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.'..-.- ._,. ,.~- - 4' 92, ~_ .I-_ .-"- ,n '-.ll4 --923. Subject was able to maintain control of.victims during the initia...
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, 0 0 iW Qe.I have never experienced a female serial lust murderereither in research or in cases received at the NCAVC.It ...
v192r- 92I.: I,~.y . ' '~.:1' - ,. ,. -1;I s.This paranoid-typeof thinkingis in partjustified because ofthe poorself-image...
92y I-> .. ,--~-u I ''92u * ~ I-v. 3other womenwho confronted Jack the Ripper and were not assaultedbecause the location w...
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Analyse de John Douglas sur l'affaire Jack the Ripper.

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  2. 2. 92- 'P*1 '*i {"5 O_July 6, 1988UNSUB; AKAJACK THERIPPER7~SERIES OF HOMICIDESLONDON, ENGLAND1888NCAVCHOMICIDECRIMINAL INVESTIGATIVEANALYSIS!The followingcriminal investigativeanalysis wasprepared bySupervisory SpecialAgent SSA!John E.Douglas, FBINational Centerfor theAnalysis ofViolent CrimeNCAVC!,Program Managerof CriminalInvestigative Analysis.At therequest ofCosgrove-Meurer Productions,SSADouglaswas requestedto preparean analysisofa100-yearold,unsolved serialmurdercasethat occurred inEngland. Thishistorical casewas knownas-' "Jackthe Ripper." CSSADouglas was providedbasic backgroundinformationrelative toeach case;however,itis noted thatforensictechnology andother investigativetechniques, aswe knowoftoday, werenonexistentacenturyago. Medicalexaminersreports wereincomplete, crimescenephotography was usedsparingly, andpolice investigativereports donot reflectthetype ofthoroughness evidencedtoday. _Whenacaseis submitted forinvestigative analysis,the reliabilityand validityof theoverall analysisis hingedonthe thoroughnessdisplayedbythe medical examiners,technicians,investigators, etc.Although materialsprovided werenot ascompleteascasessubmitted todaybymuchmore sophisticatedlawenforcement agencies,SSADouglasfilled inthe missingpieces ofinformationbymakingcertain probableassumptions.This analysiswill addressthe followingareas:_ Victimologyor profileof victims;medical examiner'sfindings;crime andcrimesceneanalysis; offender traitsandcharacteristics; pre-and post-offensebehavioral patterns;investigative and/orproactive techniques;and interview]interrogation suggestions.Ratherthanaddress each homicideseparately,SSA Douglascomments willrelate tothe entireseries ofhomicides as awhole.;..._<__-=_ .;-:-5-.,»_:».I : - .,~-'-~ ~~.'.;_~-.13.;= 1.; '_ -.s§E§§¥h%%%$a2;ss§§<£a%a$wa¢?*ws%:@ir*zw " ";;-:~.¢.¢~:.-.-.-"1:.§a:_;§§'=-"'-=.=:.'_{3-<-,.:_' ." '" . "'-I. ~.:1 Q; -I=._~ .- . s ¢.LT" . ._ .. -._ - ie=--- " 11!.-1-5.=?#:5?~ :r~a¥?§§&§%§g&a*4<7%a5;paeS§ nw»wq»y~¢;v1,-. ,¢»A.4 »-__, ..»,':--..~;~= 7,;-;.v.--*-.2"-'.'§.~~..-,1*...--.--."4. .' ':- ''._~-. -L---v, V ~.~.-.- .'._.-,~.~ .¥|- .»- "§-,<',}pf1'92"'».-;.;,-_>_~__~..-. 45., '31.;»..».~" - __.H__'- ;j!=:;-$3-.115,21 .-_:-;,_;¢<;--.-'+'.~m#=1.*-*5.-1"_!i~~.-:_~~-== ~- . --_ * '~~* *- ";T¢,».>'-I.» -¢>;.pg-'.1,_¢>'--5"-..-~.1-.. -i - ~'-»"-;,_.4 92.;_..;,.»»1~.'.;.a---vvA&#391!r$1I
