Try to highlight the main points of
the section. What does a person
need to remember in order to fully
understand the topic?
1. Revolution and Reaction
2. The New Poetries: Theory and Practice (Concepts of
the Poet and the Poem)
3. The New Poetries: Theory and Practice (Spontaneity
and the Impulses of Feeling)
4. The New Poetries: Theory and Practice (Glorification
of the Ordinary)
5. The New Poetries: Theory and Practice (The
Supernatural, the Romance, and Psychological
6. The New Poetries: Theory and Practice (Individualism
7. Writing in the Marketplace and the Law Courts
1. Emerging in the late eighteenth century (1700s) and
extending until the late nineteenth century (1800s),
Romanticism broke with earlier models of thinking
that were guided by rationalism and empiricism.
2. After the American and French revolutions, faith in
social institutions declined considerably; no longer
were systems that were organized around hierarchy
and the separation of classes considered superior.
3. As manufacturing and industrialization developed,
resulting in a decline in the agricultural economy, a
"middle class" began to emerge in England and other
parts of Europe.
4. Breaking with the Christian belief that the
self is essentially "evil" and fallible,
Romantic poets and authors often explored
the "good" inherent in human beings.
5. As the middle class rose to ascendancy in the
nineteenth century, new approaches to
science, biology, class, and race began to
shake middle-class society's values.
6. Imagination was seen as a way for the soul
to link with the eternal.
7. The new thematic emphases of poetry—
belief in the virtues of nature, the
"primitive," and the past—engendered a
form of alienation that was described in the
"social protest" poetry of Romantic poets.
“Wanderer Above the Sea of Fog” by Caspar David Friedrich
“Wanderer above the Sea of Fog” is true to the Romantic
style and Caspar David Friedrich's style in particular, It
has Kantian self-reflection, expressed through the
wanderer's gazings into the murkiness of the sea of fog.
Some assert that the Wanderer presents a metaphor for
the unknown future. The critic Gaddis (2004) feels that the
impression the wanderer's position atop the precipice and
before the twisted outlook leaves "is contradictory,
suggesting at once mastery over a landscape and the
insignificance of the individual within it."
JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU (1712-1778)
JOHANN WOLFGANG VON GOETHE
FRIEDRICH HOLDERLIN (1770-1843)
HEINRICH HEINE (1797-1856)
VICTOR HUGO (1802-1885)
“Every man has a right to risk his own life
for the preservation of it.”
“Force does not constitute right... obedience
is due only to legitimate powers.”
“Free people, remember this maxim: we
may acquire liberty, but it is never recovered
if it is once lost.”
“I hate books; they only teach us to talk
about things we know nothing about.”
“Man is born free, and everywhere he is in
First autobiography of the modern
Rousseau's work is notable as one
of the first major autobiographies.
Prior to his writing the Confessions, the
two great autobiographies were
Augustine's own Confessions and Saint
Teresa's Life of Herself. Both of these
works, however, focused on the
religious experiences of their authors.
The Confessions was one of the first autobiographies in which
an individual wrote of his own life mainly in terms of his
worldly experiences and personal feelings. Rousseau
recognized the unique nature of his work; it opens with the
I have resolved on an enterprise which has
no precedent, and which, once complete, will
have no imitator. My purpose is to display
to my kind a portrait in every way true to
nature, and the man I shall portray will be
"Doubt can only be removed by action.”
"Beauty is everywhere a welcome guest."
"Only by joy and sorrow does a person know anything
about themselves and their destiny. They learn what
to do and what to avoid."
"If children grew up according to early indications, we
should have nothing but geniuses."
"If a man writes a book, let him set down only what he
knows. I have guesses enough of my own."
"One must ask children and birds how cherries and
Faust is Goethe's most
famous work and
considered by many to be
one of the greatest works of
The Sorrows of Young
"Being at one is god-like and good, but human,
too human, the mania /Which insists there is
only the One, one country, one truth, and one
"I am mortal. I am born to love and to suffer."
"What has always made a hell on earth has been
that man has tried to make it his heaven."
"What is the wisdom of a book compared with
the wisdom of an angel?”
"I call on Fate to give me back my soul."
“Like a great poet, Nature knows how to
produce the greatest effects with the most
“Woman is at once apple and serpent.”
“Oh, what lies there are in kisses.”
“Wherever they burn books they will also, in
the end, burn human beings.”
“God will forgive me; that’s his business.”
“Experience is a good school, but the fees are
"Music expresses that which cannot be said and
on which it is impossible to be silent.”
"A library implies an act of faith.”
“A compliment is like a kiss through a veil.”
“I'm religiously opposed to religion.”
“Hope is the word which God has written on
the brow of every man.”
“It is nothing to die. It is frightful not to live.”
Although both Victor Hugo's Et nox
facta est and John Milton's Paradise
Lost, paint a picture of Satan,
Hugo's work explores the defiant
psychology of Satan. Whereas
Milton draws attention to cosmic
drama on a large scale, Hugo
creates a narrower focus, thereby
creating a poignant as well as
nightmarish vision of Satan
The upheavals following the French Revolution
overturned the old order of Europe.
The Holy Roman Empire and the Papal States
Nationalism and colonialism came to dominate
the nineteenth century in Europe especially
because the growing middle class found they
could gain both economically and socially.
After centuries of dreaming, political
unification was achieved in both Germany and
The Industrial Revolution transformed
Though wealth and prosperity were more
widespread than in centuries past, many
Europeans lived and worked in wretched,
often inhumane conditions.