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Alexander: the Wider Vision

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Presentattion at the OPAL conference, 4th April 2017

Published in: Economy & Finance
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Alexander: the Wider Vision

  1. 1. Robin Lane Fox New College, Oxford Alexander: The Wider Vision Ashmolean Museum (1892.1499). Tourmaline intaglio 24x24mm
  2. 2. Arrian 7.19.5 κα Μ κκαλος Κλαζομ νιοςὶ ί ὁ έ μετ πεντακοσ ων ταλ ντωνὰ ί ά π Φοιν κης τε κα Συρ αςἐ ὶ ί ὶ ί στ λλετο, το ς μ ν μισθἐ έ ὺ ὲ ῷ πε σων, το ς δ καί ὺ ὲ ὶ νησ μενοςὠ ό σοι θαλ ττιοιὅ ά νθρωποι. τ ν τε γ ρἄ ή ὰ παραλ αν τ ν πρ ς τ κ λπί ὴ ὸ ῷ ό ῳ τ Περσικ κατοικ ζεινῷ ῷ ί πεν ει κα τ ς ν σους τ ςἐ ό ὶ ὰ ή ὰ τα τ . δ κει γ ρ α τ ού ῃ ἐ ό ὰ ὐ ῷ ὐ με ον < ν> Φοιν κης ε δα μωνῖ ἂ ί ὐ ί χ ρα α τη γεν σθαι.ἡ ώ ὕ έ Further, Miccalus of Clazomenae was despatched to Phoenicia and Syria with five hundred Talents, to hire recruits or purchase men accustomed to seafaring. For Alexander was planning to colonize the coast along the Persian Gulf and the islands there, as he thought that it would become just as prosperous a country as Phoenicia. (Tr. Brunt)
  3. 3. Strabo 15. 700C φασ δ ν τ Σωπε θους χ ρὶ ᾿ ἐ ῇ ί ώ ᾳ ρυκτ ν λ ν ρος ε ναι,ὀ ῶ ἁ ῶ ὄ ἶ ρκε ν δυν μενον λ τ νδικ ·ἀ ῖ ά ὅ ῃ ῇ Ἰ ῇ κα χρυσε α δ κα ργυρε α οὶ ῖ ὲ ὶ ἀ ῖ ὐ πολ πωθεν ν λλοις ρεσινὺ ἄ ἐ ἄ ὄ στορε ται καλ , ς δ λωσεἱ ῖ ά ὡ ἐ ή Γ ργος μεταλλευτ ς. ο δό ὁ ή ἱ ᾿ νδο μεταλλε ας κα χωνε αςἸ ὶ ί ὶ ί πε ρως χοντες, ο δ νἀ ί ἔ ὐ ᾿ ὧ ε πορο σιν σασιν, λλὐ ῦ ἴ ἀ ᾿ πλο στερον μεταχειρ ζονταιἁ ύ ί τ πρ γμα.ὸ ᾶ It is said that in the country of Sopeithes there is a mountain of mineral salt sufficient for the whole of India. And gold and silver mines are reported in other mountains not far away, excellent mines, as has been plainly shown by Gorgus the mining expert. But since the Indians are inexperienced in mining and smelting, they also do not know what their resources are, and handle the business in a rather simple manner. (Tr. Jones)
  4. 4. Stabo 11 529C Μ ταλλα δ ν μ ν τέ ᾿ ἐ ὲ ῇ Συσπιρ τιδ στι χρυσοί ί ἐ ῦ κατ τ Κ βαλλα, φὰ ὰ ά ἐ ᾿ ἃ Μ νωνα πεμψενέ ἔ λ ξανδρος μετἈ έ ὰ στρατιωτ ν, ν χθη δῶ ἀ ή ᾿ π τ ν γχωρ ων· καὑ ὸ ῶ ἐ ί ὶ λλα δ στ μ ταλλα, καἄ ᾿ ἐ ὶ έ ὶ δ τ ς σ νδυκοςὴ ῆ ά καλουμ νης, ν δ καέ ἣ ὴ ὶ ρμ νιον καλο σι χρ μα,Ἀ έ ῦ ῶ μοιον κ λχὅ ά ῃ There are gold mines in Syspiritis near Caballa, to which Menon was sent by Alexander with soldiers, and he was led up to them by the natives. There are also other mines, in particular those of sandyx, as it is called, which is also called “Armenian” colour, like calchê. (Tr. Jones)
