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Bia NSW Acquired brain Injury and homelessness presentation 2013

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Presented at the recent Brain Injury Forum, hosted by the Mercy Foundation and the Haymarket Foundation.

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Bia NSW Acquired brain Injury and homelessness presentation 2013

  1. 1. Brain Injury Association NSW(BIA NSW)PresentationRachel Merton – CEOBev Taylor – Training andDevelopment ManagerABI and HomelessnessApril 2013
  2. 2. Outline BIA NSW What is Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) A few statistics Living life after an ABI How can BIA NSW assist you? Questions
  3. 3. Who is BIA NSW?The Brain Injury Association of NSW (BIA NSW) the peak body in NSW for people affected byacquired brain injury (ABI) advocacy and support information and resources
  4. 4. What do we do? Support for people with an ABI, their families andcarers: Information and referral service (1800 number) Individual advocacy service Brokerage packages CarerLink mentoring program Systemic advocacy Representation to government and policy makers Submissions Media advocacy
  5. 5. What do we do? Building knowledge and networks Training (general and tailored) Facilitating networks – interagency and partnerships Raising awareness of ABI: Speakers Bureau: supporting people with ABI to sharetheir story – for education and awareness-raising Using the media Newsletters, fact-sheets, presentations
  6. 6. What do we do?We shine the spotlight on ABI tomake visible the invisible disability!
  7. 7.  BIA NSW What is Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) A few statistics Living life after an ABI How can BIA NSW assist you? Discussion
  8. 8. Definition of ABI An injury to the brain after birth. The effects may be either temporary orpermanent. May cause partial or total disability. ABI can happen to anybody at any time
  9. 9. Types of Acquired Brain Injury Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Non-traumatic Brain Injury
  10. 10. What is TBI? TBI (Traumatic Brain Injury) is one type of ABI TBI is caused by violent physical force to the head (eg:MVA’s, assaults, falls, sporting accidents oracceleration forces alone (eg: MVA) TBI may cause the brain to bleed, tear, bepenetrated, stretched, bruised or become swollen TBI can result in complete recovery, permanentdisability or death
  11. 11. How does ABI happen?AcquiredBrainInjuryTraumaBrainTumourToxinsHypoxiaDegen.DiseasesInfectionStrokeMVAFallsAssaultsSportPedestriansGrowths(malignant& benign)Surgery toremoveAlcoholDrugsChemicalsMedicationPetrolHeart AttackDrowningSuffocationSuicideChildbirthMedicalIschaemicblocked-arteryHaemorrhagic(bleed in thebrain)DementiaAlzheimer’sParkinson’sEncephalitisMeningitisDental abscessCold sores/herpes
  12. 12.  BIA NSW What is Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) A few statistics Living life after an ABI How can BIA NSW assist you? Discussion/brainstorm
  13. 13.  BIA NSW What is Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) A few statistics Living life after an ABI How can BIA NSW assist you? Discussion/brainstorm
  14. 14. Prevalence:How many people have an ABI? 1 in 45 Australians (432,700 people) have ABI withactivity limitations or participation restrictions due todisability. Almost three-quarters of these people are under 65 years About 20,000 are under 15 years Now: there are more survivors from MVAs – many areliving with severe injuries and limited access to supportSource: ABS Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers 2003
  15. 15. Incidence:No. of TBIs per yearSource: AIHW 2007 Bulletin 5521,800 hospital stays69% malesPeaks: Males 15-24 years (MVAs, sport accidents); Both sexes: >75 years (falls)Hospitalisations for TBI, Australia, 2004-05
  16. 16. Disadvantaged CommunitiesRates of ABI are higher in socially disadvantaged populations: ATSI:– prevalence estimates are three times that of non-ATSIcommunities,– One study found head injury due to assault among ATSIcommunities was 21 times higher than for non-ATSIAustralians (854/100,000 cf 40.7/100,000 for the non-ATSIpopulation) People in the criminal justice system– Higher prevalence and incidence than general population– Estimated 60% of prisoners have ABI with one studyshowing up to 80%Sources: Jamieson et al, 2008; Schofield et al, 2006; Brain Injury Australia (July 2011) Out ofsight, out of mind: People with an acquired brain injury and the criminal justice system
  17. 17. Involvement with policePeople with an ABI have: a higher number of contacts with police than people withoutan ABI a higher proportion of convictions for minor offences thanoffenders without an ABI (Dowse et al). 40% of convictions inDowse’s cohort were for ‘theft and related offences’ or ‘roadtraffic and motor vehicle regulatory offences’. A further 12%were for public order offences.Sources:Dowse L et al (April 2011) People with mental health disorders and cognitive disabilities in thecriminal justice system: Impact of acquired brain injury (a study of 604 people within the CJSidentified as having an ABI)Brain Injury Australia (July 2011) Out of sight, out of mind: People with an acquired brain injury andthe criminal justice system
  18. 18.  BIA NSW What is Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) A few statistics Living life after an ABI How can BIA NSW assist you? Discussion/brainstorm
  19. 19.  The location of the brain damage The severity of the injury The length of time since injury The extent a person has been able to integrate backinto the community Access to rehabilitation The extent a person retains important/personalrelationships and friendshipsThe effects of ABIcan be complicated by:
  20. 20. Changes after ABI Physical problems Sensory problems Cognitive (thinking) problems Emotional problems Problems with social interaction Communication problems Overwhelming grief/sense of loss Before/Now comparisons Severe impact on families and friends
  21. 21. May lead to ... Changes to important relationships - people commonlylose key relationships and have trouble making new ones Social isolation, exploitation, neglect - access to servicesand support is unfair and inequitable Loss of employment, financial hardship, homelessness Loss of value status and respect in the community Mental health issues Drug and alcohol dependency Involvement with Criminal Justice System Need for long-term support
  22. 22. Some challenges to services Lack of motivation Memory problems (eg not attending appointments;retaining information) Behaviours of concern Communication difficulties Lack of natural / social supports High rate of comorbidity with other problems Mild ABI – significant for person but may not meeteligibility criteria
  23. 23. Practical Techniques Emotional support– Speak clearly, calmly, reassuringly, in an adult voice– Avoid arguments and confrontations– Use non-verbal expressions Memory Aids– Help clients with memory / reminder techniques– Write important things down– Use repetition– Use visual aids
  24. 24. Practical Techniques - cont’d Reduce confusion– Allow processing time– Reduce background noise and distractions– Keep concepts and instructions clear and concise– Realistic goal setting– Ask the person to repeat back to you what they understand Respect– Treat people with cognitive disabilities as adults– Adjust communication to match person’s understanding
  25. 25. ABI: ‘The Hidden Disability’ Causes problems with a person’s basic ability tothink and make decisions Not as easy to distinguish as other physicaldisabilities People with a brain injury may bemisunderstood, ignored and ‘judged’ by others(common labels: lazy, non-compliant, argumentative, ‘difficult’)
  26. 26.  BIA NSW What is Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) How is ABI different from … A few statistics Living life after an ABI How can BIA NSW assist you?
  27. 27. Brainstorm?
  28. 28. How can BIA NSW help you? Information and Referral service Training and professional development; mentoring Resources and handouts Brokerage Online information Membership and newsletters– For you– For people you work with Programs for people with an ABI and their families Interagencies, networking Other
  29. 29. BIA NSWPhone: (02) 9868 5261Toll free: 1800 820 840www.biansw.org.auYou can also find us on Facebook!Remember to ‘Bang on a Beanie’ duringBrain Injury Awareness Week12th to 20th August 2013

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