SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING AND DESIGN
BACHELOR OF QUANTITY SURVEYING (HONOURS)
Site research report
Kevin Lee Hee Xian 0315192
Jake Sia Chyi Sern 0314396
Melvin Lim Wei Jien 0315772
Voon Sze Lun 0315032
Table of Content
Introduction of the building and area
Existing type of materials
Explain existing type of materials
Compare and contrast
Part 1 - Introduction of the building and area
The building chosen for this assignment is Taylor’s Lakeside University. The area our
group has chosen as the site is Taylor’s Lakeside University Library. The function of this
area is to let the students of Taylor’s Lakeside University to study quietly. There are a
total of four floors in this library. The space of the library is big and wide. The facilities
provided in this library are book lending, computers, printers, discussion rooms and
much more. The location of the library is Jalan Taylors, Subang Jaya, 47500 Subang
Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia.
Part 2 - Existing type of materials
There are a total of four floors in this library. A lot of materials are used in this area for
building. The existing types of materials in this library are cements and concrete, timber,
plasters, paints, glass and metal.
Cements and concrete is widely used in Taylor’s Lakeside University Library. Most of
the floors, walls, staircase and columns are made of cements and concrete. Floor is a
wide area in the library and there is a lot of load on it containing dead and live load. In
this case, the floor must be strong and durable.
Cement used for staircase
Timber is lesser used in the library. The area that contains timber is discussion rooms
and level four’s silent study area. The timber floor can be seen on raise floors.
Raised floor on level 4 in the library
Timber flooring seen after pulling up the carpet
Raised floor on discussion rooms
Plaster can be found at walls around the library. When knocking on plaster walls, a
hollow sound can be heard which makes a loud sound. Plaster walls can be found in
between discussion rooms and around the information counter in the library.
Plaster wall on level 3 in the library
Paints are found at the interior and exterior of the library. Paint is covered around the
exterior of the library. For the interior, only some parts of the library are painted to save
Paint coated wall on level 3 of library
Glass can be found in the interior and exterior of the library. Glass doors and panels
can be found at the discussion rooms and level 2 silent study area for the interior of the
library. Glass windows can be seen around the exterior of the library.
Glass windows on level 2 in the library
Glass door for discussion room on level 2 in the library
Metal is a common material used in the construction industry. Metal can be found at
railings and pipes. Railings are located at the edge of each floor and beside the stairs.
The pipes can be seen at the ceiling around the whole library. The purposes for those
pipes are for fire sprinklers, air conditioning and more.
Metal pipes on level 3 in the library
Explaining existing type of materials
Cement & Concrete
Concrete is composed from cement + aggregate + sand + water + chemical admixtures.
The cement acts as a bonding agent to bond the other elements found in concrete.
The aggregate and sand is composed of inert material that gives strength to the
The water acts as a lubricant for the aggregates and also reacts with cement to form the
The chemical admixtures give additional properties to the concrete such as accelerating,
air-entraining, water-reducing, retarding and plasticizers.
Pros and Cons
Concrete has relatively high compressive strength but lower tensile strength.
Concrete has very low coefficient of thermal expansion hence shrink as it matures.
Concrete has relatively high durability.
Hydrophobic Impregnations – increase the concrete’s durability
Impregnations – increase the concrete’s strength
Protective Coatings – provides chemical resistance
Reinforcement Corrosion Protection – protects the steel bars from corrosion
Bonding Primer – used to promote the bonding behaviour of concrete
Repair Mortars – laying a new coat of mortar to improve the condition of the building
Smoothing Mortars – done to prevent surface pores and honey combs
Paints are composed of 3 components, pigments + binders + solvents.
Pigments are used to produce the wanted colour in the paint it also contributes to the
paint’s protective properties.
Binders are used to hold the pigment particles together to help them stay on the surface.
It also contains most of the protective properties of the paint.
Solvents are used to spread the paint evenly unto the surface desired.
However, paint without pigment is called varnish that provides a colourless layer of coat
that just protects the surface.
Pros and Cons
Paints come in a wide range of colour which can be made to meet any colour desired.
Paints act as good protective agents to shield against the environment.
Paints are generally environmentally unfriendly to both humans and atmosphere.
Paints applications use more electricity.
Paints produce more waste due to overspray.
One of the ways to make painting easier will be to maintain the condition of the brushes
used. The brush would be soaked in water and fabric softener. This will allow the paint
to wash off more easily afterwards.
Glass is transparent, heat resistant, pressure resistant and chemical resistant.
Glass is made up of silica + alkali + lime + cullet.
Silica is obtained from pulverised sandstone and is used to give strength to the glass.
Alkali is used to lower the melting point.
Lime is used as a stabilizer.
Cullet is used to assist in the melting of the mixture.
Pros and Cons
Glass may reduce the usage of electricity as it allows light to pass through.
Glass comes in many forms and varieties.
Glass is considerably more beautiful than compared to other materials.
Glass is expensive.
