Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Ancient medicine


Published on

  • Thanks for sharing, but why no traditional Chinese medicine? It's also great. ^-^
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Ancient medicine

  1. 1. Dr. Adel M. FarragMBBS, MS, MDPediatricianANCIENT MEDICINE Mohammed Salman
  2. 2. ANCIENT MEDICINE(3000BC – 500AD)Egyptians : 3000 BC - 1000 BCGreeks : 1000 BC - 500 BCRomans : 500 BC -500AD 2
  3. 3. HOW DID MEDICINE DEVELOP INANCIENT EGYPT?•Wealthy country.•Wars, Temples, Pyramids.•Farmers.•Trading with other Civilizations.•Documentations • Hieroglyphic language and medical papri. • Walls of temples and tombs. 3
  4. 4. CD 1/3/2 4
  5. 5. CD 1/3/9 5
  6. 6. CD 1/3/8 6
  7. 7. CD 1/3/27 7
  8. 8. 8
  9. 9. IMPHOTEP 2600 BC •Became the God of medicine for Egyptians and Greeks at 500 BC . •Hippocrates appeared 1000 years following Imphotep. •He was the engineer of the step pyramids in Saqqara. •He was also an astronomer and architect. 9
  10. 10. THE MEDICAL PAPYRI•The first medical texts, date from late 12th Dynasty to 20th Dynasty(2000-1090B.C)• Seven medical papyri: •The Kahun Gynecological Papyrus •The Ebers Papyrus •The Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus •The Hearst •The Chester •The Berlin •The London 10
  11. 11. MEDICAL PAPYRIThe Kahun (1825 B.C) •Gynecology.The Ebers (1534 B.C) •Internalmedicine and •Herbal remedies.The Edwin Smith (1600B.C) •Surgery and •Surgical Instruments. 11
  12. 12. KAHUN GYNACHOLOGICAL PAPYRUS (1825 B.C)Discovered in Lahun temple at Fayum city (near to cairo)and is kept now in University of London .Starting by a brief description of gynecological symptomsand anatomy of reproductive organs.Conception.Contraception and vaginal applicants:“crocodile dung + 45ml honey + sour milk”Testing for pregnancy.Methods for diagnosing the sex of the fetus.A case report of a fistula between bladder and vaginawith incontinence of urine. 12
  13. 13. EBERS PAPYRUS (1534 B.C)Found between the legs of a mummy in the Thebennecropolis and then later was purchased by an EgyptologistGeorge Ebers from an antique dealer at Luxor city.The most lengthy of the medical papyri. constitutes a hugeroll of 20 meters long and 30 cm wide dealing mainly withinternal medicine, concentrating on diseases of the stomach,anus, eye, skin, extremities and dental diseases as well assome anatomical and physiological data.Ebers papyrus includes 877 treatment recipes for differentdiseases and more than 400 drugs were discribed. 13
  14. 14. EDWIN SMITH PAPYRUS (1600 B.C)Considered the most important surgical documents in ancientmedicine. This papyrus appeared with a person called MostafaAgha at 1862 who sold it to an antique dealer Edwin Smith.After his death, His daughter donated the papyrus to the NewYork Academy of science.The papyrus is 5 meters long and is chiefly concerned withsurgery, It described 48 cases of wounds in the Head, Neck,Shoulders and chest but ended abruptly in a middle of asentence. For unknown reason!!The papyrus discussed a vast majority of different bonefractures and gave description of some of surgical instrumentsused that time. 14
  15. 15. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY-IFrom the medical papyri:“If you examines a man having a gaping wound in his headpenetrating the bone, smashing his skull and rending openthe brain of his skull, you should palpate his wound, youshould find that smash which in his skull like thosecorrugations which form in molten copper, and somethingtherein throbbing and fluttering under fingers, like the weakplace of an infant’s crown before it becomes whole when ithas happened there is no throbbing and fluttering underfingers until the brain of his skull is rent open and hedischarges blood from both his nostrils, and he suffers withstiffness in his neck.” 15
  16. 16. CONCEPTS OF ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGYTerms for external body parts Studies of battlefield injuries Hieroglyphic terms for face Perforated skull of pharaoh Seqenera 16
