterobacterial (Bacteria, fungi) (Bacteria) LPS (Bacteria) TLR2 TLR6 TLR1 TLR4 MD2 Flagellin(Bacteria) TLR5 CpG DNA Peptidoglycan ssRNA (Bacteria, dsRNA (Virus) component virus) (Virus) (Bacteria) TLR7 TLR8 TLR11 TLR3 TLR9 Profilin(Protozoa) NOD1 NOD2PAMPs: Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns = Pathogen recognitionDAMPs: Danger-AMPs = Endogeneous Danger signals recognition PAMPs+ DAMPs = immune system activation 10
  11. 11. Innate Immunity Implementation of the response Tissue Agression and cell death: DAMPs Pathogen entry in the organism: PAMPs Innate Immunity 11A.Goubier_Berlin_2012
  12. 12. Innate Immunity: Defense Mechanisms Recruitment and activation of Innate Immune cells Infection Lysis of pathogens +/- Eosinophiles infected cells Mastocytes NK cells Barriers reinforcement Macrophages Dendritic cells Adaptative Immunity 12A.Goubier_Berlin_2012
  13. 13. Immunity: INDUCTION OF AN IMMUNE Defense strategies against infections RESPONSEForeign invaders - viruses, bacteria, allergens, toxins andparasites- constantly bombard our body. Infection Innate Immunity Inflammation Adaptive Immunity 13 A.Goubier_Berlin_2012
  14. 14. Innate and adaptive Immunity: Sequential and complementary strategies• Innate Immunity • Adaptive immunity – First line of defense – Occurs with failure of  immediate innate system  Delayed – Able to sense pathogens and danger – Need the innate but invariant immunity for activation but custom – Do not prevent re- infection – Memory of the infection Hours Days0 6 12 1 3 5 Time after infection 14
  15. 15. Messengers between innate and adaptive immunity: The Dendritic CellsTissue Lymph Nodes Lymphatic CD8 CD4 Vessels CD4 CD4 CD4 CD8 CD4 CD4 CD8CD8 CD8CD8 CD8 CD4 B B B Blood CD8 B B B CD4 15
  16. 16. The actors of Adaptive Immunity T CD4+ cells: Conductors of the immune system Neutrophiles andRegulation of Innate and epithelium activation Adaptive Immunity Anti-microbial peptides production Inflammation Treg TH17 Defense against extra_cellular bacteria IL10 IL17 TGFb TGFb TGFb IL6 + IL6 Cellules CD4 “cell mediated” naïves “humoral” Immunity immunity IL12 IL4 IFNg IL4 IL5 IL2 IL13 TH1 TH2 Antibodies productionActivation of macrophages,Cytotoxic T lymphocytes Barriers reinforcementInflammation Eosinophiles and mastocytes activationDefense against virus,intra-cellular bacteria Defense against Helminths
  17. 17. The actors of Adaptive Immunity T CD8+ lymphocytes: licensed to kill Cytokines production: -IFNg -TNFa (activation of phagocytic cells and anti-viral effect) CD8 CTL TC0 TCRIL12 CD8 CMH class I Killing of infected cells 17A.Goubier_Berlin_2012
  18. 18. The actors of Adaptive Immunity B cells: Antibodies factories Microbes and toxines neutralization Opsonization and phagocytosis of microbes Phagocyte TH2 Degranulation Mastocytes Basophiles B cell Antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity NK cells Eosinophiles Lysis of microbes Phagocytosis of Complement microbes opsonized with complement Activation fragments 18 InflammationA.Goubier_Berlin_2012 From Abbas & Lichtmann, Basic immunology
  19. 19. Swine specificities 19
  20. 20. Swine Immune system characteristics Importance of Innate Immune cellsHuman Mice Adaptive Immunity B cells ab T cells ( 60%) NK ( 30%) CD4+ (35-40%) CD8+ (20-25%) (<10%) B cells ab T cells (25-55%) gd T cells NK cells ( 25%) CD4+ CD4+CD8+ CD8+ (15-30%) (15-40%) Innate Immunity
  21. 21. Swine Immune system characteristics Adaptive Immune cells specificity CD8 T CD8 Human T B cells BMice cells CD4 T CD8 CD4 CD4 T T Role? Memory T helper?
  22. 22. Porcine Immunology and vaccinology Back to basics • Immunity: defense strategies – Physical and chemical barriers – Innate Immune response – Adaptative Immune response – Swine specificities • Immune memory • Vaccination strategies 22A.Goubier_Berlin_2012
  23. 23. Immune memory: A guaranty for long-term protection Characteristics of memory immune response: - Quicker onset - Stronger and longer peak of response - higher affinity for the antigen (better recognition) Immune memory = protection against re-infections 23A.Goubier_Berlin_2012
  24. 24. Porcine Immunology and vaccinology Back to basics • Immunity: defense strategies – Physical and chemical barriers – Innate Immune response – Adaptative Immune response – Swine specificities • Immune memory • Vaccination strategies 24A.Goubier_Berlin_2012
  25. 25. The challenges of vaccination 1.Induce an immune response:  Recognition of abnormal element +  Danger signal 2.Generating the right type of immunity 3.Eliciting long-term memory 4.Protect throughout life 25A.Goubier_Berlin_2012
  26. 26. Immunomodulation Vaccination strategies Depot effect Ag targeting Adjuvant Inactivated adjuvanted Adapted Modified Antigen Immune RouteLive Vaccine Response Viral vectors DNA Vaccination SC Proteins program IM Mucosal One or several shots
  27. 27. Immunology Basics Conclusions Defense strategies implemented by the immune system are complex and fine tuned Vaccination strategies are precisely adapted to the animal and to the infection 27A.Goubier_Berlin_2012
  28. 28. Thanks for your attention! 28A.Goubier_Berlin_2012

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