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  1. 1. The World Wide Web By: Melissa Davis
  2. 2. Before The Web There Were Leading Events....
  3. 3. Launching of Sputnik <ul><li>The launching of sputnik occurred on October 4 th 1957. </li></ul><ul><li>Was the first artificial satellite in space to “capture the world from a different view. </li></ul><ul><li>Soviet military tactic to catch Americans “off guard for attack.” </li></ul><ul><li>Known for the Americans rise of NASA. </li></ul>
  4. 5. America Responds Back <ul><li>In the midst of the Cold War and the soviet succession in the launching of sputnik, America creates ARPA. </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced Research Projects Agency's purpose was to boost America's approach to in new scientific and technological advancements. </li></ul><ul><li>ARPA'S founders were researchers Robert Kahn and Vint Cerf. </li></ul><ul><li>ARPA turned from a research agency to the agency responsible for the creation of the first network: The Arpanet. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Arpanet- “One Terminal to connect everything-Bob Taylor” <ul><li>Arpanet was the first single network of its form created in 1966. </li></ul><ul><li>Originally, Its purpose was to connect a few sites used for military communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Military was the first to use it “successfully”. </li></ul><ul><li>Eisenhower's idea of a way we can monitor soviet attacks and pose attacks. </li></ul><ul><li>Soon financial institutions/businesses and Universities used it in the hopes of having the ability for faster transmission of information to others. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to use arpanet you had to be contracted by ARPA or a member or ARPA. </li></ul><ul><li>Known as the milestone to the internet because its mild interconnection between people and its beginning leeway for social interactions for business and trade. </li></ul>
  6. 7. The Technology Behind Arpanet <ul><li>Indeed arpanet was the first network of its kind, but after arpanet there were many networks created that all soon connected to become the internet. </li></ul><ul><li>However, before there were these networks there were the technological, programmed, computed systems and tools to make them run efficiently and soon be able to transmit information anywhere. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the main foundational tools that made arpanet work was the system of packet switching created by Paul Baran. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Others were TCP, I.M.Ps and IP protocols (to be mentioned later). </li></ul>
  7. 8. Scientists Behind Arpanet <ul><li>Leonard Kleinrock, Robert Taylor, Larry Roberts, Joseph Carl Robnett Licklider worked in ARPA's science department and were partly responsible for its function and expansion. </li></ul><ul><li>Director of Arpa: Charles Herzfeld </li></ul>
  8. 9. APRA Creates IMPs <ul><li>Interface message processors were created by ARPA in 1969. </li></ul><ul><li>Created by Bolt, Beranek & Newman (BBN). </li></ul><ul><li>Almost identical to packet switches except they're used to send and/or receive a lot of data of one time. </li></ul><ul><li>IMPs could be connected outside of time sharing zone and to more than one “host”. </li></ul><ul><li>U.C. L.A first to receive IMP “prototype” on “August 30 th 1969”. It was first connected on September 2nd. </li></ul><ul><li>October 1969, Stanford Research Institute gets their IMP connecting to U. C. L.A. </li></ul>
  9. 10. 1970s
  10. 11. From File Sharing to The Rise of Email <ul><li>Ray Tomlinson from BBN founder of the usefulness of the “@” sign. </li></ul><ul><li>His main goal that with the use of the “@” sign we would tweak packet switching a bit. </li></ul><ul><li>Packet switching broke up files then assembled them back together for through one network to the recipients machine. </li></ul><ul><li>Tomlinson thought how about we do the same thing except we send it to specific recipients and use multiple networks if possible. </li></ul><ul><li>This basis was the beginning of the rise of internet. We would be able to send files over networks, then with the “@” sign they would be left in a “certain location”. </li></ul><ul><li>Email meant to the “killer app”, leaving more room for social interaction. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Robert Metcalfe's Law <ul><li>Robert Metcalfe invents Ethernet in 1972. </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for Metcalfe's Law stating “as the number of users on a network grows, the value of that network increases exponentially”. </li></ul><ul><li>Basically the more people interacting on a network, the more others will want to as well. </li></ul>