  5. 5. Diodorus Siculus 18.4.4 ν δ τ ν πομνημ των τ μ γιστα καἮ ὲ ῶ ὑ ά ὰ έ ὶ μν μης ξια τ δε· χιλ ας μ ν να ς μακρ ςή ἄ ά ί ὲ ῦ ὰ με ζους τρι ρων ναυπηγ σασθαι κατ τ νί ή ή ὰ ὴ Φοιν κην κα Συρ αν κα Κιλικ αν κα Κ προνί ὶ ί ὶ ί ὶ ύ πρ ς τ ν στρατε αν τ ν π Καρχηδον ους καὸ ὴ ί ὴ ἐ ὶ ί ὶ το ς λλους το ς παρ θ λαττανὺ ἄ ὺ ὰ ά κατοικο ντας τ ς τε Λιβ ης κα βηρ ας κα τ ςῦ ῆ ύ ὶ Ἰ ί ὶ ῆ μ ρου χ ρας παραθαλαττ ου μ χρι Σικελ ας·ὁ ό ώ ί έ ί δοποι σαι δ τ ν παραθαλ ττιον τ ς Λιβ ηςὁ ῆ ὲ ὴ ά ῆ ύ μ χρι στηλ ν ρακλε ων, κολο θως δ τέ ῶ Ἡ ί ἀ ύ ὲ ῷ τηλικο τ στ λ λιμ νας κα νε ριαύ ῳ ό ῳ έ ὶ ώ κατασκευ σαι κατ το ς πικα ρους τ νά ὰ ὺ ἐ ί ῶ τ πων· ναο ς τε κατασκευ σαι πολυτελε ς ξ,ό ύ ά ῖ ἕ π ταλ ντων χιλ ων κα πεντακοσ ωνἀ ὸ ά ί ὶ ί καστον· πρ ς δ το τοις π λεωνἕ ὸ ὲ ύ ό συνοικισμο ς κα σωμ των μεταγωγ ς κ τ ςὺ ὶ ά ὰ ἐ ῆ σ ας ε ς τ ν Ε ρ πην κα κατ το ναντ ον κἈ ί ἰ ὴ ὐ ώ ὶ ὰ ὐ ί ἐ τ ς Ε ρ πης ε ς τ ν σ αν, πως τ ς μεγ σταςῆ ὐ ώ ἰ ὴ Ἀ ί ὅ ὰ ί πε ρους τα ς πιγαμ αις κα τα ς ο κει σεσινἠ ί ῖ ἐ ί ὶ ῖ ἰ ώ ε ς κοιν ν μ νοιαν κα συγγενικ ν φιλ ανἰ ὴ ὁ ό ὶ ὴ ί καταστ σ .ή ῃ The following were the largest and most remarkable items of the memoranda. It was proposed to build a thousand warships, larger than triremes, in Phoenicia, Syria, Cilicia, and Cyprus for the campaign against the Carthaginians and the others who live along the coast of Libya and Iberia and the adjoining coastal region as far as Sicily; to make a road along the coast of Libya as far as the Pillars of Heracles and, as needed by so great an expedition, to construct ports and shipyards at suitable places; to erect six most costly temples, each at an expense of fifteen hundred talents; and, finally, to establish cities and to transplant populations from Asia to Europe and in the opposite direction from Europe to Asia, in order to bring the largest continents to common unity and to friendly kinship by means of intermarriages and family ties. (Tr. Geer)
  6. 6. F.L. Holt, The Treasures of Alexander the Great. How one man’s wealth shaped the world (Oxford, 2016), pp. 192-3