Glass is difficult to install.
Glass can be used to generate renewable energy through solar-thermal applications.
Glass can provide natural light into buildings which enhances living and working
After usage, glass can also be recycled to form cullet that serve as raw material.
Only use cleaning materials which are free of grit and debris to avoid scratching and
marking of the glass surface.
Wipe the surface with a few drops of methylated spirits on a damp cloth and then polish
the surface dry with a lint free cloth.
Use detergents and cleaning solutions that specifically state they are safe for glass
Timber is one of the most environmentally friendly building materials available compare
Timber is a good material which light in weight, yet with excellent load bearing and
Timber can contribute significantly with the carbon sink effect of the forests, carbon
storage of the timber and as substitution for carbon intensive materials.
Timber compares favorably with other construction materials in terms of fire resistance.
Light timber section may ignite easily and reduce to ash.
Pros and Cons
Timber is a poor conductor of heat. The denser timbers are better conductors than the
Timber will burn, whilst some of the alternative materials such as masonry and steel do
Timber has proved to be a strong and durable material. Well timber frame building can
last for hundreds years.
Harm to eco-systems is minimized.
Productivity of the forest is maintained.
Forest ecosystem health and vitality is maintained.
Use the rights related to the forest are identified, documented and respected,
mechanisms for resolving grievances.
Cleaning is one of the methods which cleans non-confined surfaces as required and
remove build-up of soil against timber near to ground.
Metal fasteners are to retighten the bolts, screws and repunch those nails if required
after 6 months and one year if unseasoned timber used.
Plaster’s absorption properties are keys to producing quality ceramic pieces.
Plaster is used as a binding or gelling agent for plaster bandages.
Plaster expands during setting and expansion may be controlled to meet application
Plaster can be formulated to optimize surface hardness and impact resistance.
Pros and Cons
Plaster has low conductivity making it an energy saving, insulating material in
A key property in plaster ceramic moulds, plaster can be formulated for use under
varying air pressure conditions.
For medical casts, the water resistant property of plaster of Paris is highly important. It
prevents additional moisture from getting in between the cast and skin, which can lead
to staph infections. The cast would lose firmness and strength if water was able to
absorb into the bandages, resulting in bones not healing properly.
Plasterboard partitions can receive in its cavity mineral wool to increase thermal comfort
obtaining maximum performance in less space. Therefore, partitions, ceilings and
linings become thermal insulated systems.
Plaster Claddings are applied over a ' rain screen, drainage' cavity. As with the majority
of external claddings today, plaster cladding allowing incidental moisture to drain away,
in a similar way that brick veneer, and weatherboard cladding does.
Part 3 - Compare and contrast
Cement and concrete (Cast-in-place/In-situ)
2 types of other materials: Bricks and Pre-cast concrete
Cement/Concrete Bricks Pre-cast concrete
Construction period time is
moderate compared to pre-
Construction period time is
Construction period time is
Flexible when doing
Flexible when doing
Not so flexible when doing
Quality control harder to
Hard to also achieve quality
Potentially better quality
Durable but not that
durable under cold
Durable. Durable even in cold
Alternative material: Pre-cast concrete is recommended for Taylor’s library as it better
quality. It has the same durability as Cast-in-Place concrete but it is more durable under
2 other types of materials: Faux Painting and Combing.
Paint Fabric Temporary Wallpaper
Requires more effort Requires less effort Requires less effort
Just a solid colour on the
More decorative and
More decorative and
No noise reduction Able to reduce noise No noise reduction
Alternative Material: We recommend using fabric as an alternative for the painted walls.
As they are more colorful and more pleasing to see in a person’s eyes. It also give a
soft touch, fabric to walls are like carpet to floors. It is able to also reduce the noise
compared to a normal painted wall.
We believe that the glass used for the windows in the library are tempered glass.
2 other types of materials: Laminated glass and Heat-Strengthened glass
Tempered Glass Laminated Glass Heat-Strengthened Glass
Not able the reduce the
heat and light from sun
Good at reducing light and
heat from sun
Very durable for hot
High is strength Able to reduce sound and
Twice as strong as others
Alternative Material: Recommended material for the glass that is used for windows are
laminated glass as they are able to prevent the hot sun from shining in, the current
glass used in the library aren’t able to prevent it. The discussion rooms in the library are
also recommended to use laminated glass as it is able to reduce the noise.
Timber are mostly found used on flooring in Taylor’s library but it is covered with carpet.
2 other types of materials: Marble and Ceramic Tiles
Timber Marble Ceramic Tiles
Gives a comfortable feeling
Gives a cooling sensation Sound proof/Sound
Durable but corrosion and
termites may occur.
Decorative but also easy to
Slip and stain resistant
Alternative Material: Ceramic Tiles is recommended as it give a noise reduction and it is
suitable for quiet places such as the library. Besides that, it is also stain resistant and
therefore easier to clean. Marble flooring gives a cooling sensation but it does not have
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