  3. 3. i11qf92E?..;3.4II|»ii1i '1'. .-,-j1-. ,92:_. -.__§.1g:._;_~~..1-r;,'-~, = .L .¢. _~:- -1'1.!; .,_._,; _f-- 0gt. it. _.~p - 0 - .-.,.._. 4,2?'. N,. _ p_. . yW g_}92 - .VICTIMOLOGYIn each homicide, the victim was aprostitute with areputation ofdrinking quite heavily. These two ingredientsplace the victim in a"high risk" category. By "high risk," wedefine this as someonewho is very likely to be thevictim ofviolent crime. From aninvestigative perspective, this makesitextremely difficult inreference to developing logical suspects.From aforensic viewpoint, if any evidence is obtained such ashairs andfibers, semen, etc., law enforcement would not know forcertainif this evidence did in fact comefromthe subject.One hundred years ago, prostitution was not asorganized asit istoday, where wehave pimpscontrolling,monitoring, and protecting theirstables. During the "Jack theRipper"era,women worked independently.A femaleprostitute whodrank heavily was looking for trouble. Wewouldsuspect thatthere werenumerous instancesof these womenbeingphysicallyassaulted, raped, and ripped off.FProstitutes 100 yearsago did not dress differentlythanotherwomen at that time.In mostcases, they performedtheir "services" in dark alleys or in"flop" houses. Theprostitutes targetedby Jackthe Ripperwerenearlytwice the ageofprostitutes soliciting today. Theywere not particularlyattractive and other thantheir age,there wereno strikingsimilarities between them.It is notedthat the lastvictim was25.!The "Jack the Ripper" victims were targeted becausethey werereadily accessible. Jack the Ripper didnot havetoinitiate the contact. This wasdonefor him bythe prostitute.This is an important feature in acase such asthis and will beaddressed later onin this analysis under"Offender Traits andCharacteristics."MEDICAL EXAMINATION iAs statedearlier, the medicalexaminations conductedat that time werenot verythorough whencomparedtoautopsyexaminations conducted todayby experienced forensic.pathologists. However, evenin someparts ofthe United statestoday, autopsy examinations aresomething lessthan desired.The primary areas notedin this analysis were asfollows:l. No evidence ofsexual assault. '2. Subject killed victims swiftly._2__ sass»- Ax .>..~=;g>.-"I. -"1...-',¢..<.,. '. - - a"r rt r " »---;,._.-_-La.,_ -,_wh¢w,h,W%dH_,&; y__-- _.~_,_ ...x>._--_-.5--¢92_.-.1_-,,_»,--'.~;;.,.,<*»92¢-.<.--.- '* ',,_; -'.'Y___-.__,_ ,"..__~;. _ !J! _ r .._ .3?w''*§;f§?'<"i""*§ ' =--'l-r-f'5 "i?T-I!'?~;.._§;1'.'.if:-._. ,__4 cw -.1_-':._-., . _-.~'@.-<*»~-~ .-.»~..:»"*-'~"'~3.¬<§~.-;,,§§;;~,*r-<1:-»<~-.~..- .~,-=-- ---. . . <-< --., ;» _, - . ~<..__. ..,..~_ ':.-~- »~ »TT 1-"P3-.'*'0~l::9292'5KW if §°"3-'5"
  4. 4. .'..-.- ._,. ,.~- - 4' 92, ~_ .I-_ .-"- ,n '-.ll4 --923. Subject was able to maintain control of.victims during the initial "blitz style"of attack.-4. Subject removedbody organsi.e., kidney,vagina, nose!on someof the victims, indicatingsome anatomical knowledge.5. No evidence of physical torture prior to death.6. Postmortem mutilation.. - .7. Possible manual strangulation.8." Blood from victims was concentrated insmallareas. _»9. Rings weretaken fromone ofthe victims. p10. The last victim was killed indoors and was themost mutilated. Subject spent a considerableamount of time at the scene.ll. Time of deathwas inthe early morning hours.The abovelistedautopsy findingswillcontribute tothe overalloffender analysisthat willbe addressed lateron inthis report.CRIME ANDCRIME SCENEANALYSISwith the exception ofthe lastcase, all victims werekilled outdoors. All victims were killedswiftly, withthevictims consequentlyreceiving postmortemmutilation. Allhomicides occurredwithin onefourthof a mile fromeach otherand occurredeither onFriday, Saturday,or Sundayduring earlymorning