SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 14
Download to read offline
BOTSWANA CHRISTIAN AIDS INTERVENTION PROGRAM
March 18, 2013
Authored by: Melissa Jennings
BOCAIP Proposal Writing Guide
A Staff Guide to Accessing Funds
1
BOCAIPProposalWritingGuide|3/18/2013
Table of Contents
DEFINITIONS................................................................................................................... 2
FINDING DONORS ............................................................................................................ 4
GOVERNMENT AND INTERNATIONAL NGO........................................................................... 4
CORPORATE FUNDING ................................................................................................... 4
FAMILY FOUNDATIONS ................................................................................................... 4
CHURCHES ................................................................................................................. 4
NETWORKING ............................................................................................................. 5
STARTING ...................................................................................................................... 5
CONCEPT NOTE .............................................................................................................. 5
WRITING....................................................................................................................... 5
NEEDS ASSESSMENT ....................................................................................................... 5
HOW TO CARRY OUT A NEEDS ASSESSMENT ............................................................... 7
APPROACHES TO CARRY OUT A NEEDS ASSESSMENT................................................................. 8
HOW NEEDS ASSESSMENTS AFFECT PROGRAM EVALUATION....................................................... 9
REFERENCES................................................................................................................ 9
CONTENT...................................................................................................................... 9
FUNDING PROPOSAL COMPONENTS.................................................................................... 9
ANNEXES......................................................................................................................11
LOGICAL FRAMEWORK ANALYSIS......................................................................................11
DETAILED IMPLEMENTATION SCHEDULE..............................................................................12
BUDGET....................................................................................................................12
PROJECT COSTS .......................................................................................................12
ORGANISATION COSTS ...............................................................................................13
SUBMISSION...................................................................................................................13
OTHER SOURCES OF INFORMATION ......................................................................................13
2
BOCAIPProposalWritingGuide|3/18/2013
BOCAIP PROPOSAL WRITING
GUIDE
A Staff Guide to Accessing Funds
Definitions
Activity: How the intended outputs will be achieved. Actions taken or work performed through which
inputs are mobilized to produce specific outputs.
Assumptions: Describe the necessary conditions that must exist if the cause-effect relationships
between levels of results are to behave as expected. Conditions over which we have little or no control
(i.e. if children participate in literacy programs the rate of literacy will increase- participation is the
assumption)
Baseline Data: The set of conditions existing at the outset of a program/project. Results will be
measured or assessed against such baseline data.
Block Grants: a category made available for flexible co-financing of smaller-scale activities.
Impact: Broader, higher level, long term effect or consequence linked to the goal or vision.
Inputs: Financial, human, material, technological and information resources that will be used for the
activities.
Indicators: Output indicators are important for project planning, management, tracking, learning and
improving. Without them it is difficult to monitor, report and evaluate performance, progress and
development change. Indicators are signs that show the extent of change in a given situation. They help
to measure what actually happened in terms of quantity, quality and timeliness against what was
originally planned. They also measure a project’s progress in achieving results. Some additional
examples of indicators are: percentage of citizens active in community-level organizations/associations;
ratio of men and women in management positions in public service; trust in the media as measured by
public opinion survey; civic education in school curriculum; road traffic accidents in a given period;
cleanliness of medical services; availability of ecological data; level of toxins in duck eggs; internet
connectivity in rural areas.
In selecting indicators one critical question to ask is: “how easy is it to obtain and analyze data for the
indicator?” Other questions before, during and at the completion of implementation to consider are:
 Are these the right actions for achieving the outputs?
 Is this the right strategy to follow? (Efficiency)
 Are the outputs being delivered in a timely manner?
3
BOCAIPProposalWritingGuide|3/18/2013
 Do the results meet the aspirations and the needs of stakeholders and/or beneficiaries?
 What changes in the situation/context have occurred? Are they positive or negative?
Have they increased or decreased or stayed the same? Have they improved or worsened
or stayed the same?
 Is there a plausible association between the changes and outputs of the project?
 Do the outputs lead to the expected positive changes or outcomes?
Outcome: A generic definition of outcomes is: “the intended or achieved short-term and medium-term
development changes, usually requiring the collective effort of partners”. In other words, the project
outcome represents changes in development conditions and therefore the overall results being pursued.
The intention of a project is contribute towards these changes in conditions (outcome) through its
outputs (i.e. activities and inputs). This is generally where the beneficiaries take ownership of the
program/project and funding comes to an end.
Outputs: The products/goods and services that result from projects and associated activities, initiatives
and advocacy efforts. They are what projects deliver and contribute towards a change in a development
situation. The immediate, visible, concrete and tangible consequences of program/project inputs.
Performance Assessment: Self-assessment by program branches/units, comprising program, project or
institutional monitoring, operational reviews, end of year reporting, end of project reporting,
institutional assessments and special studies.
Projects: a single sustainable operation containing activities to be carried out within a relatively short
period of time; maximum five years.
Programmes: a set of sustainable development activities and/or processes conceived within the
framework of a coherent long-term policy approach. Emphasis is put on achieving clearly-defined mid-
term and long-term objectives.
Quantitative indicators: Measures of quantity including statistical statements. These can be obtained
through primary or secondary research such as government/NGO publications or community surveys
(i.e. AIDS infection rate, community literacy rate).
Qualitative indicators: Judgments and perceptions derived from subjective analysis. As much as
possible, be sure to support any opinions of the organization with external quotes (i.e. “Religious and
other community leaders can be powerful sources of advocacy for change in attitudes…they can serve as
excellent models of caring and supporting, of tolerance and compassion.”- United Nations Children’s
Fund, AIDS: The Second Decade – A Focus on Youth and Women, New York, (April 1993))
Result: A describable or measurable change in state that is derived from a cause and effect relationship.
Risks: For each assumption made there is the probability that something may jeopardise the integrity of
performance, or that some assumptions may not hold true. Risk only causes concern when it leads to
negative unintended consequences or undesirable results. This should be presented as a solution to
mitigating risk.
4
BOCAIPProposalWritingGuide|3/18/2013
Finding Donors
The importance of the internet in locating donors cannot be emphasized enough. With donors
continually updating websites with information, calls for proposals and guidelines this is an
indispensable and easy to use resource. Often a keyword search using Google can produce many
funding sites (e.g. ICT+grants+2012+Botswana).
Digital Philanthropy: What’s new in Non-Profit Fundraising?
Networking is also an important tool for finding funding. Just by telling others that you are looking and
what you are doing/ capable of puts your organization ahead for resource mobilization. You just never
know who you might meet who has funds set aside for HIV/AIDS programming, so advertise the
successes and challenges of your programmes as much as possible. No organization can afford not to
network!
Government and International NGO
Calls for Proposals for budget lines are issued on the EuropeAid website:
http://ec.europa.eu/contracts_grants/grants_en.htm as well as in the Official Journal of the European
Community (OJ), in all official EU languages. The OJ can be found on the Europa website:
http://publications.eu.int/general/oj_en.html
Reliefweb is a site which hosts many international NGOs administered by the UN and often has
Requests for Proposals (RfPs) and many opportunities for training staff:
http://reliefweb.int/country/bwa
Corporate Funding
This includes private, public partnerships. It can range between a more loose arrangement of a grant to
a more active corporate social responsibility (CSR) “Companies have a lot of power in the community
