M5 evaluating and competitive position


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M5 evaluating and competitive position

  1. 1. 4 Evaluating a Company’s Chapter Title Resources and Competitive Position Screen graphics created by:15/e PPT Jana F. Kuzmicki, Ph.D. Troy University-Florida Region McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Company Situation Analysis: The Key Questions1. How well is the company’s present strategy working?2. What are the company’s resource strengths and weaknesses and its external opportunities and threats?3. Are the company’s prices and costs competitive?4. Is the company competitively stronger or weaker than key rivals?5. What strategic issues merit front-burner managerial attention? 4-2
  3. 3. Fig. 4.1: Identifying the Components ofa Single-Business Company’s Strategy 4-3
  4. 4. Question 1: How Well Is the Company’s Present Strategy Working? Key Considerations Must begin by understanding what the strategy is  Identify competitive approach  Low-cost leadership  Differentiation  Focus on a particular market niche  Determine competitive scope  Broad or narrow geographic market coverage?  In how many stages of industry’s production/distribution chain does the company operate?  Examine recent strategic moves  Identify functional strategies 4-4
  5. 5. Approaches to Assess How Well the Present Strategy Is Working Qualitative assessment –  Quantitative assessment – Is the strategy well- What are the results? conceived?  Is company achieving its  Covers all the bases? financial and strategic  Internally consistent? objectives?  Makes sense?  Is company an above-  Timely and in step with average industry marketplace? performer? 4-5
  6. 6. Key Indicators of How Well the Strategy Is Working Trend in sales and market share Acquiring and/or retaining customers Trend in profit margins Trend in net profits, ROI, and EVA Overall financial strength and credit ranking Efforts at continuous improvement activities Trend in stock price and stockholder value Image and reputation with customers Leadership role(s) – Technology, quality, innovation, e-commerce, etc. 4-6
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  9. 9. Question 2: What Are the Company’s Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats ? S W O T represents the first letter in  S trengths S W  W eaknesses  O pportunities  T hreats O T For a company’s strategy to be well-conceived, it must be  Matched to its resource strengths and weaknesses  Aimed at capturing its best market opportunities and erecting defenses against external threats to its well- being 4-9
  10. 10. Identifying Resource Strengths and Competitive CapabilitiesA strength is something a firm does well or an attribute that enhances its competitiveness  Valuable skills, competencies, or capabilities  Valuable physical assets  Valuable human assets  Valuable organizational assets  Valuable intangible assets  Important competitive capabilities  An attribute placing a company in a position of market advantage  Alliances or cooperative ventures with partners Resource strengths and competitive capabilities are competitive assets! 4-10
  11. 11. Competencies vs. Core Competencies vs. Distinctive CompetenciesA competence is the product of organizational learning and experience and represents real proficiency in performing an internal activityA core competence is a well-performed internal activity central (not peripheral or incidental) to a company’s competitiveness and profitabilityA distinctive competence is a competitively valuable activity a company performs better than its rivals 4-11
  12. 12. Identifying Resource Weaknesses and Competitive DeficienciesA weakness is something a firm lacks, does poorly, or a condition placing it at a disadvantage Resource weaknesses relate to  Inferior or unproven skills, expertise, or intellectual capital  Lack of important physical, organizational, or intangible assets  Missing capabilities in key areas Resource weaknesses and deficiencies are competitive liabilities! 4-12
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  15. 15. Identifying a Company’s Market Opportunities Opportunitiesmost relevant to a company are those offering  Good match with its financial and organizational resource capabilities  Best prospects for profitable long-term growth  Potential for competitive advantage 4-15
  16. 16. Identifying External Threats Emergence of cheaper/better technologies Introduction of better products by rivals Entry of lower-cost foreign competitors Onerous regulations Rise in interest rates Potential of a hostile takeover Unfavorable demographic shifts Adverse shifts in foreign exchange rates Political upheaval in a country 4-16
  17. 17. Fig. 4.2: The Three Steps of SWOT Analysis 4-17
  18. 18. Question 3: Are the Company’s Prices and Costs Competitive? Assessing whether a firm’s costs are competitive with those of rivals is a crucial part of company situation analysis Key analytical tools  Value chain analysis  Benchmarking 4-18
  19. 19. Concept: Company Value Chain A company’s business consists of all activities undertaken in designing, producing, marketing, delivering, and supporting its product or service All these activities that a company performs internally combine to form a value chain—so-called because the underlying intent of a company’s activities is to do things that ultimately create value for buyers The value chain contains two types of activities  Primary activities (where most of the value for customers is created)  Support activities that facilitate performance of the primary activities 4-19
  20. 20. Fig. 4.3: A Representative Company Value Chain 4-20
  21. 21. Fig. 4.4: Representative Value Chain for an Entire Industry 4-21
  22. 22. Developing Data to Measure a Company’s Cost Competitiveness Afteridentifying key value chain activities, the next step involves determining costs of performing specific value chain activities using activity-based costing Appropriate degree of disaggregation depends on  Economics of activities  Value of comparing narrowly defined versus broadly defined activities Guideline – Develop separate cost estimates for activities  Having different economics  Representing a significant or growing proportion of costs 4-22
  23. 23. Activity-Based Costing: A Key Tool in Analyzing Costs Determining whether a company’s costs are in line with those of rivals requires  Measuring how a company’s costs compare with those of rivals activity-by-activity Requires having accounting data to measure cost of each value chain activity Activity-based costing entails  Defining expense categories according to specific activities performed and  Assigning costs to the activity responsible for creating the cost 4-23
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  25. 25. Benchmarking Costs of Key Value Chain Activities Focuses on cross-company comparisons of how certain activities are performed and costs associated with these activities  Purchase of materials  Payment of suppliers  Management of inventories  Getting new products to market  Performance of quality control  Filling and shipping of customer orders  Training of employees  Processing of payrolls 4-25
  26. 26. Fig. 4.5: Translating Company Performance ofValue Chain Activities into Competitive Advantage 4-26
  27. 27. Question 4: Is the Company Stronger or Weaker than Key Rivals? Overallcompetitive position involves answering two questions  How does a company rank relative to competitors on each important factor that determines market success?  Does a company have a net competitive advantage or disadvantage vis-à-vis major competitors? 4-27
  28. 28. Assessing a Company’s Competitive Strength vs. Key Rivals1. List industry key success factors and other relevant measures of competitive strength2. Rate firm and key rivals on each factor using rating scale of 1 to 10 (1 = very weak; 5 = average; 10 = very strong)3. Decide whether to use a weighted or unweighted rating system (a weighted system is superior because chosen strength measures are unlikely to be equally important)4. Sum individual ratings to get an overall measure of competitive strength for each rival5. Based on overall strength ratings, determine overall competitive position of firm 4-28
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  31. 31. Question 5: What Strategic Issues Merit Managerial Attention? Based on results of both industry and competitive analysis and an evaluation of a company’s competitiveness, what items should be on a company’s “worry list”? Requires thinking strategically about  Pluses and minuses in the industry and competitive situation  Company’s resource strengths and weaknesses and attractiveness of its competitive position A “good” strategy must address “what to do” about each and every strategic issue! 4-31