Surface processes

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Different processes on how lands on Earth form.

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Surface processes

  1. 1. Have you ever wondered why scientists claim that Earthbefore was so different from now with respect to its landformation?
  2. 2. Natural course of action whereinthere is a changed plane or land dueto different factors such as volcaniceruption, wind, running water, wavesand etc.
  3. 3. It is the breaking down ofrocks and other materials onthe earth surface.
  4. 4. There are two primary types of weathering: Chemical and Physical1. Physical Weathering – the breakdown of rocks and minerals into smallerpieces without a change in chemical composition. Root/Plant Wedging/Action Ice/Frost Wedging/ActionExfoliation and Abrasion are also types of physical weathering. 5
  5. 5. 2. Chemical Weathering – the breakdown of rocks and minerals into smaller pieces by chemical action. The rocks breaks down at the same time as it changes chemical composition. The end result is different from the original rock. There are 3 types of chemical weathering:1. Oxidation – oxygen combines with the elements in the rock and it reacts. This thescientific name for rust. 2. Hydration – water can dissolve away many earth materials, including certain rocks. 3. Carbonation – carbon dioxide dissolves in water to form carbonic acid. This makes acid rain which chemically weathers (dissolves) rocks. Other acids also combine with water to make acid rain 6
  6. 6. It is the process by which weatheredrock and soil particles are moved fromone place to another
  7. 7. Erosion (transport)There are 5 main agents of erosion:1. *Running Water*2. Glaciers3. Wind4. Gravity Weathering has to happen before erosion. The rocks have to be broken into smaller sediments before they5. Man can be eroded away. Wind Erosion Glacier 8
  8. 8. There is a pile of weathered material at Mount Rushmore the bottom. It is slowly being eroded down hill by gravity.It will not be there forever!! 9
  9. 9. The process by which sediments arelaid down in new locations.
  10. 10. Most deposition happens in standing/still bodies of water (oceans/lakes).Deposition is caused by the slowing down (loss of kinetic energy) of the agent oferosion. There are 3 factors that influence the rate of sediment deposition: 1. Sediment size – 2. Sediment shape – 3. Sediment density - 11
  11. 11. Graded Bedding/Vertical Sorting – a situation where larger particles settle on thebottom and smaller particles settle towards the top. This happens naturally when afast moving river/stream meets a large standing body of water. This happens becausethe velocity of the water decreases very quickly. (A waterfall emptying into a lake) 12
  12. 12. Alluvial Fan - a fan shaped deposit of sediments that forms when a stream/riverflows out of a mountain on to flat, dry plains. These are not under water and arevery visible. This only happens on the land. You can call it a “land delta”. 13
  13. 13. Cross-Bedding – a situation where layersof sediments are deposited at angles to oneanother as a result of a change of directionof the erosional agent.These are usually found in sanddunes, deltas, and alluvial fans. 14
  14. 14. YMELYSSA C. PAULINESMARYROSE BONITASHANEN IMBOSUSMITA DOLORJOMAR PEDRAROJA

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