and in the national economy. They control a lot of assets, and may have billions in cash at their disposal
for socially conscious investments and programs. Some companies may engage in "greenwashing", or
feigning interest in corporate responsibility, but many large corporations are devoting real time and
money to environmental sustainability programs, alternative energy/cleantech, and various social
welfare initiatives to benefit employees, customers, and the community at large.” (Investopedia.com)
Family Foundations
Usually have clear guidelines with international experience and the potential to form lasting
relationships based on performance rather than timelines.
Churches
With the same moral understanding as BOCAIP, Churches can mobilize their congregations to raise
funds. However these may not be reliable or very much and are subject to governance.
5
BOCAIPProposalWritingGuide|3/18/2013
Networking
When you have a need that isn’t addressed specifically by any current calls for proposals, a concept note
can be forwarded to a potential donor by utilizing an NGO Directory. Research the donor through their
website or by requesting a meeting. This is to ensure that your funding is determined by your strategic
planning, rather than to get into the cycle of donor led programming.
Starting
When a call for proposal (hereafter called “the Call”) is found, before proceeding; be sure to read the
document carefully and take note of:
 The Submission date (how much time do you have, has the deadline past?)
 The requirements (does a baseline survey need to be done, is it for rural or urban projects, is
there a need in the community?)
 The duration (How long will the funding last?)
 The minimum and maximum amounts of funding (will it be appropriate?)
 How does this funding fit with the current needs of the community?
 Which staff members need to be involved (MED, Healthcare)?
 Does this Call require a co-applicant or partner (Nationality, number, etc.)?
 Contact the funding organisation via the media specified on the Call for any clarifications
needed. It is better to ask than to proceed blindly.
Concept Note
Sometimes, but not always, an organisation will first ask for a concept note before proceeding onward
to a short listed Call for Proposals. If this is the case a format will usually be provided; if it is not there
the attached concept note can be used.
A Concept Note is also useful for presenting ideas to potential donors who have not advertised a ‘Call
for Proposal”
This is a four page summary of a specific project BOCAIP would like to undertake. It should be brief,
focused and concise.
Writing
Needs Assessment
Why Should You Do a Needs Assessment?
Try out these reasons. Do they make sense for you?
 To learn more about what your stakeholder or community needs are. A survey can supplement
your own observations and experiences. It can give you detailed information from a larger and
more representative group of people.
 To get an honest and objective description of needs that people might tell you publicly.
 To anticipate and remain responsive to changing demographics, attitudes and needs.
6
BOCAIPProposalWritingGuide|3/18/2013
 To become aware of possible needs you never saw as particularly important or never knew
existed
 To document your needs, as is required in many applications for funding.
 To get group and community support for the actions you undertake in the near future.
 To get people actually involved in the following action will attract new members.
 To make sure any actions you eventually get involved in are in line with needs expressed by the
community.
Why Should You NOT Do a Needs Assessment?
A needs assessment is not necessary before every action, and especially:
 When there is no doubt what the most important needs in the group or community are.
 When it is urgent to act right now, without delay.
 When a recent assessment has already been done, and it is clear the needs have not changed.
 When you feel the community would see an assessment as redundant or wasteful, and it will be
harmful to your cause.
7
BOCAIPProposalWritingGuide|3/18/2013
How to Carry Out a Needs Assessment
 Identify sources of information and data.
 Review existing literature on the specific problem.
 Survey other agencies/organizations in the community to avoid unnecessary overlap in program
activities and to identify emerging issues and new resources.
 Interview key informants and community members who have knowledge of or experience with
the problem.
 Consult with national/state agencies where specific data, literature, or experiences are deficient.
An assessment serves as the basis for the development of a comprehensive project plan. In addition,
more targeted needs assessment may be needed for effective program planning. Tailored needs
assessments enable the program planner to make informed decisions about the adequacy, availability,
and effectiveness of specific services that are available to the target beneficiaries?
For the purposes of developing specific health education and risk reduction activities, a targeted needs
assessment assists in the following:
 Establishing appropriate goals, objectives, and activities.
 Defining purpose and scope.
 Identifying social/behavioral attitudes, behaviors, and perceptions of the target community.
 Providing the basis for evaluation as part of formative and summarative studies of interventions.
 Establishing community-based support for the proposed activities.
The needs assessment may be informal or formal. An informal needs assessment may occur through
frequent conversations and personal interactions with colleagues and clients. Staff and clientele interact
with each other when services are being delivered; therefore, clients may inform them about services
they find useful or unsatisfactory. Also, staff meetings are a vehicle for sharing and transferring
information among colleagues. Through both of these processes, staff can usually determine whether
there are gaps in services.
A formal needs assessment involves a systematic collection and analysis of data about the client
population. This process may uncover needs that may not be identified through an informal process.
A formal needs assessment requires the program planner to do the following:
 Identify questions that need to be answered.
 Determine how the information will be collected and from whom.
 Identify existing sources of data, e.g., needs assessment data from the HIV prevention
community planning group.
 Collect the data.
 Conduct a comprehensive analysis of the data.
The program staff should review data from the community planning needs assessment to determine
what additional information is needed. A variety of information would be useful in developing program
activities, including the following:
 Socioeconomic and demographic status of the overall community and the specific populations
being targeted.
 Current statistics and trends involved in the problem.
 Existing gaps in programs and services.
 Social indicator data to examine significant and relevant factors that influence prevalence of
problem, e.g., substance abuse, teenage pregnancy.
 Identification of other programs and resources that focus on the same target audience.
8
BOCAIPProposalWritingGuide|3/18/2013
Before conducting a needs assessment, program staff should consult with community leaders from the
client or target populations. This is important in order to determine the leaders' perceptions of their
communities' needs, to discuss the agency's plan for conducting the assessment, and to begin to
cultivate a working relationship with the leaders in order to attain community support for the proposed
activities.
Approaches to carry out a Needs Assessment
Existing Data Approach: Already existing statistical data is used to obtain insights about the well-being
of people. This approach uses descriptive statistics, such as census data, labour surveys, bank deposit
data, sales tax reports, police reports, etc.
Community Attitude Survey Approach: Information is gathered from a representative sample of
community residents about issues affecting their well-being. Data is collected by personal interviews,
telephone surveys, door-to door surveys or mail surveys. (Visit Steps in the COMMUNITY ATTITUDE SURVEY
APPROACH for details)
Key Informant Approach: The key informant approach identifies community/ neighbourhood leaders
and people who are knowledgeable about the community and can accurately identify priority needs and
concerns. Key informants complete a questionnaire or are personally interviewed to obtain their
thoughts of community needs. The information is then analyzed and reported to the community
through publications or a community meeting.
Community Forum: A public meeting(s) is held during which time the participants discuss what some of
the needs facing the community are, what some of the priority needs are and what can be done about
these priority needs. All members of the community are encouraged to attend and express their
concerns and perceived needs.
Focus Group Interview: A group of people selected for their particular skills, experiences, views or
position are asked a series of questions about a topic or issue to collect their opinions. Group interaction
is used to obtain detailed information about a particular issue.
9
BOCAIPProposalWritingGuide|3/18/2013
How Needs Assessments Affect Program Evaluation
A needs assessment is a component of program evaluation. Each element of a needs assessment plays a
significant role in the planning, implementation, and management of effective education programs. If a
program is to be evaluated, the degree to which the program addresses the needs of the target
audiences must be examined.
Both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection and evaluation are useful. Qualitative
methods afford the target audiences an opportunity to express their thoughts, feelings, ideals, and
beliefs. Examples of qualitative methods include informal interviews, focus groups, and public
forums. These methods are designed to assist the program staff in identifying problems or gaps that the
agency may not have recognized, e.g., barriers to service delivery and client dissatisfaction.