  17. 17. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY-2FROM THE MEDICAL PAPYRI:•“It is there that the heartspeaks.”•“It is there that everyphysician and everypriest of sekhmet placeshis fingers ---he feetssomething from theheart.”•“There are vessels inhim for every part of thebody.”•“It speaks forth in thevessels of every bodyparts.” 17
  18. 18. MUMMIFICATION 18
  19. 19. CLINICAL EXAMINATION-I From the medical papyri :•Medical History.“If you ask of him concerning his malady and he speaks not to you”•Inspection:“You should inspect his wounds.”“His eyebrows are drown, while has face is as if he wept.”Inspection in ancient medicine also included inspection of body discharges like urine, stool,sputum or blood.•Palpation:“You should put your finger on it, you should palpate his belly”.• Palpation of the pulse.• Palpation of the fractures for crepitus• Palpation of tumors; Ancient Egyptians learned how to differentiate between solidtumor and an aneurysm.”“Hemispherical swelling at the vessel, which increases in volume beneath thefingers at each pulsation. It ceases to throb if one exerts pressure with the finger inthe direction of the current.• Palpation for inguinal hernia;“If you examini a swelling of the covering at of his belly’s horns above his pudenda (sexorgans) then place finger on it and examine his belly”. 19
  20. 20. Percussion :“And examine his belly, and knock on the finger”.“Place the hand on the patient and tap”.Bed tests :For hernias : “If you examine his that has comeout and has arisen by cough, it is a swelling of thecovering of his belly. It is a disease which I willtreat”. For Cervical Vertebrac :“Say to the patients: look upwards anddawnwards,if he is not able to do this, he issuffering from a dislocation of the vertebra of the 20
  21. 21. DENTAL MEDICINE HESYRE• Many dental procedures and dental prescriptions were found in many medicalpapyri like treatment of pyorrhea, dental caries, abscesses, loose teeth and toothextraction, treatment of mouth ulcers and even jaw dislocation. Study of Mummies:• One mummy from the 4th dynasty (2625-2510 B.C)was found with surgicallyproduced holes to drain an abscess under the first lower molar teeth.• Other mummy of the same period was found with a looses tooth fixed with a goldwire bridge to a neighboring tooth.• Another mummy of a relatively recent period ( Greco-Roman) was found with anartificial teeth holding a maxillary bridge by asilver wire. 21
  24. 24. SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS 3150-2181 B.C 1570-1293 B.C 24
  26. 26. Surgical Needles 3000 BC 26
  27. 27. HERNIAS 27
  28. 28. CIRCUMCISION 28
  29. 29. TREPHINING• What is trephining?• Even trephining was not mentioned in survivingmedical papyri but there are strong evidence ofsurgically induced holes in skull of mummies.• Evidences of trephining in skull of mummies.• Procedures for trephining1. Using hammer and chisel.2. Using a convex scraper with a wide radius. 29
  30. 30. EXAMPLES FOR REMEDIES IN MEDICALPAPYRI: For Constipation: “ Berries of castor oil tree, chew and swallow down with beer in order to clearout all that in the body”. “ If not effective then add: ¼ leaves of castor oil. 5/6 dates of male palm, 1/6cyprus grass, 1/16 stalk of poppy plant, 1/16 coriander, ½ cold beer-keep moist,strain and take for 4 days”. For diarrhoea:“ 1/8 green onion, 1/8 freshly cooked gruel, ¼ oil and honey, 1/16 wax, 1/3water-cook and take for 4 days”. For migraine:“ Fish siluris (an electric fish) in fat and oil”. For cough:“ Inhalation at honey, milk, caroob, eolocynth and date”. 30
  31. 31. PATTERN OF DISEASEDiseases commonly effecting Egyptians•Parasitic Diseases-found in the mummy of Nakht•Bacterial and Viral Infections Tuberculosis-found in the spine of Nesparehan, a priest in 21st Dynasty-hump-backed individuals in pre-dynastic period-bas-relief painting from serving girl with hump-backed 31
  32. 32. PATTERN OF DISEASESPoliomyelitis or polioClubfoot of King Siptah(above) and deformed foot ofRoma (right) 32
  33. 33. Small pox•Diseases of the eye-Trachoma, Distortion of the eyelid *Night blindness-cured with roasted and crushed ox liver *Cataracts-treated with a mixture of tortoise brain and honey 33
  34. 34. THANK YOU Mohammed Salman