Results-Based Management at the Federal Emergency Management Agency Jerry Ellig Mercatus Center George Mason University
Which do you want to be? <ul><li>“ The sorriest bunch of bureaucratic jackasses I’ve ever known.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Much...
What  is  a “result”? A result is the intended benefit produced or harm avoided for a particular set of clients or the pub...
Results-Based Management and Organizational Structure <ul><li>Mission and Measures </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibilities and ...
Mission and Measures <ul><li>Results-based mission specific enough to guide action </li></ul><ul><li>Results-based perform...
FEMA Mission <ul><li>“ Reduce the loss of life and property and protect our institutions from all hazards by leading and s...
FEMA Action <ul><li>Reorganized into 5 directorates: </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigation </li></ul><ul><li>Preparedness, Training...
Mission-centered measures <ul><li>Mitigation:  Actual disaster losses vs. baselines </li></ul><ul><li>Preparedness:  Surve...
Performance Results FEMA programs lead to higher scores State assessments $1 billion/yr. saved Flood losses 8 days, vs. 10...
Responsibilities and Decisionmaking Authorities <ul><li>Well-defined and understood  </li></ul><ul><li>Reflect mission </l...
Roles/responsibilities in disaster assistance <ul><li>Mission determines responsibilities of sub-units </li></ul><ul><li>F...
FEMA’s Reorganization <ul><li>MGT LEVEL </li></ul><ul><li>Agency Director </li></ul><ul><li>Directorate </li></ul><ul><li>...
Empowered employees? <ul><li>“ Mileage for personal vehicles is reimbursed at 24 cents per mile when your travel is fewer ...
Decisionmaking Authority <ul><li>Individuals sign their own correspondence </li></ul><ul><li>Managers take initiative to p...
Incentives and Perf. Eval.  <ul><li>Pay/promotion should be linked to results individuals produce </li></ul><ul><li>Accura...
Pay linked to performance? “ There must be a better reason for giving raises than the fact that the earth went around the ...
Small financial incentives… <ul><li>Senior staff evaluated based on org. performance goals </li></ul><ul><li>Small bonuses...
… large intrinsic motivation <ul><li>1993:  half of FEMA employees said they would take a job elsewhere if offered one </l...
Who’s doing better?
Knowledge systems <ul><li>It’s NOT just “IT” </li></ul><ul><li>It’s not just data:  </li></ul><ul><li>Much knowledge is di...
It’s NOT just “IT” <ul><li>Pre-teleregistration: long lines just to schedule appointments </li></ul><ul><li>Rocky start </...
Accounting for the nature of knowledge <ul><li>Small size fosters informal sharing of experience </li></ul><ul><li>Routine...
Organizational Culture <ul><li>Results, not process </li></ul><ul><li>Values support focus on responsibility and results <...
Walking the Talk at FEMA <ul><li>Continuous improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Customer service </li></ul><ul><li>Quality work ...
More walking the talk… <ul><li>Creativity and innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Partnership </li></ul><ul><li>Hurricane Floyd r...
What other values foster a focus on results? (NOT means or processes) What evidence would show that these values guide act...
Remember Basic Principles… <ul><li>Mission and Measures </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibilities and Decisionmaking Authorities ...
Change  Can  Happen! <ul><li>1993 survey: </li></ul><ul><li>Half of FEMA’s employees said they would take a job elsewhere ...
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Ellig Results Based Management At Fema 2000

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Ellig Results Based Management At Fema 2000