Quantitative methods render statistical information. Examples include questionnaires and surveys,
results of studies of the client populations' attitudes and beliefs about HIV/STD disease, and information
derived from program activities, e.g., number of condoms distributed and documented requests for
services.
References
All references to external documents should be referenced using an APA style.
Content
Before you begin to write here are some tips:
 Be clear about why and for whom the proposal is for
 Understand the donor for whom you are preparing the proposal for
 Know yourself as an organization, which includes your identity, your strategic plan, knowing
your strengths and weaknesses. Being able to present a credible track record in areas such as
financial management, project impact, technical competence and general management.
 You need to plan the project. Which means understanding the context, setting objectives, and
designing a process. (Shapiro, Janet. Civicus, “Writing a funding Proposal”)
Funding Proposal Components
Be sure to always follow the format given by the donor organization. Although formats vary according to
the organization, there are some components that are generally found in all.
Executive Summary: A short summary outlining what the rest of the proposal states. A summarized
budget with a specific administration percentage provides a concise overview of plans.
Location: Where the project will be located, this must be specific with a map if available. It is not enough
to say “the project will take place in Francistown,” it would be better to say “Francistown, Plot 2361,
which is approximately 436kms north of Gaborone. This is an urban community in North East District.”
Duration: The length of time you are seeking funding for the specific project. This will be specified in the
guidelines.
10
BOCAIPProposalWritingGuide|3/18/2013
Organisation: This includes legal status which remains unchanged in any proposal; development
experience, which can be adapted to reflect the current project (i.e. including more health or child rights
experience).
Management Capacity: The staff members who will be running the program and their past experience.
This can also include Board Members which reflects a culture of democracy and accountability.
Background and Development Context: At the Macro and Micro levels. Try and include all relevant
national and local data available pertaining to the specific issue; this where a Needs Assessment and
external referencing is especially useful to really illustrate the needs of the community. Some useful
external publications available on the internet include:
 Botswana’s Central Statistic’s office Reports
 SADC Protocols on Social & Human Development
 Research organizations found in the NGO directory who usually have published documents
available on their websites (i.e. UN agencies, International NGOs, national research
organizations and various Botswana government ministries)
Project: Include all detailed project plans and outline them in a clear manner to demonstrate to the
funding agency BOCAIP’s skills in efficient, researched, organized and forward looking project planning.
Legal Obligations: Demonstrates the commitment and responsibility of BOCAIP in securing particular
funding for a community project. This can be copy and pasted from previous proposals
11
BOCAIPProposalWritingGuide|3/18/2013
Annexes
Logical Framework Analysis
Country/Region Project Title Partner Organization Project Manager
Requested Contribution:
From the donor agency
Total Project Budget
NARRATIVE SUMMARY EXPECTED RESULTS PERFORMANCE
MEASUREMENT
ASSUMPTIONS/RISK
INDICATORS
Project Goal (Program
Objective):
The program objective
to which this project is
intended to make a
contribution
Impact: A long-term
developmental result at
the societal level that is
the logical consequence
of achieving a specified
combination of
outcomes.
Performance
Indicators: Indicators
that will provide
evidence that the
project has made a
contribution to the
achievement of the
stated developmental
impact.
Assumptions: The necessary
conditions that must exist for
the cause-effect relationships
between outcomes and
impact to behave as
expected.
Risk Indicators: Indicators
that will measure the status
of the assumptions identified
above.
Project Purpose:
The project objective
which addresses the
priority development
needs of the identified
beneficiaries and is
achievable within the
scope of project
activities.
Outcomes: Medium-
term development
results benefiting an
identified target
population that are
achievable within the
timeframe of the project
and are the logical
consequence of
achieving a specified
combination of outputs.
Performance
Indicators:
Indicators that will
provide evidence that
the project has
achieved the stated
developmental
outcomes.
Assumptions:
The necessary conditions that
must exist for the cause-effect
relationships between
outputs and outcomes to
behave as expected.
Risk Indicators: indicators
that will measure the status
of the assumptions identified
above.
Resource: Listing by
categories of resources
(inputs and/or activities)
required to achieve the
project purpose,
planned budget for each
type of resource and
total project budget.
Output: Short-term
developmental results
produced by or for the
benefit of project
delivery partners that are
the immediate
consequences of project
activities and inputs.
Performance
Indicators: Indicators
that will provide
evidence that the
project has achieved
the stated
developmental
outputs.
Assumptions: The necessary
conditions that must exist for
the cause-effect relationships
between inputs and outputs
to behave as expected.
Risk indicators: That will
measure the status of the
assumptions identified above.
12
BOCAIPProposalWritingGuide|3/18/2013
Detailed Implementation Schedule
This includes the duration and action plan for activities.
 Unless otherwise stated a real date should not be mentioned, instead refer to “month 1,”
“month 2,” etc.
 The duration must not exceed that which is in the call
 A title of activities is required, a detailed description is not.
 The implementing actors must be listed
Budget
For all budget lines, the following tips apply:
 Always adhere strictly to the guidelines, in particular with regard to the budget which must be
in the currency stated in the call. If it is not stated, assume it is in Pula.
 Indicate the main responsible party for that part of the budget, particularly for projects that
entail more than one implementing organisation. Not all budget categories may be relevant
to the project so use only those that are applicable. Also add in extra lines under the
appropriate budget category where necessary.
 Own Contribution. Unless otherwise detailed, it is generally expected that the requesting
organisation contribute at least 15% of the overall costs either in cash or in kind. If the
contribution is in kind estimate the value of the item (i.e. a building).
 If a format is not provided use the following categories (MS Word or an adapted version in MS
Excel for easier calculation can be used):
Project costs
These are costs associated directly with the project
Human resources (project): Includes salary costs and fees for experts, consultants, other technical staff,
and project officers. Terms of reference for each position should be attached.
Contractual services (companies): Includes procured services in, for example, areas of studies/research,
organized trainings and workshop events etc. Terms of reference for each service to be provided should
be attached
Materials and goods: Where the eligibility criteria allow, these could include specific technical
equipment, products or educational materials, training kits, equipment for centers or buildings funded
by project. Include depreciation expenses for furniture and electronic assets purchased (again if eligible)
Audio visual & print production costs: includes audio visual productions, printing and publications,
promotional materials and distribution, translation costs, audio-visual equipment, other media costs
Information Technology – includes purchase of computer hardware, software and supplies for project
purposes only (if eligible)
Travel: includes international and local travel tickets, subsistence allowance for project staff, and
shipment of goods that relate only to the project. (Subsistence allowance for any meeting/event
participants should be budgeted under ‘contractual services-companies’)
13
BOCAIPProposalWritingGuide|3/18/2013
Organisation costs
These are costs associated with co-ordination and office running costs for implementing the project and
should not exceed 15% of the total project budget
Human resources (management): refers to salary costs of the requesting organization for coordinating
and overseeing the project
Travel: for management/support staff
Equipment and furniture: includes transportation equipment, furniture for organization’s office costs
only.
Office supplies and communications: includes communications equipment, telephone charges, postage
charges, email and internet charges, stationery and other office supplies
Office rental and maintenance: includes rent, cleaning, utilities
Monitoring and reporting: includes costs for monitoring and analyzing project progress, and report-
writing
Miscellaneous: includes bank charges, sundries, audit fees and legal fees
Submission
Make sure to use spell check and have a colleague with an excellent command of the English language
proof read the entire document before submitting. Include 2 bound hard copies and a soft copy on CD in
the package to be delivered directly to the funding agency before, not on, the due date.
Other Sources of Information
For more detailed information, some good sources are:
 The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) www.acdi-cida.gc.ca
 “Handbook on EC Support for Population and Reproductive Health”, edited by Marie Stopes
International, London, UK
 The European NGO confederation for relief and development – CONCORD is the link between
over 1500 European NGOs active in the fields of development and humanitarian aid and the
EU institutions. http://www.concordeurope.org
 Iowa State University Extension Web site:
http://www.extension.iastate.edu/communities/tools/assess/

