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Sociolinguistics investigating spoken interaction


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Sociolinguistics investigating spoken interaction

  1. 1. Investigating Spoken Interaction Chapter 3 Wolfson, N. (1989)
  2. 2. Investigating Spoken InteractionSociolinguistics patterns and functions of language in use Ethnography of Speaking Dell Hymes (1962)
  3. 3. The Philosophic Tradition sentence, warn, promise, begPer formative verbs Ex. “I sentence you to ten years prison” Austin (1962) *Implicitly performed act: promise, warn *Illocutionary act illocutionary forceIndirect speech act Form and function do not coincide Searle (1975) Ex. Can you close the door? Indirect request
  4. 4. The Philosophic Tradition Limited to simulated or brief fragments of exchanges Seldom contextualized in sociocultural settingsLimitations Lack of paralinguistic and non verbal elements Idealized conditions Grice (1975) Make your contribution Be relevant. as informative as required. Be brief and orderly. Be truthful.
  5. 5. Ethnomethodology University of California at Berkeleya view of social organization theoretical and methodological approachinvestigate the activity of day-to-day interactionuncover speakers’ unconscious cultural knowledgeassumption to interpret and react to experiences
  6. 6. Ethnomethodology create events they are engaged in. “environments for each other”. McDermott (1977) Organization of conversationExamine How speakers accomplish interaction Shared assumptions Coherence
  7. 7. The Notion of Face Brown and Levinson (1978) People’s feeling Negative (desire of the individual no to be imposed on) Positive (desire of the individual to be liked and approved of) Higher status Less powerful than Perceived of being powerfulMore polite Less polite the addressee Socially distant Gravity of the threat to  the other’s face Bald on record do no take the feeling of the other person into account.
  8. 8. Elicitation as a Method of Sociolinguistics Research in TESOL Blum-Kulka(1982) Collect DATA cross-linguistics studies sociolinguistics problems of second language learners TESOL Elicitation instruments: get native speakers norms through role-plays, written dialogues (DCT) ADVANTAGE DISADVANTAGEControl specific variables of situation They are not natural speechGathering a large amount of data quickly They do not reflect: actual wording use,Insight into social and psychological factors strategies used (avoidance), the depth of emotion (tone, content).
  9. 9. The Use of Spontaneous Speech Data Research in TESOLProvide reach source of data speech behavior.Age, sex, socioeconomics status, educational background, ethnic group and occupation are important factors.Data is collected in real settings.Special attention is paid to the point where miscommunication have occurred in a isolated instance or something which happens regularly.
  10. 10. The Sociolinguistic Behavior of English Speakers Chapter 4 Wolfson, N. (1989)
  12. 12. Forms of AddressIndicator of status relationship, solidarity, and degree of social distanceInequality between sexesFirst-naming/ No-naming
  13. 13. ApologiesAsserting imbalance or showing deference.Asserting that an offense has occurred.Expressing an attitude toward the offense.Requesting the restoration of balance.Owen (1980)
  14. 14. Requests Categories by Ervin-Trip (1976)1. Needs statements superior in work settings/ age family2. Imperatives family, downwards ranks, equals, blue collar workers3. Imbedded imperatives superior in rank and age, speaker is the beneficiary4. Permission directives infrequent, activity includes action by the addressee5. Nonexplicit question difficult or impossible, escape route, negative tag question directives6. Hints addressee’s option is open, familiarity and solidarity
  15. 15. The TelephoneAmerican speaker s may :begin offering an apology for disturbing at mealtime or late in theeveningtend to verify the phone number Goodbye
  16. 16. DisapprovalDressed interrogatives (RQ, REQ), declarativesUndressed imperatives Direct / Indirect
  17. 17. RefusalDirect “I refuse” “no”Response to intimates and statusunequal or strangerIndirect “I am sorry” , “My kids will be home that night”, I’d loveto”Response to acquaintances of equal status :Expression of a positive opinionExpression of regretAn excuse, reason, explanation
  18. 18. The Expression of Gratitude Thanking formulas “Thanks” Expressing pleasure “That’s great” Compliment the giver “You’re wonderful” Expressing the desire to repair the favor. Ritual refusal “You shouldn’t have” Religious undertone “Bless your heart, honey”
  19. 19. Greetings Topic initiation Verbal salutes References to the interlocutor
  20. 20. Partings NONVERBAL Breaking eye contactLeaning toward the door Leaning forward VERBAL Reinforcement of the relationship among status equals but not among unequal