  7. 7. Κα τ χρ α πιλ σασθαι τ ς στρατι ς σοις χρ α ν νὶ ὰ έ ἐ ύ ῆ ᾶ ὅ έ ἦ ἐ καιρ ο δοξε, κα κελε ει πογρ φεσθαι π σον φε λειῷ ἱ ἔ ὶ ύ ἀ ά ὁ ό ὀ ί καστος, ς ληψομ νους. κα τ μ ν πρ τα λ γοιἕ ὡ έ ὶ ὰ ὲ ῶ ὀ ί π γραψαν σφ ν τ ν ματα δεδι τες ξ λεξ νδρου μἀ έ ῶ ὰ ὀ ό ό ἐ Ἀ ά ὴ πε ρα α τη ε η καθειμ νη, τ ο κ ποχρ σα μισθοφορῖ ὕ ἴ έ ὅ ῳ ὐ ἀ ῶ ἡ ὰ τ ν στρατιωτ ν στι κα τ πολυτελ ς δ αιτα. ς δῶ ῶ ἐ ὶ ὅ ῳ ὴ ἡ ί ὡ ὲ ξ γγελτο τι ο κ πογρ φουσι σφ ς ο πολλο , λλἐ ή ὅ ὐ ἀ ά ᾶ ἱ ί ἀ ᾿ πικρ πτουσιν τ τι ε η συμβ λαιον, τ ν μ ν πιστ αν τ νἐ ύ ὅ ῳ ἴ ό ὴ ὲ ἀ ί ῶ στρατιωτ ν κ κισεν· ο γ ρ χρ ναι ο τ ο ν τ ν βασιλ αῶ ἐ ά ὐ ὰ ῆ ὔ ᾿ ὖ ὸ έ λλο τι ληθε ειν πρ ς το ς πηκ ους, ο τε τ νἄ ἢ ἀ ύ ὸ ὺ ὑ ό ὔ ῶ ρχομ νων τιν λλο τι ληθε ειν δοκε ν τ ν βασιλ α.ἀ έ ὰ ἄ ἢ ἀ ύ ῖ ὸ έ καταθε ς δ τραπ ζας ν τ στρατοπ δ κα π το τωνὶ ὲ έ ἐ ῷ έ ῳ ὶ ἐ ὶ ύ χρυσ ον κα το ς πιμελησομ νους τ ς δ σεως κ στοις,ί ὶ ὺ ἐ έ ῆ ό ἑ ά στις συμβ λαιον πεδε κνυτο, πιλ εσθαι τ χρ α κ λευενὅ ό ἐ ί ἐ ύ ὰ έ ἐ έ ο κ πογραφομ νους τι τὐ ἀ έ ἔ ὰ ν ματα. κα ο τω δὀ ό ὶ ὕ ὴ π στευσ ν τε ληθε ειν λ ξανδρον κα σ ν χ ριτι με ζονιἐ ί ά ἀ ύ Ἀ έ ὶ ὺ ά ί γ γνετο α το ς τ μ γνωσθ ναι μ λλ ν τι τ πα σασθαιἐ ί ὐ ῖ ὸ ὴ ῆ ᾶ ό ἢ ὸ ύ φε λοντας. λ γεται δ γεν σθαι δ σις α τη τ στρατι ςὀ ί έ ὲ έ ἡ ό ὕ ῇ ᾷ ἐ τ λαντα δισμ ρια.ά ύ Arrian 7.5.1-3 He thought this a convenient moment to discharge all the debts any of his soldiers had incurred and ordered each man to register what he owed, on the basis that they would receive the money. At first only a few registered their names in the fear that Alexander had merely tried an experiment, to see which soldiers had not lived on their pay and which had been extravagant; but when he was informed that most were not registering their names but concealing any bonds, he reproved the troops for not trusting him; the king, he said, must always speak the truth to his subjects, and none of the subjects must ever suppose that the king speaks anything but the truth. He set up tables in the camp with gold on them and instructed the persons who were to administer the grants to discharge the debts to all who produced a bond, without any further registration of names. As a result they actually came to believe that Alexander was speaking the truth, and they were more gratified by the concealment of their names than by the extinction of the debts. This grant to the army is said to have amounted to twenty thousand Talents. (Tr. Brunt) He next assembled the army, and promised that “he would pay all their debts at his own expense,” so that they might carry home their spoil and prizes undiminished. This munificence was highly prized, not only for the sum given, but for the character of the gift, and was received not more thankfully by the debtors than by the creditors, exaction being as troublesome to the one as payment to the other. (Tr. Watson) Tunc ad contionem exercitum uocat et promittit se aes alienum omnium propria inpensa soluturum, ut praedam praemiaque integra domos ferant. Insignis haec munificentia non summa tantum, uerum etiam titulo muneris fuit nec a debitoribus magis quam a creditoribus gratius excepta, quoniam utrisque exactio pariter ac solutio difficilis erat. Justin 12.11.1-3