More Related Content

What's hot

Searching for outcomes in rural Tanzania: Harvesting directly from those infl...
Searching for outcomes in rural Tanzania: Harvesting directly from those infl...Searching for outcomes in rural Tanzania: Harvesting directly from those infl...
Searching for outcomes in rural Tanzania: Harvesting directly from those infl...John Mauremootoo
 
Coalition Assessment: Approaches for Measuring Capacity and Impact
Coalition Assessment: Approaches for Measuring Capacity and ImpactCoalition Assessment: Approaches for Measuring Capacity and Impact
Coalition Assessment: Approaches for Measuring Capacity and ImpactInnovation Network
 
Monitoring stakeholder engagement
Monitoring stakeholder engagementMonitoring stakeholder engagement
Monitoring stakeholder engagementSimon Hearn
 
Stakeholder engagement by chandan
Stakeholder engagement by chandanStakeholder engagement by chandan
Stakeholder engagement by chandanChandan Shirbhayye
 
Introduction to Outcome Mapping
Introduction to Outcome MappingIntroduction to Outcome Mapping
Introduction to Outcome MappingSimon Hearn
 
Community Stakeholder Engagement Programme(CEP)
Community Stakeholder Engagement Programme(CEP)Community Stakeholder Engagement Programme(CEP)
Community Stakeholder Engagement Programme(CEP)Ikwo Oka
 
Technology & Tools of Priority Based Budgeting - 2013 conference
Technology & Tools of Priority Based Budgeting - 2013 conferenceTechnology & Tools of Priority Based Budgeting - 2013 conference
Technology & Tools of Priority Based Budgeting - 2013 conferenceChris Fabian
 
ABS Evidence Based Policy
ABS Evidence Based PolicyABS Evidence Based Policy
ABS Evidence Based PolicyCPA Australia
 
ACSI learnings 2019_eng
ACSI learnings 2019_engACSI learnings 2019_eng
ACSI learnings 2019_engUpSocial
 
Evidence of Social Accountability_Kamden Hoffmann_5.7.14
Evidence of Social Accountability_Kamden Hoffmann_5.7.14Evidence of Social Accountability_Kamden Hoffmann_5.7.14
Evidence of Social Accountability_Kamden Hoffmann_5.7.14CORE Group
 
Latest Findings from Randomized Evaluations of Microfinance
Latest Findings from Randomized Evaluations of MicrofinanceLatest Findings from Randomized Evaluations of Microfinance
Latest Findings from Randomized Evaluations of MicrofinanceDr Lendy Spires
 
Taking Transformational Change To Scale.Doebbeling.3.9.10.Final
Taking Transformational Change To Scale.Doebbeling.3.9.10.FinalTaking Transformational Change To Scale.Doebbeling.3.9.10.Final
Taking Transformational Change To Scale.Doebbeling.3.9.10.FinalBrad Doebbeling
 

What's hot (20)

Chintan Presentation (1)
Chintan Presentation (1)Chintan Presentation (1)
Chintan Presentation (1)
 
Searching for outcomes in rural Tanzania: Harvesting directly from those infl...
Searching for outcomes in rural Tanzania: Harvesting directly from those infl...Searching for outcomes in rural Tanzania: Harvesting directly from those infl...
Searching for outcomes in rural Tanzania: Harvesting directly from those infl...
 
Research Report: Trends, Forecasts and Impacts
Research Report:  Trends, Forecasts and ImpactsResearch Report:  Trends, Forecasts and Impacts
Research Report: Trends, Forecasts and Impacts
 
Coalition Assessment: Approaches for Measuring Capacity and Impact
Coalition Assessment: Approaches for Measuring Capacity and ImpactCoalition Assessment: Approaches for Measuring Capacity and Impact
Coalition Assessment: Approaches for Measuring Capacity and Impact
 
Monitoring stakeholder engagement
Monitoring stakeholder engagementMonitoring stakeholder engagement
Monitoring stakeholder engagement
 
Roma for seval
Roma for sevalRoma for seval
Roma for seval
 
Stakeholder engagement by chandan
Stakeholder engagement by chandanStakeholder engagement by chandan
Stakeholder engagement by chandan
 
Introduction to Outcome Mapping
Introduction to Outcome MappingIntroduction to Outcome Mapping
Introduction to Outcome Mapping
 
Community Stakeholder Engagement Programme(CEP)
Community Stakeholder Engagement Programme(CEP)Community Stakeholder Engagement Programme(CEP)
Community Stakeholder Engagement Programme(CEP)
 
Technology & Tools of Priority Based Budgeting - 2013 conference
Technology & Tools of Priority Based Budgeting - 2013 conferenceTechnology & Tools of Priority Based Budgeting - 2013 conference
Technology & Tools of Priority Based Budgeting - 2013 conference
 
Community-wide Outcome Indicators
Community-wide Outcome IndicatorsCommunity-wide Outcome Indicators
Community-wide Outcome Indicators
 
ABS Evidence Based Policy
ABS Evidence Based PolicyABS Evidence Based Policy
ABS Evidence Based Policy
 
ACSI learnings 2019_eng
ACSI learnings 2019_engACSI learnings 2019_eng
ACSI learnings 2019_eng
 
Social Audit nrm and development
Social Audit nrm and developmentSocial Audit nrm and development
Social Audit nrm and development
 
Affinity Symposium Presentation - CES
Affinity Symposium Presentation - CESAffinity Symposium Presentation - CES
Affinity Symposium Presentation - CES
 
Evidence of Social Accountability_Kamden Hoffmann_5.7.14
Evidence of Social Accountability_Kamden Hoffmann_5.7.14Evidence of Social Accountability_Kamden Hoffmann_5.7.14
Evidence of Social Accountability_Kamden Hoffmann_5.7.14
 
Latest Findings from Randomized Evaluations of Microfinance
Latest Findings from Randomized Evaluations of MicrofinanceLatest Findings from Randomized Evaluations of Microfinance
Latest Findings from Randomized Evaluations of Microfinance
 
Taking Transformational Change To Scale.Doebbeling.3.9.10.Final
Taking Transformational Change To Scale.Doebbeling.3.9.10.FinalTaking Transformational Change To Scale.Doebbeling.3.9.10.Final
Taking Transformational Change To Scale.Doebbeling.3.9.10.Final
 
Social audit final presentation
Social audit final presentationSocial audit final presentation
Social audit final presentation
 
Introduction to stakeholder management 22 march 17 v2
Introduction to stakeholder management 22 march 17 v2Introduction to stakeholder management 22 march 17 v2
Introduction to stakeholder management 22 march 17 v2
 

Viewers also liked

Relaxation Methods and Means for Optical Tracking of Deformable Objects
Relaxation Methods and Means for Optical Tracking of Deformable ObjectsRelaxation Methods and Means for Optical Tracking of Deformable Objects
Relaxation Methods and Means for Optical Tracking of Deformable ObjectsMagdi Mohamed
 
Improving writing aids, the community way
Improving writing aids, the community wayImproving writing aids, the community way
Improving writing aids, the community wayAlexandro Colorado
 
Aids to correct business writing 1
Aids to correct business writing 1Aids to correct business writing 1
Aids to correct business writing 1Sartaj Khera
 
Gait analysis definitions
Gait analysis definitionsGait analysis definitions
Gait analysis definitionseappel
 
Relaxation Techniques
Relaxation TechniquesRelaxation Techniques
Relaxation Techniquespdhpemag
 
Teaching Writing - Some Ideas for Hands-On Activities
Teaching Writing - Some Ideas for Hands-On ActivitiesTeaching Writing - Some Ideas for Hands-On Activities
Teaching Writing - Some Ideas for Hands-On ActivitiesCynthia James
 
vision, mission, goals and objectives
vision, mission, goals and objectivesvision, mission, goals and objectives
vision, mission, goals and objectivesLidhiya Babu
 
Vision Mission Objectives Goals
Vision Mission Objectives Goals Vision Mission Objectives Goals
Vision Mission Objectives Goals jyothimonc
 

Viewers also liked (10)

