SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING AND DESIGN
BACHELOR OF QUANTITY SURVEYING (HONOURS)
Research on Building Material - CONCR...
Table of Content
Introduction 3
Concrete Degradation and Defects:
2.1 Deformation of the surface 4 - 5
2.2 Cracking of the...
Introduction
In this project report, a group of students have to show their research and write out a
report about their fi...
CONCRETE DEGRATION AND DEFECTS
Deformation of the surface
Deformation of concrete surface can occur in 3 different ways:
C...
Warping
Causes: temperature change in the concrete.
Location: edges and corners.
Blistering
Causes: delamination of surfac...
Cracking of the surface
Cracking of the surface of concrete can occur in many ways. A few of which are most
common are the...
Map-cracking
Random fissures however bigger than crazing.
Causes: alkali-silica reaction in the concrete.
Structural failu...
Disintegration of the surface
Disintegration comes in 3 different type of distress:
Dusting
Causes: saturation of carbon d...
Flaking
Causes: blistering which is the breaking of pieces from the surface of the concrete.
9
Other defects
These defects are caused by the mortar not filling the spaces between the aggregate
particles.
Bugholes
Smal...
Environmental Impacts of Concrete
Carbon dioxide emissions and climate change
The cement industry is one of two primary in...
Raw material used
Concrete is made from raw material such as limestone, marl and chalk. These are the
most common sources ...
Water Pollution
- Another environmental issue with cement and concrete production is water
pollution.
- At the batch plant...
Energy
Energy consumption is the biggest environmental concern with cement and concrete
production. Cement production is o...
Health concerns
- The presence of some substances in concrete, including useful and unwanted
additives, can cause health c...
Conclusion
In conclusion on the whole area of concrete degradation and defects & environmental
effects, it is important to...
References
1. Cement.org.
Evaluating Concrete Defects
In-text: (Cement.org, 2014)
Bibliography: Cement.org. (2014). Evalua...
5. Concrete floors
In-text: (Concrete floors, 2014)
Bibliography: Concrete floors,. (2014). Concrete floors. Retrieved 28 ...
10. Rrmodelcraftsman.com Railroad Model Craftsman - Monster Modelworks Concrete
Paving for multiple scales
In-text: (Rrmod...
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Building Material (Concrete)

  1. 1. SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING AND DESIGN BACHELOR OF QUANTITY SURVEYING (HONOURS) Research on Building Material - CONCRETE Kevin Lee Hee Xian 0315192 Jake Sia Chyi Sern 0314396 Melvin Lim Wei Jien 0315772 Voon Sze Lun 0315032
  2. 2. Table of Content Introduction 3 Concrete Degradation and Defects: 2.1 Deformation of the surface 4 - 5 2.2 Cracking of the surface 6 - 7 2.3 Disintegration of the surface 8 - 9 2.4 Other defects 10 Environmental Impact of Concrete: 3.1 Carbon dioxide emissions and climate change 11 3.2 Raw material used 12 3.3 Water wastage 12 3.4 Water pollution 13 3.5 Energy 14 3.6 Health concern 15 Conclusion 16 Reference 17 - 19
  3. 3. Introduction In this project report, a group of students have to show their research and write out a report about their findings based on the topic given to them. Concrete is a very common used material in the construction industry. There are many concrete defects that usually occur during construction. These defects are broken down into four groups based on observation: deformation of the surface, cracking of the surface, disintegration of the surface and other defects. Other than that, there is environmental impact of concrete too. The subtopics for the environmental impact are carbon dioxide emissions and climate change, raw material used, water wastage, water pollution, energy and heath concern. 3
  4. 4. CONCRETE DEGRATION AND DEFECTS Deformation of the surface Deformation of concrete surface can occur in 3 different ways: Curling Causes: moisture in the concrete. Location: edges and corners. 4
  5. 5. Warping Causes: temperature change in the concrete. Location: edges and corners. Blistering Causes: delamination of surface mortar. Location: at the surface of the concrete where mortar is laid. 5
  6. 6. Cracking of the surface Cracking of the surface of concrete can occur in many ways. A few of which are most common are these 4 different cracks: Plastic Shrinkage Cracks that is parallel to the concrete slab. Causes: shrinkage of the concrete that take place when the concrete is still fresh. Crazing Cracks that seem like random fissures. Causes: rapid evaporation of moisture from the concrete surface. 6
  7. 7. Map-cracking Random fissures however bigger than crazing. Causes: alkali-silica reaction in the concrete. Structural failure cracking Has no specific crack. Causes: change in elevation. 7
  8. 8. Disintegration of the surface Disintegration comes in 3 different type of distress: Dusting Causes: saturation of carbon dioxide during finishing making a weak layer of cement on the surface of concrete. Ravelling or Spalling Causes: dislocation of pieces of concrete at the joint edges. 8
  9. 9. Flaking Causes: blistering which is the breaking of pieces from the surface of the concrete. 9
  10. 10. Other defects These defects are caused by the mortar not filling the spaces between the aggregate particles. Bugholes Small voids on the surface of vertical concrete placements. Honeycombing Large voids in the surface of vertical concrete placements. 10
  11. 11. Environmental Impacts of Concrete Carbon dioxide emissions and climate change The cement industry is one of two primary industrial producers of carbon dioxide, creating up to 5% of worldwide man-made emissions of this gas, of which 50% is from the chemical process and 40% from burning fuel. Cement manufacture contributes greenhouse gases both directly through the production of carbon dioxide when calcium carbonate is thermally decomposed, producing lime and carbon dioxide, and also through the use of energy, particularly from the combustion of fossil fuels. 11