  8. 8. Quintus Curtius Rufus 8.7.11-12 Haec ergo sunt Macedonum praemia, quorum ut supervacuo et sordido abuteris sanguine! At tibi xxx milia mulorum captivum aurum vehunt, cum milites nihil domum praeter gratuitas cicatrices relaturi sint. “Quae tamen omnia tolerare potuimus, antequam nos barbaris dederes et novo more victores sub iugum mitteres. Persarum te vestis et disciplina delectant, patrios mores exosus es. Persarum ergo, non Macedonum regem occidere voluimus et te transfugam belli iure persequimur. These, then, are the rewards of the Macedonians, whose blood you use up as if it were superabundant and mean. But for you 30,000 mules carry captured gold, while your soldiers will bring home nothing save scars got without reward. “Yet we could have endured all these things until you delivered us to the barbarians and by a novel fashion made the victors pass under the yoke. It is the Persians’ garb and habits that delight you; you have come to loathe the customs of your native land. Therefore it was the king of the Persians, not of the Macedonians, that we wished to kill, and by the law of war we justly pursue you as a deserter. (Tr. Rolfe)
  9. 9. Arrian 4.18.7 νθα δ κ ρυξεν λ ξανδροςἔ ὴ ἐ ή Ἀ έ τ μ ν πρ τ ναβ ντιῷ ὲ ώ ῳ ἀ ά δ δεκα τ λαντα ε ναι τ γ ρας,ώ ά ἶ ὸ έ δευτ ρ δ π το τ τέ ῳ ὲ ἐ ὶ ύ ῳ ὰ δε τερα κα τρ τ τ φεξ ς,ύ ὶ ί ῳ ὰ ἐ ῆ ς τελευτα ον ε ναι τὡ ῖ ἶ ῷ τελευτα νελθ ντιίῳ ἀ ό τριακοσ ους δαρεικο ς τί ὺ ὸ γ ρας. κα το το τ κ ρυγμαέ ὶ ῦ ὸ ή παρ ξυνεν τι μ λλον καώ ἔ ᾶ ὶ λλως το ς Μακεδ ναςἄ ὺ ό ρμημ νους.ὡ έ Then Alexander proclaimed that the first to scale the height should have a prize of twelve Talents, the second a second prize, the third another prize and so on, the last to reach the top to have three hundred darics. Eager as the Macedonians already were, this proclamation still further increased their ardour. (Tr. Brunt)
  10. 10. Arrian 3.19.7-8 Παρμεν ωνα δ προσ ταξε τ χρ ματαί ὲ έ ὰ ή τ κ Περσ ν κομιζ μενα ε ς τ νὰ ἐ ῶ ό ἰ ὴ κραν τ ν ν κβατ νοις καταθ σθαιἄ ὴ ἐ Ἐ ά έ κα ρπ λ παραδο ναι· ρπαλον γ ρὶ Ἁ ά ῳ ῦ Ἅ ὰ π τ ν χρημ των π λιπε καἐ ὶ ῶ ά ἀ έ ὶ φυλακ ν τ ν χρημ των Μακεδ νας ςὴ ῶ ά ό ἐ ξακισχιλ ους κα ππ ας κα ψιλο ςἑ ί ὶ ἱ έ ὶ ὺ λ γους· α τ ν δ Παρμεν ωνα το ςὀ ί ὐ ὸ ὲ ί ὺ ξ νους ναλαβ ντα κα το ς Θρ καςέ ἀ ό ὶ ὺ ᾷ κα σοι λλοι ππε ς ξω τ ς ππου τ ςὶ ὅ ἄ ἱ ῖ ἔ ῆ ἵ ῆ ταιρικ ς παρ τ ν χ ραν τ νἑ ῆ ὰ ὴ ώ ὴ Καδουσ ων λα νειν ς ρκαν αν.