Relaxation Methods and Means for Optical Tracking of Deformable Objects
Relaxation Methods and Means for Optical Tracking of Deformable ObjectsRelaxation Methods and Means for Optical Tracking of Deformable Objects
Relaxation Methods and Means for Optical Tracking of Deformable Objects
 
Improving writing aids, the community way
Improving writing aids, the community wayImproving writing aids, the community way
Improving writing aids, the community way
 
Aids to correct business writing 1
Aids to correct business writing 1Aids to correct business writing 1
Aids to correct business writing 1
 
Gait analysis definitions
Gait analysis definitionsGait analysis definitions
Gait analysis definitions
 
Gait analysis
Gait analysisGait analysis
Gait analysis
 
Relaxation Techniques
Relaxation TechniquesRelaxation Techniques
Relaxation Techniques
 
Gait analysis
Gait analysisGait analysis
Gait analysis
 
Teaching Writing - Some Ideas for Hands-On Activities
Teaching Writing - Some Ideas for Hands-On ActivitiesTeaching Writing - Some Ideas for Hands-On Activities
Teaching Writing - Some Ideas for Hands-On Activities
 
vision, mission, goals and objectives
vision, mission, goals and objectivesvision, mission, goals and objectives
vision, mission, goals and objectives
 
Vision Mission Objectives Goals
Vision Mission Objectives Goals Vision Mission Objectives Goals
Vision Mission Objectives Goals
 

Similar to BOCAIP Writing Guide

Sme finance impactassessmentframework
Sme finance impactassessmentframeworkSme finance impactassessmentframework
Sme finance impactassessmentframeworkDr Lendy Spires
 
The Importance Of Environmental Quality
The Importance Of Environmental QualityThe Importance Of Environmental Quality
The Importance Of Environmental QualityAmanda Brady
 
CHAPTER SIXTEENUnderstanding Context Evaluation and Measureme
CHAPTER SIXTEENUnderstanding Context Evaluation and MeasuremeCHAPTER SIXTEENUnderstanding Context Evaluation and Measureme
CHAPTER SIXTEENUnderstanding Context Evaluation and MeasuremeJinElias52
 
Pesuading Policy Makers: Effective CIT Program Evaluation and Public Relations
Pesuading Policy Makers: Effective CIT Program Evaluation and Public Relations Pesuading Policy Makers: Effective CIT Program Evaluation and Public Relations
Pesuading Policy Makers: Effective CIT Program Evaluation and Public Relations citinfo
 
Myanmar Strategic Purchasing 5: Continuous Learning and Problem Solving
Myanmar Strategic Purchasing 5: Continuous Learning and Problem SolvingMyanmar Strategic Purchasing 5: Continuous Learning and Problem Solving
Myanmar Strategic Purchasing 5: Continuous Learning and Problem SolvingHFG Project
 
Measuring Impact and Return on Investment of Corporate Social Investment and ...
Measuring Impact and Return on Investment of Corporate Social Investment and ...Measuring Impact and Return on Investment of Corporate Social Investment and ...
Measuring Impact and Return on Investment of Corporate Social Investment and ...Next Generation Consultants: Reana Rossouw
 
Systematic Civic Stewardship: Action-Learning Lab: Strengthening Civic Engage...
Systematic Civic Stewardship: Action-Learning Lab: Strengthening Civic Engage...Systematic Civic Stewardship: Action-Learning Lab: Strengthening Civic Engage...
Systematic Civic Stewardship: Action-Learning Lab: Strengthening Civic Engage...wmsnyder
 
How to talk about grant performance
How to talk about grant performanceHow to talk about grant performance
How to talk about grant performanceDaniel Hayden
 
RSGB East young driver rider intervention survey 2015
RSGB East young driver rider intervention survey 2015RSGB East young driver rider intervention survey 2015
RSGB East young driver rider intervention survey 2015David Frost
 
The field of program evaluation presents a diversity of images a.docx
The field of program evaluation presents a diversity of images a.docxThe field of program evaluation presents a diversity of images a.docx
The field of program evaluation presents a diversity of images a.docxcherry686017
 
Policies, Institutions, and Markets: Stronger Evidence for Better Decisions
Policies, Institutions, and Markets: Stronger Evidence for Better DecisionsPolicies, Institutions, and Markets: Stronger Evidence for Better Decisions
Policies, Institutions, and Markets: Stronger Evidence for Better DecisionsIFPRI-PIM
 
Pioneering-New-Operating-Models-and-Measurement-Techniques-for-Private-Sector...
Pioneering-New-Operating-Models-and-Measurement-Techniques-for-Private-Sector...Pioneering-New-Operating-Models-and-Measurement-Techniques-for-Private-Sector...
Pioneering-New-Operating-Models-and-Measurement-Techniques-for-Private-Sector...Adrienne Gifford
 
An Evaluation Guide for Community Engagement
An Evaluation Guide for Community EngagementAn Evaluation Guide for Community Engagement
An Evaluation Guide for Community EngagementEveryday Democracy
 

Similar to BOCAIP Writing Guide (20)

Sme finance impactassessmentframework
Sme finance impactassessmentframeworkSme finance impactassessmentframework
Sme finance impactassessmentframework
 
64968.PDF
64968.PDF64968.PDF
64968.PDF
 
The Importance Of Environmental Quality
The Importance Of Environmental QualityThe Importance Of Environmental Quality
The Importance Of Environmental Quality
 
CHAPTER SIXTEENUnderstanding Context Evaluation and Measureme
CHAPTER SIXTEENUnderstanding Context Evaluation and MeasuremeCHAPTER SIXTEENUnderstanding Context Evaluation and Measureme
CHAPTER SIXTEENUnderstanding Context Evaluation and Measureme
 
PBH 805: Week 6 Slides
PBH 805: Week 6 SlidesPBH 805: Week 6 Slides
PBH 805: Week 6 Slides
 
Pesuading Policy Makers: Effective CIT Program Evaluation and Public Relations
Pesuading Policy Makers: Effective CIT Program Evaluation and Public Relations Pesuading Policy Makers: Effective CIT Program Evaluation and Public Relations
Pesuading Policy Makers: Effective CIT Program Evaluation and Public Relations
 
Myanmar Strategic Purchasing 5: Continuous Learning and Problem Solving
Myanmar Strategic Purchasing 5: Continuous Learning and Problem SolvingMyanmar Strategic Purchasing 5: Continuous Learning and Problem Solving
Myanmar Strategic Purchasing 5: Continuous Learning and Problem Solving
 
Impact White paper_v7
Impact White paper_v7Impact White paper_v7
Impact White paper_v7
 
Measuring Impact and Return on Investment of Corporate Social Investment and ...
Measuring Impact and Return on Investment of Corporate Social Investment and ...Measuring Impact and Return on Investment of Corporate Social Investment and ...
Measuring Impact and Return on Investment of Corporate Social Investment and ...
 
Systematic Civic Stewardship: Action-Learning Lab: Strengthening Civic Engage...
Systematic Civic Stewardship: Action-Learning Lab: Strengthening Civic Engage...Systematic Civic Stewardship: Action-Learning Lab: Strengthening Civic Engage...
Systematic Civic Stewardship: Action-Learning Lab: Strengthening Civic Engage...
 