hours.After thefirst homicideat WhitechapelStation,the subjectmoved slightlyacross townonefourth ofa mile!.If a line isdrawn from crimescenes 2,3, 4,and 5,atriangularconfigurationisformed. Thisisobservedinother types ofserial crimes. This triangularconfigurationisviewed as a- secondarycomfort zonefor the Ripper. Thismovement iscausedwhen asubject believesthat theinvestigationisheating up inhis primarycomfort zone.The primarycomfort zonewould bethelocation ofthe firsthomicide in thevicinity of Whitechapelstation. It isthe opinion ofthis crimeanalyst thatthere wereother attacksin theWhitechapelareathat either wentunreportedor for some reasonwere notconsidered byauthorities to becrimes of Jack the Ripper.-3-_ 5.. _,-:.j~:¢Z.-".";~. _ ¢= _:, _¢. '"'1-'=_'-~<-<~.>=g;.-';;¢!3;<=».1"1"":§'-'14. .&#3~:-W ---! .'r.- _92.~-'- V..; >.:1 4.W C V ,., 92. ..._.. ,,~__;f;,-',>.;:~.,_- ,§-'..;~_.f.__,1./_~92-=;- ;:..v;';;_,~~1;__».'.._;';¬41:'-~7'_i">,,:; _'_-~_;_-_.~_-,y_'I'_=.,...,;;>;;,_92."I;;L,:j'-;;____'_V:*»'*.=<;?'¢*?=»1%¢<%:*?§12§92§§.;.v§£:§&;r=;-vi12¢195:"" - ' '.- -- S--q -__-.. v "~;92;.--=3»-.."' *1-~. #4"I _~ -7&1-'-.,_~ -'-,>_- ._>---_. -_..-._¢, IE7-_-_'.f». »r.:..»- __'__ ___..;.j&#3».. ' " ' " ....,. ., ..'--~ .,».-.~~ '." = '-1'» .::¬' ~4" -_~34-Ir 92J r 1¢§a~ié"* ,s 'H'-:=.*~-"=" 411; '***2:>.=u '1"*T-.~~.7.92---.-3,~lTff;-l.§¢..¢.»- " .;"" ;..,-».... ..."*7--"».15-§¢f¬§;;Li1;f-*i--=¢-n§- .;L&' »=:.»~1*J= 'l¢~.i.:.+_.¢*s2@¢»»i; §?W§~?»%w;"rir-=.~;...- -~... ,._...w.»-. .»_.,-. _..,.-~;>-w~;:~ *-4-.r-':~.».;;E¬~'~I=~2~s~':il-=1i'1£?&~l=~-?P~ $1.-'-.',_~92-:2.~ ..-4-*7-'4¢*".;.-?<.._.;.;@1;; 4*:~.; .*"¥5'~'<>.§?"""Z.f§=f;;;T_§§{;Z r~~'""-f-*a_'.~s.».~§-*2-'§.§_~3:_" ~.<----**» ---A_.m_}:_- __ __; ,,,__ __ Q, Q" . .. _, .. .
  5. 5. 4% ,_- -;.,., ,4. .' ~-~¥-"Y. ..',_ ,. .s"" ~'."92' -~<tY*1--1:" ».~.-3":'<14 g~,».}5£I*:_'l?<-':+.=~';<':?-~.~§="--. »~_7'*n<.-~':#'7~~"'.1» "'92i'"§r§'=»-.- .5 Iv""}~'?- '__M . »' -»,.;_;:_ _,_'._5 ; _.~~ »~-a r 1 *~.;...-.- v '-- ';,-:1,:F.__92§v;.,5=~c;]{...'{=3".?fup/-3'-_¢;,,-_.,.@~:=r_ _~".»;.':-.~<1..:». 1=__;.,»4-_=- _-+::~-;,3,13. »_,_=,,",~ .1;-=;,.'£_:.-,.-_..__ --1j,.-- r.».______,-=..-.--;,- -- w. ». -. . Ht ~-: - -»- 1- <~ W .-.=- :~_»+~1: I0 /.Some criminologists and behavioral scientists havewritten in the past that subjects will maintain their modusoperandi and that is what links socalled "signature crimes."This conclusion is incorrect. A subject will change his modusoperandi as he gains additional experience. This is learnedbehavior. However,the personaldesires andneeds ofthe subjectareexpressed in the ritual aspect of acrime. The ritual issomething thathe mustalways dobecause it isthe acting out ofthe fantasy. With Jack the Ripper, the target selection, theapproach, the method of his initial attack, are his modusoperandi. What takes place after this is the ritual. The ritualmay becomemore elaborate as*was in the last homicide case.Here, the Ripper had time to act out his fantasies. Asinvestigators, weshould notnecessarily expectthe sametype ofhomicides in the future, particularly if subsequent victimsarekilled outdoors. Once again,he wouldnot havethe timeto carryout all of his fantasies and consequently mutilation will not beas advanced.COMMUNIQUES ALLEGEDLYRECEIVED FROMTHE RIPPERAnother aspect of this case worth mentioning was thecomuniques allegedlyreceived fromJack theRipper. It is quiterarewhen aserial murderer of this type communicates