August 28


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  • The Bard by Thomas James
  • August 28

    1. 1. Try to highlight the main points of the section. What does a person need to remember in order to fully understand the topic?
    2. 2. 1. Revolution and Reaction 2. The New Poetries: Theory and Practice (Concepts of the Poet and the Poem) 3. The New Poetries: Theory and Practice (Spontaneity and the Impulses of Feeling) 4. The New Poetries: Theory and Practice (Glorification of the Ordinary) 5. The New Poetries: Theory and Practice (The Supernatural, the Romance, and Psychological Extremes) 6. The New Poetries: Theory and Practice (Individualism and Alienation) 7. Writing in the Marketplace and the Law Courts
    3. 3. In America and Europe
    4. 4. 1. Emerging in the late eighteenth century (1700s) and extending until the late nineteenth century (1800s), Romanticism broke with earlier models of thinking that were guided by rationalism and empiricism. 2. After the American and French revolutions, faith in social institutions declined considerably; no longer were systems that were organized around hierarchy and the separation of classes considered superior. 3. As manufacturing and industrialization developed, resulting in a decline in the agricultural economy, a "middle class" began to emerge in England and other parts of Europe.
    5. 5. 4. Breaking with the Christian belief that the self is essentially "evil" and fallible, Romantic poets and authors often explored the "good" inherent in human beings. 5. As the middle class rose to ascendancy in the nineteenth century, new approaches to science, biology, class, and race began to shake middle-class society's values. 6. Imagination was seen as a way for the soul to link with the eternal. 7. The new thematic emphases of poetry— belief in the virtues of nature, the "primitive," and the past—engendered a form of alienation that was described in the "social protest" poetry of Romantic poets.
    6. 6. “Wanderer Above the Sea of Fog” by Caspar David Friedrich
    7. 7. “Wanderer above the Sea of Fog” is true to the Romantic style and Caspar David Friedrich's style in particular, It has Kantian self-reflection, expressed through the wanderer's gazings into the murkiness of the sea of fog. Some assert that the Wanderer presents a metaphor for the unknown future. The critic Gaddis (2004) feels that the impression the wanderer's position atop the precipice and before the twisted outlook leaves "is contradictory, suggesting at once mastery over a landscape and the insignificance of the individual within it."[1]
    8. 8.  JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU (1712-1778)  JOHANN WOLFGANG VON GOETHE (1749-1832)  FRIEDRICH HOLDERLIN (1770-1843)  HEINRICH HEINE (1797-1856)  VICTOR HUGO (1802-1885)
    9. 9.  “Every man has a right to risk his own life for the preservation of it.”  “Force does not constitute right... obedience is due only to legitimate powers.”  “Free people, remember this maxim: we may acquire liberty, but it is never recovered if it is once lost.”  “I hate books; they only teach us to talk about things we know nothing about.”  “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in shackles.”
    10. 10.  First autobiography of the modern type.  Rousseau's work is notable as one of the first major autobiographies.  Prior to his writing the Confessions, the two great autobiographies were Augustine's own Confessions and Saint Teresa's Life of Herself. Both of these works, however, focused on the religious experiences of their authors.
    11. 11. The Confessions was one of the first autobiographies in which an individual wrote of his own life mainly in terms of his worldly experiences and personal feelings. Rousseau recognized the unique nature of his work; it opens with the famous words:  I have resolved on an enterprise which has no precedent, and which, once complete, will have no imitator. My purpose is to display to my kind a portrait in every way true to nature, and the man I shall portray will be myself.
    12. 12.  "Doubt can only be removed by action.”  "Beauty is everywhere a welcome guest."  "Only by joy and sorrow does a person know anything about themselves and their destiny. They learn what to do and what to avoid."  "If children grew up according to early indications, we should have nothing but geniuses."  "If a man writes a book, let him set down only what he knows. I have guesses enough of my own."  "One must ask children and birds how cherries and strawberries taste."
    13. 13.  Faust is Goethe's most famous work and considered by many to be one of the greatest works of German literature.  The Sorrows of Young Werther
    14. 14.  "Being at one is god-like and good, but human, too human, the mania /Which insists there is only the One, one country, one truth, and one way."  "I am mortal. I am born to love and to suffer."  "What has always made a hell on earth has been that man has tried to make it his heaven."  "What is the wisdom of a book compared with the wisdom of an angel?”  "I call on Fate to give me back my soul."
    15. 15.  “Like a great poet, Nature knows how to produce the greatest effects with the most limited means.”  “Woman is at once apple and serpent.”  “Oh, what lies there are in kisses.”  “Wherever they burn books they will also, in the end, burn human beings.”  “God will forgive me; that’s his business.”  “Experience is a good school, but the fees are high.”
    16. 16.  "Music expresses that which cannot be said and on which it is impossible to be silent.”  "A library implies an act of faith.”  “A compliment is like a kiss through a veil.”  “I'm religiously opposed to religion.”  “Hope is the word which God has written on the brow of every man.”  “It is nothing to die. It is frightful not to live.”
    17. 17. Although both Victor Hugo's Et nox facta est and John Milton's Paradise Lost, paint a picture of Satan, Hugo's work explores the defiant psychology of Satan. Whereas Milton draws attention to cosmic drama on a large scale, Hugo creates a narrower focus, thereby creating a poignant as well as nightmarish vision of Satan
    18. 18.  The upheavals following the French Revolution overturned the old order of Europe.  The Holy Roman Empire and the Papal States were dissolved.  Nationalism and colonialism came to dominate the nineteenth century in Europe especially because the growing middle class found they could gain both economically and socially.  After centuries of dreaming, political unification was achieved in both Germany and Italy.
    19. 19.  The Industrial Revolution transformed living conditions.  Though wealth and prosperity were more widespread than in centuries past, many Europeans lived and worked in wretched, often inhumane conditions.
    20. 20. Reading listed on syllabus