How to talk about grant performance
How to talk about grant performanceHow to talk about grant performance
How to talk about grant performance
 
RSGB East young driver rider intervention survey 2015
RSGB East young driver rider intervention survey 2015RSGB East young driver rider intervention survey 2015
RSGB East young driver rider intervention survey 2015
 
Oei 07-98-00260
Oei 07-98-00260Oei 07-98-00260
Oei 07-98-00260
 
The field of program evaluation presents a diversity of images a.docx
The field of program evaluation presents a diversity of images a.docxThe field of program evaluation presents a diversity of images a.docx
The field of program evaluation presents a diversity of images a.docx
 
Policies, Institutions, and Markets: Stronger Evidence for Better Decisions
Policies, Institutions, and Markets: Stronger Evidence for Better DecisionsPolicies, Institutions, and Markets: Stronger Evidence for Better Decisions
Policies, Institutions, and Markets: Stronger Evidence for Better Decisions
 
Indicators in M&E.pptx
Indicators in M&E.pptxIndicators in M&E.pptx
Indicators in M&E.pptx
 
Pioneering-New-Operating-Models-and-Measurement-Techniques-for-Private-Sector...
Pioneering-New-Operating-Models-and-Measurement-Techniques-for-Private-Sector...Pioneering-New-Operating-Models-and-Measurement-Techniques-for-Private-Sector...
Pioneering-New-Operating-Models-and-Measurement-Techniques-for-Private-Sector...
 
Cases in Outcome Harvesting-2014
Cases in Outcome Harvesting-2014Cases in Outcome Harvesting-2014
Cases in Outcome Harvesting-2014
 
An Evaluation Guide for Community Engagement
An Evaluation Guide for Community EngagementAn Evaluation Guide for Community Engagement
An Evaluation Guide for Community Engagement
 
Doing better aid work
Doing better aid workDoing better aid work
Doing better aid work
 