  12. 12. Raw material used Concrete is made from raw material such as limestone, marl and chalk. These are the most common sources of calcium in the cement. All these raw materials comes from mining, and mining will affect the echo system as lots of deforestation, water catchment, water natural flow is disturbed. Water wastage Few billion tons of water has wasted just because of the making of concrete, as because water is one of the main sources in making concrete. 12
  13. 13. Water Pollution - Another environmental issue with cement and concrete production is water pollution. - At the batch plant, wash water from equipment cleaning is often discharged into setting ponds where the solids can settled out. - Some returned concrete also gets put into settling ponds to wash off and recover the aggregate. 13
  14. 14. Energy Energy consumption is the biggest environmental concern with cement and concrete production. Cement production is one of the most energy intensive of all industrial manufacturing process. Including direct fuel use for mining and transporting raw materials, cement production takes about 1,758 kWh for every ton of cement. 14
  15. 15. Health concerns - The presence of some substances in concrete, including useful and unwanted additives, can cause health concerns. - Working with wet concrete requires a number of precautions, primarily to protect the skin from the high alkalinity that can cause chemical burn. 15
  16. 16. Conclusion In conclusion on the whole area of concrete degradation and defects & environmental effects, it is important to continue on the advancement of construction technology and building materials so that living conditions may be improved and accidents may be reduced, however the condition of the environment cannot be ignored. This is because when the ecosystem is disturbed it can cause many problems like shortage of food, pollution or even natural disasters. Hence, this requires detail planning and proper allocation of resources all for the good of the construction industry, the environment as well as future generations. 16
  17. 17. References 1. Cement.org. Evaluating Concrete Defects In-text: (Cement.org, 2014) Bibliography: Cement.org. (2014). Evaluating Concrete Defects. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.cement.org/for-concrete-books-learning/concrete-technology/concrete- design-production/evaluating-concrete-defects [Accessed: 13 Apr 2014]. 2. Bam.de BAM Expertise | Expertise | Safety of Structures | Building Materials | Damage Mechanisms and Protective Measures In-text: (Bam.de, 2014) Bibliography: Bam.de,. (2014). BAM Expertise | Expertise | Safety of Structures | Building Materials | Damage Mechanisms and Protective Measures. Retrieved 28 April 2014, from http://www.bam.de/en/kompetenzen/fachabteilungen/abteilung_7/fg71/fg71_ag2c.htm 3. Blog.kryton.com Five Signs of a Leaky Basement In-text: (Blog.kryton.com, 2013) Bibliography: Blog.kryton.com,. (2013). Five Signs of a Leaky Basement. Retrieved 28 April 2014, from http://blog.kryton.com/2013/04/five-signs-of-a-leaky-basement/ 4. Civil-engg-world.blogspot.com Plastic Shrinkage Cracking in Concrete In-text: (Civil-engg-world.blogspot.com, 2014) Bibliography: Civil-engg-world.blogspot.com,. (2014). Plastic Shrinkage Cracking in Concrete. Retrieved 28 April 2014, from http://civil-engg- world.blogspot.com/2011/04/plastic-shrinkage-cracking-in-concrete.html 17
  18. 18. 5. Concrete floors In-text: (Concrete floors, 2014) Bibliography: Concrete floors,. (2014). Concrete floors. Retrieved 28 April 2014, from http://concretefloors.ca/craze.htm 6. Concrete.org Curling In-text: (Concrete.org, 2014) Bibliography: Concrete.org,. (2014). Curling. Retrieved 28 April 2014, from http://www.concrete.org/Tools/TroubleshootingSurfaceImperfections/Curling.aspx 7. Concretenetwork.com Grey Microtopping Mimics Polished Concrete - The Concrete Network In-text: (Concretenetwork.com, 2014) Bibliography: Concretenetwork.com,. (2014). Grey Microtopping Mimics Polished Concrete - The Concrete Network. Retrieved 28 April 2014, from http://www.concretenetwork.com/concrete_overlays_cement/polished-microtopping.html 8. Garageenhancements.ca Why is My Concrete Porch Chipping and Flaking? - Garage Enhancements Ltd. In-text: (Garageenhancements.ca, 2014) Bibliography: Garageenhancements.ca,. (2014). Why is My Concrete Porch Chipping and Flaking? - Garage Enhancements Ltd. Retrieved 28 April 2014, from http://www.garageenhancements.ca/Why-is-My-Concrete-Porch-Chipping-and-Flaking- .htm 9. Lmcc.com Concrete News: Making the Bugholes bug out (concrete bugholes) In-text: (Lmcc.com, 2014) Bibliography: Lmcc.com,. (2014). Concrete News: Making the Bugholes bug out (concrete bugholes). Retrieved 28 April 2014, from http://www.lmcc.com/concrete_news/0112/Preventing-concrete-bugholes.asp 18
  19. 19. 10. Rrmodelcraftsman.com Railroad Model Craftsman - Monster Modelworks Concrete Paving for multiple scales In-text: (Rrmodelcraftsman.com, 2014) Bibliography: Rrmodelcraftsman.com,. (2014). Railroad Model Craftsman - Monster Modelworks Concrete Paving for multiple scales. Retrieved 28 April 2014, from http://rrmodelcraftsman.com/reviews/cm_review_monstermodelworks- concretepaving.php 11. Structuraldesigns.com.au Surface Blistering or efflorecence on concrete surface In-text: (Structuraldesigns.com.au, 2014) Bibliography: Structuraldesigns.com.au,. (2014). Surface Blistering or efflorecence on concrete surface. Retrieved 28 April 2014, from http://www.structuraldesigns.com.au/FAQs/Problems%20in%20Hot%20Weather/Surfac e%20blistering%20during 12. Wikipedia Reinforced concrete In-text: (Wikipedia, 2014) Bibliography: Wikipedia,. (2014). Reinforced concrete. Retrieved 28 April 2014, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reinforced_concrete 19

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