ί ἐ ύ ἐ Ὑ ί Κλε τ δ τ τ ς βασιλικ ς ληςί ῳ ὲ ῷ ῆ ῆ ἴ γεμ νι π στειλεν, πειδ ν κἡ ό ἐ έ ἐ ὰ ἐ Σο σων ε ς κβ τανα φ κηται,ύ ἰ Ἐ ά ἀ ί κατελ λειπτο γ ρ ν Σο σοιςέ ὰ ἐ ύ ρρωστ ν, ναλαβ ντα το ςἀ ῶ ἀ ό ὺ Μακεδ νας το ς π τ ν χρημ τωνό ὺ ἐ ὶ ῶ ά τ τε πολειφθ ντας ναι τ ν πό ὑ έ ἰέ ὴ ἐ ὶ Παρθυα ους, να κα α τ ς ξεινί ἵ ὶ ὐ ὸ ἥ μελλεν.ἔ Parmenio was ordered to deposit in the citadel of Ecbatana the treasure conveyed from Persia and to hand it over to Harpalus; for he left Harpalus in charge of the treasure, with some six thousand Macedonians, cavalry and a few light troops to protect it. Parmenio himself was instructed to take the mercenaries, Thracians and any cavalry other than the Companion cavalry past the land of the Cadusians and march into Hyrcania. Clitus the commander of the royal squadron was ordered, on reaching Ecbatana from Susa, where he had been left sick, to take the Macedonians who had been left for the time being to protect the treasure and proceed on the road for Parthyaea, where he himself also proposed to go. (Tr. Brunt)
  11. 11. Athenaeus 13. 595d-e μετ δ τ ν Πυθιον κης τελευτ νὰ ὲ ὴ ί ὴ ὁ ρπαλος Γλυκ ραν μετεπ μψατο καἍ έ έ ὶ τα την τα ραν, ς Θε πομποςύ ἑ ί ὡ ὁ ό στορε , φ σκων πειρηκ ναι τ νἱ ῖ ά ἀ έ ὸ ρπαλον μ στεφανο ν αυτ ν, ε μἍ ὴ ῦ ἑ ό ἰ ή τις στεφαν σειε κα τ ν π ρνην.ώ ὶ ὴ ό στησ ν τε ε κ να χαλκ ν τ ς Γλυκ ραςἔ έ ἰ ό ῆ ῆ έ ν ωσσ τ ς Συρ ας, ο περ κα σ καἐ Ῥ ῷ ῆ ί ὗ ὶ ὲ ὶ α τ ν νατιθ ναι μ λλει. παρ δωκ ν τεὑ ὸ ἀ έ έ έ έ α τ κατοικε ν ν το ς βασιλε οις το ς νὐ ῇ ῖ ἐ ῖ ί ῖ ἐ Ταρσ κα ρ π το λαοῷ ὶ ὁ ᾷ ὑ ὸ ῦ ῦ προσκυνουμ νην κα eβασ λισσανέ ὶ ί προσαγορευομ νην κα τα ς λλαιςέ ὶ ῖ ἄ δωρεα ς τιμωμ νην, α ς πρ πον ν τ νῖ έ ἷ έ ἦ ὴ σ ν μητ ρα κα τ ν σο συνοικο σαν.ὴ έ ὶ ὴ ὶ ῦ After Pythionice died, Harpalus sent for Glycera, who was also a courtesan, according to Theopompus (FGrH 115 F 254b), who claims that Harpalus refused to allow anyone to put a garland on his own head unless they also garlanded his whore. In addition, he set up a bronze statue of Glycera in Syrian Rhossus, where he intends to set up statues of you and himself as well. He also gave her permission to live in the royal palace in Tarsus, and he watches as she is bowed down to by the local people, addressed as “Queen,” and granted the other honors that properly belong to your mother and the woman who lives with you. (Tr. Olson)

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