BOCAIP Writing Guide

  • 1. BOTSWANA CHRISTIAN AIDS INTERVENTION PROGRAM March 18, 2013 Authored by: Melissa Jennings BOCAIP Proposal Writing Guide A Staff Guide to Accessing Funds
  • 2. 1 BOCAIPProposalWritingGuide|3/18/2013 Table of Contents DEFINITIONS................................................................................................................... 2 FINDING DONORS ............................................................................................................ 4 GOVERNMENT AND INTERNATIONAL NGO........................................................................... 4 CORPORATE FUNDING ................................................................................................... 4 FAMILY FOUNDATIONS ................................................................................................... 4 CHURCHES ................................................................................................................. 4 NETWORKING ............................................................................................................. 5 STARTING ...................................................................................................................... 5 CONCEPT NOTE .............................................................................................................. 5 WRITING....................................................................................................................... 5 NEEDS ASSESSMENT ....................................................................................................... 5 HOW TO CARRY OUT A NEEDS ASSESSMENT ............................................................... 7 APPROACHES TO CARRY OUT A NEEDS ASSESSMENT................................................................. 8 HOW NEEDS ASSESSMENTS AFFECT PROGRAM EVALUATION....................................................... 9 REFERENCES................................................................................................................ 9 CONTENT...................................................................................................................... 9 FUNDING PROPOSAL COMPONENTS.................................................................................... 9 ANNEXES......................................................................................................................11 LOGICAL FRAMEWORK ANALYSIS......................................................................................11 DETAILED IMPLEMENTATION SCHEDULE..............................................................................12 BUDGET....................................................................................................................12 PROJECT COSTS .......................................................................................................12 ORGANISATION COSTS ...............................................................................................13 SUBMISSION...................................................................................................................13 OTHER SOURCES OF INFORMATION ......................................................................................13
  • 3. 2 BOCAIPProposalWritingGuide|3/18/2013 BOCAIP PROPOSAL WRITING GUIDE A Staff Guide to Accessing Funds Definitions Activity: How the intended outputs will be achieved. Actions taken or work performed through which inputs are mobilized to produce specific outputs. Assumptions: Describe the necessary conditions that must exist if the cause-effect relationships between levels of results are to behave as expected. Conditions over which we have little or no control (i.e. if children participate in literacy programs the rate of literacy will increase- participation is the assumption) Baseline Data: The set of conditions existing at the outset of a program/project. Results will be measured or assessed against such baseline data. Block Grants: a category made available for flexible co-financing of smaller-scale activities. Impact: Broader, higher level, long term effect or consequence linked to the goal or vision. Inputs: Financial, human, material, technological and information resources that will be used for the activities. Indicators: Output indicators are important for project planning, management, tracking, learning and improving. Without them it is difficult to monitor, report and evaluate performance, progress and development change. Indicators are signs that show the extent of change in a given situation. They help to measure what actually happened in terms of quantity, quality and timeliness against what was originally planned. They also measure a project’s progress in achieving results. Some additional examples of indicators are: percentage of citizens active in community-level organizations/associations; ratio of men and women in management positions in public service; trust in the media as measured by public opinion survey; civic education in school curriculum; road traffic accidents in a given period; cleanliness of medical services; availability of ecological data; level of toxins in duck eggs; internet connectivity in rural areas. In selecting indicators one critical question to ask is: “how easy is it to obtain and analyze data for the indicator?” Other questions before, during and at the completion of implementation to consider are:  Are these the right actions for achieving the outputs?  Is this the right strategy to follow? (Efficiency)  Are the outputs being delivered in a timely manner?
  • 4. 3 BOCAIPProposalWritingGuide|3/18/2013  Do the results meet the aspirations and the needs of stakeholders and/or beneficiaries?  What changes in the situation/context have occurred? Are they positive or negative? Have they increased or decreased or stayed the same? Have they improved or worsened or stayed the same?  Is there a plausible association between the changes and outputs of the project?  Do the outputs lead to the expected positive changes or outcomes? Outcome: A generic definition of outcomes is: “the intended or achieved short-term and medium-term development changes, usually requiring the collective effort of partners”. In other words, the project outcome represents changes in development conditions and therefore the overall results being pursued. The intention of a project is contribute towards these changes in conditions (outcome) through its outputs (i.e. activities and inputs). This is generally where the beneficiaries take ownership of the program/project and funding comes to an end. Outputs: The products/goods and services that result from projects and associated activities, initiatives and advocacy efforts. They are what projects deliver and contribute towards a change in a development situation. The immediate, visible, concrete and tangible consequences of program/project inputs. Performance Assessment: Self-assessment by program branches/units, comprising program, project or institutional monitoring, operational reviews, end of year reporting, end of project reporting, institutional assessments and special studies. Projects: a single sustainable operation containing activities to be carried out within a relatively short period of time; maximum five years. Programmes: a set of sustainable development activities and/or processes conceived within the framework of a coherent long-term policy approach. Emphasis is put on achieving clearly-defined mid- term and long-term objectives. Quantitative indicators: Measures of quantity including statistical statements. These can be obtained through primary or secondary research such as government/NGO publications or community surveys (i.e. AIDS infection rate, community literacy rate). Qualitative indicators: Judgments and perceptions derived from subjective analysis. As much as possible, be sure to support any opinions of the organization with external quotes (i.e. “Religious and other community leaders can be powerful sources of advocacy for change in attitudes…they can serve as excellent models of caring and supporting, of tolerance and compassion.”- United Nations Children’s Fund, AIDS: The Second Decade – A Focus on Youth and Women, New York, (April 1993)) Result: A describable or measurable change in state that is derived from a cause and effect relationship. Risks: For each assumption made there is the probability that something may jeopardise the integrity of performance, or that some assumptions may not hold true. Risk only causes concern when it leads to negative unintended consequences or undesirable results. This should be presented as a solution to mitigating risk.
  • 5. 4 BOCAIPProposalWritingGuide|3/18/2013 Finding Donors The importance of the internet in locating donors cannot be emphasized enough. With donors continually updating websites with information, calls for proposals and guidelines this is an indispensable and easy to use resource. Often a keyword search using Google can produce many funding sites (e.g. ICT+grants+2012+Botswana). Digital Philanthropy: What’s new in Non-Profit Fundraising? Networking is also an important tool for finding funding. Just by telling others that you are looking and what you are doing/ capable of puts your organization ahead for resource mobilization. You just never know who you might meet who has funds set aside for HIV/AIDS programming, so advertise the successes and challenges of your programmes as much as possible. No organization can afford not to network! Government and International NGO Calls for Proposals for budget lines are issued on the EuropeAid website: http://ec.europa.eu/contracts_grants/grants_en.htm as well as in the Official Journal of the European Community (OJ), in all official EU languages. The OJ can be found on the Europa website: http://publications.eu.int/general/oj_en.html Reliefweb is a site which hosts many international NGOs administered by the UN and often has Requests for Proposals (RfPs) and many opportunities for training staff: http://reliefweb.int/country/bwa Corporate Funding This includes private, public partnerships. It can range between a more loose arrangement of a grant to a more active corporate social responsibility (CSR) “Companies have a lot of power in the community and in the national economy. They control a lot of assets, and may have billions in cash at their disposal for socially conscious investments and programs. Some companies may engage in "greenwashing", or feigning interest in corporate responsibility, but many large corporations are devoting real time and money to environmental sustainability programs, alternative energy/cleantech, and various social welfare initiatives to benefit employees, customers, and the community at large.” (Investopedia.com) Family Foundations Usually have clear guidelines with international experience and the potential to form lasting relationships based on performance rather than timelines. Churches With the same moral understanding as BOCAIP, Churches can mobilize their congregations to raise funds. However these may not be reliable or very much and are subject to governance.
  • 6. 5 BOCAIPProposalWritingGuide|3/18/2013 Networking When you have a need that isn’t addressed specifically by any current calls for proposals, a concept note can be forwarded to a potential donor by utilizing an NGO Directory. Research the donor through their website or by requesting a meeting. This is to ensure that your funding is determined by your strategic planning, rather than to get into the cycle of donor led programming. Starting When a call for proposal (hereafter called “the Call”) is found, before proceeding; be sure to read the document carefully and take note of:  The Submission date (how much time do you have, has the deadline past?)  The requirements (does a baseline survey need to be done, is it for rural or urban projects, is there a need in the community?)  The duration (How long will the funding last?)  The minimum and maximum amounts of funding (will it be appropriate?)  How does this funding fit with the current needs of the community?  Which staff members need to be involved (MED, Healthcare)?  Does this Call require a co-applicant or partner (Nationality, number, etc.)?  Contact the funding organisation via the media specified on the Call for any clarifications needed. It is better to ask than to proceed blindly. Concept Note Sometimes, but not always, an organisation will first ask for a concept note before proceeding onward to a short listed Call for Proposals. If this is the case a format will usually be provided; if it is not there the attached concept note can be used. A Concept Note is also useful for presenting ideas to potential donors who have not advertised a ‘Call for Proposal” This is a four page summary of a specific project BOCAIP would like to undertake. It should be brief, focused and concise. Writing Needs Assessment Why Should You Do a Needs Assessment? Try out these reasons. Do they make sense for you?  To learn more about what your stakeholder or community needs are. A survey can supplement your own observations and experiences. It can give you detailed information from a larger and more representative group of people.  To get an honest and objective description of needs that people might tell you publicly.  To anticipate and remain responsive to changing demographics, attitudes and needs.
  • 7. 6 BOCAIPProposalWritingGuide|3/18/2013  To become aware of possible needs you never saw as particularly important or never knew existed  To document your needs, as is required in many applications for funding.  To get group and community support for the actions you undertake in the near future.  To get people actually involved in the following action will attract new members.  To make sure any actions you eventually get involved in are in line with needs expressed by the community. Why Should You NOT Do a Needs Assessment? A needs assessment is not necessary before every action, and especially:  When there is no doubt what the most important needs in the group or community are.  When it is urgent to act right now, without delay.  When a recent assessment has already been done, and it is clear the needs have not changed.  When you feel the community would see an assessment as redundant or wasteful, and it will be harmful to your cause.