withpolice, media,family, etc. When theydo communicate,theygenerally providespecifics relative to the crime that only areknown bythe subject. ,In addition, they generallyprovideinformation relative to their motivation for committing suchaheinous crime. It is myopinion thatthis series of homicideswas notperpetrated by someone whoset up achallenge against lawenforcement. Whilethe killer knew hewould bereceivingnational as well as international publicity, this was not his 'primary motivation.In summary,Iwould not put emphasis onthecommuniquesduring this investigation. However,Iwould develop aninvestigative techniquewith the goal in mind toidentify theauthor of the communiques. ,OFFENDER 'IRAITSAND CHARACTERISTICSThese homicidesare referredto as Lust Murders.RoyHazelwood andIwrote anarticle several yearsago whichappearedin the FBI's LawEnforcement Bulletin.The word"lust" does normean loveor have any sexualmeaning, otherthan the fact thatthe subject attacks the genital areas of his victims. Thevaginalareaand breasts arethe focalpoint of attack in a womanand the penis and scrotum are the attack area of the maleoffender. Generally, males whoare attacked in this fashion arevictims that were involvedin ahomosexualrelationship.-4-.-_ :-- _-_,_-_,'__' £,_>','.-.{__;__._..;:§,':?";i.k,v»592,.~I.,¢.-_..:...c,_'_§i,..;.__ . . ..»J? 1.11» y '3"7~'r>"'i ~ljf..i 51"3-7:11» ":35_§>-"3,-;._~5?.~<_=" -._~..'_'~ .I:-~=#1-.;-.=:."4'>;'i~,,2¢{~i3--ML-;;é§;.»*;5;§;>1f1>=.i; . .- ~-,¢. . Y__-/ 92l4¢
  6. 6. , 0 0 iW Qe.I have never experienced a female serial lust murderereither in research or in cases received at the NCAVC.It is forthis reason that Jack the Ripper was amale. He was of whiterace in view of the fact that white was the predominant raceatthe crime scene locations, and generally crimes suchas these areintraracial. . .ishighThe age of onset for these types of homicidesgenerally betweenthe mid to late 20's. Basedupon thedegree ofpsychopathology exhibitedat the scene, theability ofthe subject to converse with the victim until a suitable locationis found, and theability toavoid detection, placeshim betweenthe age bracket of 38 to 36 yearsof age. However,itshould benoted that age is a difficult characteristic to categorize andconsequently wewould noteliminate aviable suspectexclusivelybecause of age. *- This offender doesnot look out of the ordinary.However, the clothing he wears at the time of the assaults is nothis everydaydress. He wants toproject to unsuspecting femalesprostitutes! thathe has money;consequently this relieves himfrom initiating contact.He comesfrom a family where he was raised by adomineering motherand weak,passive and/or absent father. Inall likelihood, his motherdrank heavily andenjoyed thecompanyof many men. As a result, he failed to receive consistent careand contactwith stable adult role models. Consequently,hebecame detachedsocially and developed adiminished emotionalresponse towardshis fellow man. Hebecame asocial,preferringto be alone. His anger becameinternalized andin his youngeryears, heexpressed hispent-up destructiveemotions bysettingfires andtorturing smallanimals. Byperpetrating theseacts,he discoveredincreased areasof dominance,power andcontrol,and learned how to continue violent destructive acts withoutdetection or punishment.As he grew older, his fantasy developed astrongcomponent that included domination, cruelty, and mutilation ofwomen. We would expect to find evidence