  1. 1. Results-Based Management at the Federal Emergency Management Agency Jerry Ellig Mercatus Center George Mason University
  2. 2. Which do you want to be? <ul><li>“ The sorriest bunch of bureaucratic jackasses I’ve ever known.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Much more proactive, much more sensitive to the consumer… They have just made a tremendous amount of improvement.” </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is a “result”? A result is the intended benefit produced or harm avoided for a particular set of clients or the public at large.
  4. 4. Results-Based Management and Organizational Structure <ul><li>Mission and Measures </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibilities and Decisionmaking Authorities </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives and Performance Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Culture </li></ul>
  5. 5. Mission and Measures <ul><li>Results-based mission specific enough to guide action </li></ul><ul><li>Results-based performance measures derived from mission </li></ul>
  6. 6. FEMA Mission <ul><li>“ Reduce the loss of life and property and protect our institutions from all hazards by leading and supporting the Nation in a comprehensive, risk-based emergency management program of mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery .” </li></ul>
  7. 7. FEMA Action <ul><li>Reorganized into 5 directorates: </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigation </li></ul><ul><li>Preparedness, Training, and Exercises </li></ul><ul><li>Response and Recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Insurance Administration (flood mitigation and recovery) </li></ul><ul><li>National Fire Administration (fire mitigation and preparedness) </li></ul><ul><li>Grants to states must fall into one of the mission categories </li></ul>
  8. 8. Mission-centered measures <ul><li>Mitigation: Actual disaster losses vs. baselines </li></ul><ul><li>Preparedness: Surveys of training course alumni; state capabilities survey </li></ul><ul><li>Response/recovery: Average length of time to deliver financial assistance, and customer satisfaction with aid process </li></ul>
  9. 9. Performance Results FEMA programs lead to higher scores State assessments $1 billion/yr. saved Flood losses 8 days, vs. 10 in 1997 and 20 in 1992 Wait to receive housing assistance More than $2 saved for every $1 spent Mitigation grants 89-97% favorable for individual victims Customer service surveys 87% report improved job performance Course surveys – US Fire Admin. Result Measure
  10. 10. Responsibilities and Decisionmaking Authorities <ul><li>Well-defined and understood </li></ul><ul><li>Reflect mission </li></ul><ul><li>Access to resources and info. commensurate with results for which people are responsible </li></ul>
  11. 11. Roles/responsibilities in disaster assistance <ul><li>Mission determines responsibilities of sub-units </li></ul><ul><li>Federal, state, local roles clarified </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Response Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Unneeded management layers eliminated </li></ul><ul><li>Decisionmaking authority more closely matches responsibilities </li></ul>
  12. 12. FEMA’s Reorganization <ul><li>MGT LEVEL </li></ul><ul><li>Agency Director </li></ul><ul><li>Directorate </li></ul><ul><li>Office </li></ul><ul><li>Division </li></ul><ul><li>Branch </li></ul><ul><li>Team </li></ul><ul><li>Unit </li></ul><ul><li>REORG RESULT </li></ul><ul><li>Retained </li></ul><ul><li>One eliminated </li></ul><ul><li>Most eliminated </li></ul><ul><li>Retained </li></ul><ul><li>Retained </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminated </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminated </li></ul>
  13. 13. Empowered employees? <ul><li>“ Mileage for personal vehicles is reimbursed at 24 cents per mile when your travel is fewer than 125 miles (one-way distance to destination), or when a state vehicle is requested but not available. On longer trips (greater than 125 miles, one-way to destination) or when a state vehicle is available but declined, the reimbursement rate is 16 cents per mile…luxury vehicles are not allowed…Remember to fill the gas tank before you turn in the car. Gas station refueling is acceptable and will be reimbursed. Car rental companies charge an excessive amount for refueling – those charges will not be reimbursed.” </li></ul><ul><li>--Travel policy of a state university </li></ul>
  14. 14. Decisionmaking Authority <ul><li>Individuals sign their own correspondence </li></ul><ul><li>Managers take initiative to pre-position resources in advance of disaster </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigation officials make purchase/relocation decisions independent of director’s office </li></ul>
  15. 15. Incentives and Perf. Eval. <ul><li>Pay/promotion should be linked to results individuals produce </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate measures of success provide nonmonetary motivation </li></ul>
  16. 16. Pay linked to performance? “ There must be a better reason for giving raises than the fact that the earth went around the sun one more time.”
  17. 17. Small financial incentives… <ul><li>Senior staff evaluated based on org. performance goals </li></ul><ul><li>Small bonuses = 1-2.5% of salary </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestions can earn $100-2500 </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation can contribute to promotion </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews revealed pay does matter </li></ul>
  18. 18. … large intrinsic motivation <ul><li>1993: half of FEMA employees said they would take a job elsewhere if offered one </li></ul><ul><li>Today </li></ul><ul><li>FEMA attracts “fixers and scrappers who want to get something done.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ We don’t have to wear bags over our heads when we go to meetings with other departments.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Once you work at FEMA, you don’t want to work at any other federal agency.” </li></ul>
  19. 19. Who’s doing better?
  20. 20. Knowledge systems <ul><li>It’s NOT just “IT” </li></ul><ul><li>It’s not just data: </li></ul><ul><li>Much knowledge is dispersed, tacit, subjective, contextual, and conjectural </li></ul>
  21. 21. It’s NOT just “IT” <ul><li>Pre-teleregistration: long lines just to schedule appointments </li></ul><ul><li>Rocky start </li></ul><ul><li>Customer focus: Listen to stories instead of asking standardized questions </li></ul><ul><li>More than 90 percent of victims say application process was easy, clear, accurate, and caring. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Accounting for the nature of knowledge <ul><li>Small size fosters informal sharing of experience </li></ul><ul><li>Routines </li></ul><ul><li>“Hot wash” </li></ul><ul><li>FEMA management recognizes this issue needs more attention </li></ul>
  23. 23. Organizational Culture <ul><li>Results, not process </li></ul><ul><li>Values support focus on responsibility and results </li></ul><ul><li>“Walk the talk” </li></ul>
  24. 24. Walking the Talk at FEMA <ul><li>Continuous improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Customer service </li></ul><ul><li>Quality work </li></ul><ul><li>Public stewardship </li></ul><ul><li>Cost reduction/ productivity measures </li></ul><ul><li>Customer surveys, </li></ul><ul><li>Critical evaluation factor </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of results measured </li></ul><ul><li>Critical evaluation factor </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigation, flood insurance goals </li></ul>
  25. 25. More walking the talk… <ul><li>Creativity and innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Partnership </li></ul><ul><li>Hurricane Floyd rental assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerant attitude toward mistakes </li></ul><ul><li>FEMA coordinates and assists </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Response Plan </li></ul>
  26. 26. What other values foster a focus on results? (NOT means or processes) What evidence would show that these values guide action?
  27. 27. Remember Basic Principles… <ul><li>Mission and Measures </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibilities and Decisionmaking Authorities </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives and Performance Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Culture </li></ul>
  28. 28. Change Can Happen! <ul><li>1993 survey: </li></ul><ul><li>Half of FEMA’s employees said they would take a job elsewhere if offered one. </li></ul><ul><li>1998: </li></ul><ul><li>“ I think people are no longer ashamed to say they work for FEMA, which is phenomenal.” </li></ul>

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