  • 8. 7 BOCAIPProposalWritingGuide|3/18/2013 How to Carry Out a Needs Assessment  Identify sources of information and data.  Review existing literature on the specific problem.  Survey other agencies/organizations in the community to avoid unnecessary overlap in program activities and to identify emerging issues and new resources.  Interview key informants and community members who have knowledge of or experience with the problem.  Consult with national/state agencies where specific data, literature, or experiences are deficient. An assessment serves as the basis for the development of a comprehensive project plan. In addition, more targeted needs assessment may be needed for effective program planning. Tailored needs assessments enable the program planner to make informed decisions about the adequacy, availability, and effectiveness of specific services that are available to the target beneficiaries? For the purposes of developing specific health education and risk reduction activities, a targeted needs assessment assists in the following:  Establishing appropriate goals, objectives, and activities.  Defining purpose and scope.  Identifying social/behavioral attitudes, behaviors, and perceptions of the target community.  Providing the basis for evaluation as part of formative and summarative studies of interventions.  Establishing community-based support for the proposed activities. The needs assessment may be informal or formal. An informal needs assessment may occur through frequent conversations and personal interactions with colleagues and clients. Staff and clientele interact with each other when services are being delivered; therefore, clients may inform them about services they find useful or unsatisfactory. Also, staff meetings are a vehicle for sharing and transferring information among colleagues. Through both of these processes, staff can usually determine whether there are gaps in services. A formal needs assessment involves a systematic collection and analysis of data about the client population. This process may uncover needs that may not be identified through an informal process. A formal needs assessment requires the program planner to do the following:  Identify questions that need to be answered.  Determine how the information will be collected and from whom.  Identify existing sources of data, e.g., needs assessment data from the HIV prevention community planning group.  Collect the data.  Conduct a comprehensive analysis of the data. The program staff should review data from the community planning needs assessment to determine what additional information is needed. A variety of information would be useful in developing program activities, including the following:  Socioeconomic and demographic status of the overall community and the specific populations being targeted.  Current statistics and trends involved in the problem.  Existing gaps in programs and services.  Social indicator data to examine significant and relevant factors that influence prevalence of problem, e.g., substance abuse, teenage pregnancy.  Identification of other programs and resources that focus on the same target audience.
  • 9. 8 BOCAIPProposalWritingGuide|3/18/2013 Before conducting a needs assessment, program staff should consult with community leaders from the client or target populations. This is important in order to determine the leaders' perceptions of their communities' needs, to discuss the agency's plan for conducting the assessment, and to begin to cultivate a working relationship with the leaders in order to attain community support for the proposed activities. Approaches to carry out a Needs Assessment Existing Data Approach: Already existing statistical data is used to obtain insights about the well-being of people. This approach uses descriptive statistics, such as census data, labour surveys, bank deposit data, sales tax reports, police reports, etc. Community Attitude Survey Approach: Information is gathered from a representative sample of community residents about issues affecting their well-being. Data is collected by personal interviews, telephone surveys, door-to door surveys or mail surveys. (Visit Steps in the COMMUNITY ATTITUDE SURVEY APPROACH for details) Key Informant Approach: The key informant approach identifies community/ neighbourhood leaders and people who are knowledgeable about the community and can accurately identify priority needs and concerns. Key informants complete a questionnaire or are personally interviewed to obtain their thoughts of community needs. The information is then analyzed and reported to the community through publications or a community meeting. Community Forum: A public meeting(s) is held during which time the participants discuss what some of the needs facing the community are, what some of the priority needs are and what can be done about these priority needs. All members of the community are encouraged to attend and express their concerns and perceived needs. Focus Group Interview: A group of people selected for their particular skills, experiences, views or position are asked a series of questions about a topic or issue to collect their opinions. Group interaction is used to obtain detailed information about a particular issue.
  • 10. 9 BOCAIPProposalWritingGuide|3/18/2013 How Needs Assessments Affect Program Evaluation A needs assessment is a component of program evaluation. Each element of a needs assessment plays a significant role in the planning, implementation, and management of effective education programs. If a program is to be evaluated, the degree to which the program addresses the needs of the target audiences must be examined. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection and evaluation are useful. Qualitative methods afford the target audiences an opportunity to express their thoughts, feelings, ideals, and beliefs. Examples of qualitative methods include informal interviews, focus groups, and public forums. These methods are designed to assist the program staff in identifying problems or gaps that the agency may not have recognized, e.g., barriers to service delivery and client dissatisfaction. Quantitative methods render statistical information. Examples include questionnaires and surveys, results of studies of the client populations' attitudes and beliefs about HIV/STD disease, and information derived from program activities, e.g., number of condoms distributed and documented requests for services. References All references to external documents should be referenced using an APA style. Content Before you begin to write here are some tips:  Be clear about why and for whom the proposal is for  Understand the donor for whom you are preparing the proposal for  Know yourself as an organization, which includes your identity, your strategic plan, knowing your strengths and weaknesses. Being able to present a credible track record in areas such as financial management, project impact, technical competence and general management.  You need to plan the project. Which means understanding the context, setting objectives, and designing a process. (Shapiro, Janet. Civicus, “Writing a funding Proposal”) Funding Proposal Components Be sure to always follow the format given by the donor organization. Although formats vary according to the organization, there are some components that are generally found in all. Executive Summary: A short summary outlining what the rest of the proposal states. A summarized budget with a specific administration percentage provides a concise overview of plans. Location: Where the project will be located, this must be specific with a map if available. It is not enough to say “the project will take place in Francistown,” it would be better to say “Francistown, Plot 2361, which is approximately 436kms north of Gaborone. This is an urban community in North East District.” Duration: The length of time you are seeking funding for the specific project. This will be specified in the guidelines.
  • 11. 10 BOCAIPProposalWritingGuide|3/18/2013 Organisation: This includes legal status which remains unchanged in any proposal; development experience, which can be adapted to reflect the current project (i.e. including more health or child rights experience). Management Capacity: The staff members who will be running the program and their past experience. This can also include Board Members which reflects a culture of democracy and accountability. Background and Development Context: At the Macro and Micro levels. Try and include all relevant national and local data available pertaining to the specific issue; this where a Needs Assessment and external referencing is especially useful to really illustrate the needs of the community. Some useful external publications available on the internet include:  Botswana’s Central Statistic’s office Reports  SADC Protocols on Social & Human Development  Research organizations found in the NGO directory who usually have published documents available on their websites (i.e. UN agencies, International NGOs, national research organizations and various Botswana government ministries) Project: Include all detailed project plans and outline them in a clear manner to demonstrate to the funding agency BOCAIP’s skills in efficient, researched, organized and forward looking project planning. Legal Obligations: Demonstrates the commitment and responsibility of BOCAIP in securing particular funding for a community project. This can be copy and pasted from previous proposals
  • 12. 11 BOCAIPProposalWritingGuide|3/18/2013 Annexes Logical Framework Analysis Country/Region Project Title Partner Organization Project Manager Requested Contribution: From the donor agency Total Project Budget NARRATIVE SUMMARY EXPECTED RESULTS PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT ASSUMPTIONS/RISK INDICATORS Project Goal (Program Objective): The program objective to which this project is intended to make a contribution Impact: A long-term developmental result at the societal level that is the logical consequence of achieving a specified combination of outcomes. Performance Indicators: Indicators that will provide evidence that the project has made a contribution to the achievement of the stated developmental impact. Assumptions: The necessary conditions that must exist for the cause-effect relationships between outcomes and impact to behave as expected. Risk Indicators: Indicators that will measure the status of the assumptions identified above. Project Purpose: The project objective which addresses the priority development needs of the identified beneficiaries and is achievable within the scope of project activities. Outcomes: Medium- term development results benefiting an identified target population that are achievable within the timeframe of the project and are the logical consequence of achieving a specified combination of outputs. Performance Indicators: Indicators that will provide evidence that the project has achieved the stated developmental outcomes. Assumptions: The necessary conditions that must exist for the cause-effect relationships between outputs and outcomes to behave as expected. Risk Indicators: indicators that will measure the status of the assumptions identified above. Resource: Listing by categories of resources (inputs and/or activities) required to achieve the project purpose, planned budget for each type of resource and total project budget. Output: Short-term developmental results produced by or for the benefit of project delivery partners that are the immediate consequences of project activities and inputs. Performance Indicators: Indicators that will provide evidence that the project has achieved the stated developmental outputs. Assumptions: The necessary conditions that must exist for the cause-effect relationships between inputs and outputs to behave as expected. Risk indicators: That will measure the status of the assumptions identified above.
  • 13. 12 BOCAIPProposalWritingGuide|3/18/2013 Detailed Implementation Schedule This includes the duration and action plan for activities.  Unless otherwise stated a real date should not be mentioned, instead refer to “month 1,” “month 2,” etc.  The duration must not exceed that which is in the call  A title of activities is required, a detailed description is not.  The implementing actors must be listed Budget For all budget lines, the following tips apply:  Always adhere strictly to the guidelines, in particular with regard to the budget which must be in the currency stated in the call. If it is not stated, assume it is in Pula.  Indicate the main responsible party for that part of the budget, particularly for projects that entail more than one implementing organisation. Not all budget categories may be relevant to the project so use only those that are applicable. Also add in extra lines under the appropriate budget category where necessary.  Own Contribution. Unless otherwise detailed, it is generally expected that the requesting organisation contribute at least 15% of the overall costs either in cash or in kind. If the contribution is in kind estimate the value of the item (i.e. a building).  If a format is not provided use the following categories (MS Word or an adapted version in MS Excel for easier calculation can be used): Project costs These are costs associated directly with the project Human resources (project): Includes salary costs and fees for experts, consultants, other technical staff, and project officers. Terms of reference for each position should be attached. Contractual services (companies): Includes procured services in, for example, areas of studies/research, organized trainings and workshop events etc. Terms of reference for each service to be provided should be attached Materials and goods: Where the eligibility criteria allow, these could include specific technical equipment, products or educational materials, training kits, equipment for centers or buildings funded by project. Include depreciation expenses for furniture and electronic assets purchased (again if eligible) Audio visual & print production costs: includes audio visual productions, printing and publications, promotional materials and distribution, translation costs, audio-visual equipment, other media costs Information Technology – includes purchase of computer hardware, software and supplies for project purposes only (if eligible) Travel: includes international and local travel tickets, subsistence allowance for project staff, and shipment of goods that relate only to the project. (Subsistence allowance for any meeting/event participants should be budgeted under ‘contractual services-companies’)
  • 14. 13 BOCAIPProposalWritingGuide|3/18/2013 Organisation costs These are costs associated with co-ordination and office running costs for implementing the project and should not exceed 15% of the total project budget Human resources (management): refers to salary costs of the requesting organization for coordinating and overseeing the project Travel: for management/support staff Equipment and furniture: includes transportation equipment, furniture for organization’s office costs only. Office supplies and communications: includes communications equipment, telephone charges, postage charges, email and internet charges, stationery and other office supplies Office rental and maintenance: includes rent, cleaning, utilities Monitoring and reporting: includes costs for monitoring and analyzing project progress, and report- writing Miscellaneous: includes bank charges, sundries, audit fees and legal fees Submission Make sure to use spell check and have a colleague with an excellent command of the English language proof read the entire document before submitting. Include 2 bound hard copies and a soft copy on CD in the package to be delivered directly to the funding agency before, not on, the due date. Other Sources of Information For more detailed information, some good sources are:  The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) www.acdi-cida.gc.ca  “Handbook on EC Support for Population and Reproductive Health”, edited by Marie Stopes International, London, UK  The European NGO confederation for relief and development – CONCORD is the link between over 1500 European NGOs active in the fields of development and humanitarian aid and the EU institutions. http://www.concordeurope.org  Iowa State University Extension Web site: http://www.extension.iastate.edu/communities/tools/assess/