of this violentdestructive fantasylife through personal writingsof his as wellas drawings of womenbeing mutilated.For employment,he wouldseek aposition wherehe couldwork aloneand vicariously experience his destructive fantasies.such employmentwould include work as a butcher, mortician'shelper, medical examiner's assistant,or hospital attendant. Heis employedMonday throughFriday andon Fridaynight, Saturday,and Sundayis off from work. He hascarried a knife for defensepurposes--justincase he wasever attacked,he wouldbe ready.-5-"._ ::. J»_ ,. .- 'V -..'-..-.--L.-.-. '=<92~.-="-='-_-'~' ».- - :':¢.»~-4- ." .5». --- 1 *~<--"1". W1-192- .'- '1"~;'»_" '.',92. !»;»;;:._;,;_'_'#;;;- ;~':»".~<-1'--'._~:~:92-*.-.~.'_----,"-.~>r-.=92.~'-*7_-;j--- '~.:,;-.,'_.- > __-kg .»*';,~§#~%'a§$. ,1'51 ~..@#~I,~HT-A -"k*;x.. -k.*S'-,.'*.2? -'--- .w- ->¢:.-.-%£*»%1%%3$%%¥%*Q%#§%@%$ek»s¢n@v%s®wI.. . _ .. _ .. . . . .,-1*. .;:'.;r:'='-.11 2'-i~.--_ '.-'»>_'_ , .. -_-I k.25-. "»i"¢'w»*Y"1>».*~..@.e§-»~;~.<~:=~.-_»»--.,.--*' 92-I. " '~. --=/5--" 1~'r-'<. 4:-*5;"Fe- ".-.:...."_4~£_">.=¢"' .-. I, .7 Y- '.5 V.»' :'.~''"',, := »- - ""-¢ '=J-=::.-=.~ :"'.>r:".-vi-=_-H--1 --- ~ '-~~' -~~~ - ~___v1__;,_ ~. .. ....- -- _ »---.rKI- .._§'__i_iM-.11.... __--f»_.-¢~:."-1;-&#3-"~'.:»
  7. 7. v192r- 92I.: I,~.y . ' '~.:1' - ,. ,. -1;I s.This paranoid-typeof thinkingis in partjustified because ofthe poorself-image hehas ofhimself. Hewould beexpected tohave sometype ofphysical abnormality.However, althoughnotsevere, heperceives thisas beingpsychologically crippling.Wewould lookfor someonebelow orabove averagein heightand/orweight. Mayhave problemswith speech,scarred complexion,physical illness, or injury.We wouldnot expectthis type of offender to bemarried. Ifhe wasmarried inthe past,it wouldhave beentosomeone olderthan himselfand themarriage wouldhave beenfor ashort duration. ~He isnot adeptin meetingpeople sociallyand themajor extentof his heterosexual relationshipswould bewithprostitutes. Dueto lackof hygienepractices byprostitutes atthat timeand theabsence oftreatment forvenereal disease,hemay havebeen infected.If infected, this wouldfurther fuelhishatred anddisgust forwomen. _" "'He wouldbe perceivedas beingquiet, aloner, shy,slightly withdrawn,obedient, andneat andorderly inappearanceand whenworking. Hedrinks inthe localpubs andafter afewspirits, hebecomes morerelaxed andfinds iteasier toengage inconversation. Helivesor works inthe Whitechapelarea. Thefirst homicideshould bein closeproximity toeither hishome orworkplace. Itisnoted that LondonHospitalisonly one blockfrom thefirsthomicide and asstated earlierin thisanalysis,we wouldexpect otherviolent crimesin this vicinity.Investigators wouldhave interviewedhim duringthecourse ofthe investigationand hewas probablytalked tobypolice onseveral occasions.Unfortunately atthis time,therewas noway tocorrelate thistype ofinformation; therefore,was overlooked.Investigators andcitizens inthe communitya preconceivedidea orpicture ofwhat Jackthe Ripperwouldhehadlooklike. Becauseof thebelief thathe wouldappear oddor ghoulishin appearance,he wasoverlooked and/oreliminated asapotentialsuspect.PRE ANDPOSTOFFENSE BEHAVIORPrior toeach homicide,the subjectwas inalocaldrinking spirits,whileatthe same timelowering hisinhibitions. Hewould beobserved walkingall overtheWhitechapelareaduring the earlyevening hours.He didnotspecifically seekacertain lookina woman; however,it wasno accidentthat hekilled prostitutes.He hadthe sensetowhen andwhere toattack hisvictims. Therewould havebeen.5%ssF=1~,-;..,* as-:.";."<:f~;I--.1":~ .-§¢:;1rl§Zsw#é*<*%aQ§¢s»++>=+e¢;» .- ~~-~,<,.;¬=r¢,~; --. = f . ." ~._ .-' '-=lLMZ'. ,----< - ..». -.; ~...--~-_- 1-;.-t._e:-1-;,¢_,?*.._=;~~-_. F-1.'1,.r r;_-.1» ''_»~.:-~§.,,,..;--~,_' .33- -..>_. ~._.,_ .,&_.¢'92'J___.__._v.&',.,,.-:- *9, .._,Jl*§;.n~ .».,»,*.92_.,;_j>- _.W-. ,;.....,,,-..... _;~ -. - 5 ._.,,r » - V -3., -V '~~-=~_- -»<-'.Pg. ', <. 4.. . . ."-pubbyknowmany