  12. 13. ARPA's Borders Disappear <ul><li>Soon it seemed that more and more business and Universities started to use arpanet others wanted to connect to it as well. </li></ul><ul><li>In order for this to be done, something that would interconnect all users to the network needed to be created. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1973 Vint Cerf and Robert Kahn create the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). This was known as a tool to connect many networks together at one time. </li></ul><ul><li>After the creation of the TCP, Apple Computer Inc. creates the first form of a personalized computer called the Apple II in 1977. </li></ul>
  13. 15. Internet Boom <ul><li>After the creation of the Apple II, IBM creates the P.C. Also known as the personal computer. </li></ul><ul><li>This was the first personalized computer to be used in businesses and universities widespread. </li></ul><ul><li>Steve case gets hired by “Control Video” and is known for his push in the company to involvement in “interconnectivity” and companies emergence to “America Online (AOL). </li></ul><ul><li>Phrase “You've Got Mail” created. </li></ul>
  14. 16. Internet= Social Interaction <ul><li>1985 more people start to use email, but small amounts of social interaction occur after the rise of chat rooms and message boards. </li></ul><ul><li>1989-IBM confirms all P. C's will come with a modem along with it for internet connection </li></ul><ul><li>Email becomes more popular after Reagan's “former national security advisor John Poindexter” claims to be involved in Iran scandal through the use of email. </li></ul><ul><li>Email brought into the courtroom. </li></ul>
  15. 17. The 1990s
  16. 18. And Then There Became The World Wide Web <ul><li>In 1991, Cern, “the world's largest physics lab” gave birth to the world wide web. </li></ul><ul><li>The web was created by Scientist Tim Berner-Lee and Robert Cailliau. </li></ul><ul><li>Named the world wide web temporarily. (2) </li></ul><ul><li>The web was meant to link all the components of the internet, that would be oversaw with “browsers.” </li></ul><ul><li>Browsers were meant to direct you through the web, they help you move through “texts and images on screen”. </li></ul><ul><li>Marc Andreesen creates Mosiac, the first browser. </li></ul><ul><li>Web gave people the ability to see other things on the internet, like weather, shopping. </li></ul>
  17. 19. More Browsers <ul><li>In 1995 The rise of Netscape Navigator spread widely. </li></ul><ul><li>However, December 7 th , 1995 Bill Gates CEO Microsoft Inc targeted Netscape for their browser with a challenger Internet Explorer. </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Explorer rouse higher that year. </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft offered free browser inside windows software for all PCs. </li></ul>
  18. 20. Publicizing The Web <ul><li>Companies started going electronic. </li></ul><ul><li>1994 two students from Stanford, Jerry Yang and David Filo created yahoo search engine. </li></ul><ul><li>Amazon, the first online bookstore is online in 1995 by Jeffery P. Bezos. </li></ul><ul><li>E bay was created by Pierre Omidyar in 1995. </li></ul><ul><li>Craigslist was set up in 1995 by Craig Newmark for social interaction through free classified ads. </li></ul>
  19. 21. Google <ul><li>In 1998 Sergey Brinn and Larry Page from Stanford created Google search engine. </li></ul><ul><li>With Google, their main focus was connect all these “documents on the Web” and correlate some importance to all of them. </li></ul>
  20. 22. Social Interaction Takes Over <ul><li>Throughout the rest of the 90's and into the millennium, more tools beyond email, chat rooms, and forums rouse. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2001, Wikipedia was “launched” by Jimmy Wales. The sites content was solely “written and edited by voluntary contributors”. The free online encyclopedia set storm for social liberation that lead to the rise of blogging. </li></ul>
  21. 23. YouTube <ul><li>YouTube alike blogging gave consumers of the Web leeway for social liberation. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2005 SNL sketch actor/writer were “responsible for the first YouTube sensation Lazy Sunday. </li></ul><ul><li>2007 CNN pairs with YouTube to create YouTube Debates. Video network in which politicians could connect with voters. </li></ul>
  22. 24. Where We Are Now!
  23. 25. Works Cited <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Mayo, Keenan, Newcomb, Peter. Vanity Fair. “How the Web was Won”. 24 Aug 2009. Online Source </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>