Investigating Spoken Interaction Chapter 3 Wolfson, N. (1989)
Investigating Spoken InteractionSociolinguistics patterns and functions of language in use Ethnography of Speaking Dell Hymes (1962)
The Philosophic Tradition sentence, warn, promise, begPer formative verbs Ex. “I sentence you to ten years prison” Austin (1962) *Implicitly performed act: promise, warn *Illocutionary act illocutionary forceIndirect speech act Form and function do not coincide Searle (1975) Ex. Can you close the door? Indirect request
The Philosophic Tradition Limited to simulated or brief fragments of exchanges Seldom contextualized in sociocultural settingsLimitations Lack of paralinguistic and non verbal elements Idealized conditions Grice (1975) Make your contribution Be relevant. as informative as required. Be brief and orderly. Be truthful.
Ethnomethodology University of California at Berkeleya view of social organization theoretical and methodological approachinvestigate the activity of day-to-day interactionuncover speakers’ unconscious cultural knowledgeassumption to interpret and react to experiences
Ethnomethodology create events they are engaged in. “environments for each other”. McDermott (1977) Organization of conversationExamine How speakers accomplish interaction Shared assumptions Coherence
The Notion of Face Brown and Levinson (1978) People’s feeling Negative (desire of the individual no to be imposed on) Positive (desire of the individual to be liked and approved of) Higher status Less powerful than Perceived of being powerfulMore polite Less polite the addressee Socially distant Gravity of the threat to the other’s face Bald on record do no take the feeling of the other person into account.
Elicitation as a Method of Sociolinguistics Research in TESOL Blum-Kulka(1982) Collect DATA cross-linguistics studies sociolinguistics problems of second language learners TESOL Elicitation instruments: get native speakers norms through role-plays, written dialogues (DCT) ADVANTAGE DISADVANTAGEControl specific variables of situation They are not natural speechGathering a large amount of data quickly They do not reflect: actual wording use,Insight into social and psychological factors strategies used (avoidance), the depth of emotion (tone, content).
The Use of Spontaneous Speech Data Research in TESOLProvide reach source of data speech behavior.Age, sex, socioeconomics status, educational background, ethnic group and occupation are important factors.Data is collected in real settings.Special attention is paid to the point where miscommunication have occurred in a isolated instance or something which happens regularly.
The Sociolinguistic Behavior of English Speakers Chapter 4 Wolfson, N. (1989)
FORMS OF PARTINGS ADDRESSGREETINGS APOLOGIES THE INVESTIGATEEXPRESSION REQUESTS OFGRATITUDE REFUSALS THE DISAPPROVAL TELEPHONE
Forms of AddressIndicator of status relationship, solidarity, and degree of social distanceInequality between sexesFirst-naming/ No-naming
ApologiesAsserting imbalance or showing deference.Asserting that an offense has occurred.Expressing an attitude toward the offense.Requesting the restoration of balance.Owen (1980)
Requests Categories by Ervin-Trip (1976)1. Needs statements superior in work settings/ age family2. Imperatives family, downwards ranks, equals, blue collar workers3. Imbedded imperatives superior in rank and age, speaker is the beneficiary4. Permission directives infrequent, activity includes action by the addressee5. Nonexplicit question difficult or impossible, escape route, negative tag question directives6. Hints addressee’s option is open, familiarity and solidarity
The TelephoneAmerican speaker s may :begin offering an apology for disturbing at mealtime or late in theeveningtend to verify the phone number Goodbye
DisapprovalDressed interrogatives (RQ, REQ), declarativesUndressed imperatives Direct / Indirect
RefusalDirect “I refuse” “no”Response to intimates and statusunequal or strangerIndirect “I am sorry” , “My kids will be home that night”, I’d loveto”Response to acquaintances of equal status :Expression of a positive opinionExpression of regretAn excuse, reason, explanation
The Expression of Gratitude Thanking formulas “Thanks” Expressing pleasure “That’s great” Compliment the giver “You’re wonderful” Expressing the desire to repair the favor. Ritual refusal “You shouldn’t have” Religious undertone “Bless your heart, honey”
Greetings Topic initiation Verbal salutes References to the interlocutor
Partings NONVERBAL Breaking eye contactLeaning toward the door Leaning forward VERBAL Reinforcement of the relationship among status equals but not among unequal