  8. 8. 92y I-> .. ,--~-u I ''92u * ~ I-v. 3other womenwho confronted Jack the Ripper and were not assaultedbecause the location was not secure enough.' Post~offense behavior would-area wherehe could wash his hands ofclothing. We would not expect him topolice investigation or provide bogusinclude returning to anblood and remove hisinject himself into theinformation. 'Jack the Ripper hunted nightly for his victims. whenhe could not find another, he returned to the locations where hekilled his previous victims. If the victims wereburied locally,he wouldvisit the gravesites ofhis victimsduring theearlymorning hoursfor the purpose of reliving his lust murders.Jack the Ripper would not have committed suicide afterthe last homicide. Generally,when crimessuch asthese cease,it is because hecame closeto being identified, was interviewedby police, or was arrested for some othertype of offense. Asstated previously in this report, we would besurprised if Jackthe Ripperwould suddenlystop. However,we've seenthis happenbefore andgenerally it has beenbecause of the abovestatedreasons. V'INVESTIGATIVE ANDZORPROSECUTIVE TECHNIQUESJack the Ripper would be best suited to be interviewedduring the early morninghours. He would feelmore relaxedandsecure to confess to the homicides. He would feel more relaxedto expresshimself bywriting abouthis motivationfor killingthe women.He wouldnot bevisibly shakenor upsetif directlyaccused ofthe homicides.However, hewould bepsychologicallyandphysiologically stressed if confronted with the fact that hebecame personallysoiled bythe victimsblood. Jackthe Ripperbelieved the homicides were justified and he was only removingperishable items--whowere like garbage.This analysis was preparedfor the exclusive use ofCosgroveMeurer Productions,Inc. Any reproduction or use ofthisanalysis for publication must havethe written consent ofSSA John E. Douglas._7_' I-..>--;-3..I.-' .R.-"'_-3;'<.-'--- -, .'*._,-,2_. _-_. -!.;.,~':..'--".u4 :_ *_-~:-'":, '-,$-§='.>~».:"'~ '_-35.15..of -_- .~ __. _- _,_~32»... .;-»|,4,,¢;{»-,2-;§+<*3-f»¢.,}_z§§§.3;¢1,r$r92%=.=.-_':_~~~?.*,e,,'.-~;=*.="~;}.1~.,"§.f= EX.- ".3?..r-. »..-'.--~-a-..=»- -'-aw... ./ ~--'»-:'. - > '- -<V._~ ....-'~__ :~~-'',.,-_'j-,..- ,~.--.-»_:»L;__~,",--___,1:.é...'1-. --. , ; ..._». - 'w-- -;--.-.]~_a-.- ._»2 _ »_ _- g_< ,_,.>,_ _ ,K-*:'>f4§9'??;.-§§'4**»* -">.§.%--v=;E:§-;@='~*¢1~;&#"-':12 &#_'-» ;,__ ~'-. _~:92"-L-1?'4' ;=_,'£~4' -92- ~.__._ -;-;, _-1,, -" '.-.. ~-a._J:.j-.:_---.~92-.'_.f';-4__;=::.' 1'3:. ,;>.~ '1~if '~»--_..-:-'_~,-r-'- 15_;_,;;_<;»___"»-H.-i F51-.- '.~,¢.;~.~:+.-;-...¢.-.= ~.-;~»=-1 k.'-'<~--:7?" -»~:.=;:~1<»$235-» '* __";_:.=='- -".5.* '~~Hi i *r¢i~,-'-1;_-.~.=>'~:=._ A;¢,~.__*:v:,4 ,¢,'. ~'§<-"-.L-":;:?~=" 'p >1.» ,~..'="'~"&r -.':¥7?P-12" _ » 3..1><_:,,.~.=:,§..,r_=-,£».;,-:=-..5-=;.92>,-y..-.»,;*- ,_~._.<_-,;_.-_- »-¢'~,.. >;_4_1_ ,_»&,,,'._,~_...~.E -...>.92'43!-¢Q|~ 1..-:»..I92I_---oz.g§§f§$W$H$W,@ @WmfmT%TFj-""' A--~ ~~~-